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Chapter 1/Section 1 -- Curriculum Influences and Changing Definitions in Information Society
Curriculum Influences and Changing Definitions in Information SocietyEdit
- Content Author - Alicia
- Semantic Architect - Mitchel
- Content Editor - Kathy
- Assessment Developer - Dan
- Software Evaluator - Patrick
Objective Overview of Chapter 1Edit
After reading this chapter, the learner willEdit
- Know the definition of curriculum and how it has evolved throughout history
- Be able to identify social and political influences on curriculum
- Understand how technology has influenced curriculum
- Know the difference between learning styles of males and females
- Understand different learning styles and their influence on curriculum
Changing Definitions of Curriculum the Case of TuskegeeEdit
When Booker T. Washington founded and created Tuskegee Institute the curriculum was focused on jobs of the times for African Americans. Jobs such as seamstress for women and carpenters for men. Today the Institute has a curriculum based on degrees that are beneficial to create adults to be competitive in today's job market. This curriculum is nowhere the same as it was before. This is an example of how education, politics, psychology and history affect the definition of curriculum and how it is being administered. The factors mentioned above first influenced curriculum. They still are influencing curriculum today and will in the future. The definition of curriculum will continue to emerge.
I. Curriculum as a TraditionEdit
Traditionally the term curriculum has taken on different definitions from various contextual views. So what is curriculum? If this question was posed to any given group there would be numerous definitions. Who is to decide which definition is correct or incorrect? How were the definitions derived? Curriculum definitions have long been influenced by the society and philosophical position of curriculum theorists (scholars) and school people (practitioners) (Orenstein and Hunkins, p. 194). As a result, pinpointing the meaning of curriculum is problematic. Definitions in the realm of curriculum rests largely in the "interpreter." In our view curriculum is merely the umbrella term for all content taught both planned and unplanned.
The way teachers and administrator's view curriculum often shape its definition.. The views of teachers and administrators are the basis of how parents and students view schooling. However, a broad view of curriculum that is more consistent with an integrated approach that is more meaningful, relevant, interesting, and engaging.
Historical Definitions of CurriculumEdit
Historical definitions typically envision curriculum as a planned sequence of learning or instructional experiences that a student/learner is subjected to under the auspices of the school. To be sure these definitions limited the application of curricular experiences to the school setting .
Emergent definitions have looked at curriculum more broadly. According to Connelly and Clandinin  curriculum "can be viewed as a person's life experience." This definition sees merit due to the change in technology. Connelly and Clandinins definition cam several decades after Smith, Good,Taba, Foshay and Tanner. Technology has influenced the medium in which curriculum is delivered. There is no "traditional way" anymore. "One's life course of action" will determine what will be studied and how.
II. Influences and DevelopmentsEdit
Curriculum has had strong historical roots. From before Tyler crafted the major questions that we ask about curriculum (Tyler,1949), theorists have been concerned about the ways in which teachers and schools plan learning experiences for all learners. These pre-occupations have influenced the development of Curriculum theory from the outset. Invariably, curriculum has long been influenced by factors outside of the school. Such influences include history, society, psychology and politics.
Social and Political Influences and Curriculum EvolutionEdit
Social and political developments have continuously contributed to ideas about the components and definitions of curriculum. At the turn of the century Franklin Bobbit constructed his definition of curriculum on the basis of objectives based on adult work life (Bobbit,1918). Social emphasis was on the advancement of science and industry this approach also influenced the curriculum theories of other thinkers of the time. John Dewey's definition of curriculum which though  a more progressive in that it focused on learning by doing rather than rote learning and dogmatic instruction also  maintained some influence from this area of science and industry.
In 1891 William Torrey Harris introduced the idea of organized learning and learning with textbooks. Has practical application of a systematization of the curriculum laid the groundwork for an industrialized model of curriculum implementation.
Other societal influences to the curriculum include legal decisions and government policy. Brown v. Board of Education was a landmark case in the history of American education. The case was in response to social events which entrenched racialized schooling and curriculum in the United States. From the 1892 Plessy v. Ferguson case, the precedent of "separate but equal" was set, resulting in separate schools for white and black children. The Brown decision set the stage for more aggressive centralized decision- making at the Federal level with regards to public education. It set the stage for Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the Department of Education would have been established in 1979, were it not for the Brown decision in 1954.
Social and political influences have contributed to education having mandated norms. There are mandated times that are alloted for each subject as well as mandated subjects. In many sectors, such as local school districts and school boards, curriculum is considered to be the official written document from the higher authority. Such a document is seen as a mandated template that must be followed by all teachers.
Technological change is redefining not only how we communicate, but in turn, is redefining how we need to educate. Technology makes it easier for curriculum developer to set up all information needed in educational programme. The ready availability of information has lessened the necessity for a curriculum that is teacher centered and rooted in the aim to prepare citizens for an industrial society. The development of analytical skills and higher order thinking is increasingly an important focus of the modern curriculum. The stakeholders and interest groups in this process are many and varied, with pressure for change and reform brought from teachers, schools and school councils, government authorities, industry and students themselves. All have differing perspectives on the best curriculum planning models to deal with this change.
As technology advances and the world undergoes massive changes, theorists will redefine definitions. Influences of future times will regulate new definitions. It would only make sense for the definition of curriculum to change as advances have been made in the world and will continue to be made. A true researcher or theorists will collect new data, conduct new experiments to challenge and add to the beginning founders definitions of curriculum. As you read and research you to will either create or adapt your own definition of curriculum and this definition will be a result of what's going on in the world, your economic status and your views of education.
New technology based definitions would include wording to accommodate the times. In preparing for the working world, which at present is technical, curriculum would include electronic, computerized verbiage. What was once known as a textbook will become prehistoric. More and more computer based learning is occurring and curriculum will be designed to facilitate future life skills.
Psychology in CurriculumEdit
Many psychologist have conducted and completed studies to determine how individuals learn. For example Janet Shibley Hyde compiled a meta-analytical study that lasted about ten years. Her study was based on the notion that men and women learned differently. In 1990 Shibley and her colleagues published a report stating that males and females were cognitively different but social and cultural factors influence their performances. In 2005 Elizabeth Spelke, at Harvard University, reviewed a variety of prior research and ascertained that most of the reviewed studies and papers suggested that an adults ability, "for math and science have a genetic basis in cognitive systems that emerge in early childhood but give men and women on the whole equal aptitude for math and science" (American Psychology Association). Where men and women varied in studies, researchers found that social context to be a major influence. Spelke believes that differences that develop later in life, often demonstrated in career choices, are based more on cultural factors that abilities.
Modern curriculum uses the findings of studies in psychology to produce effective learning and teaching in the classroom. Effective learning and teaching will produce productive working adults. If the results from the above study were to influence curriculum gender stereotyping might do away. There would no longer be a need for only boys to play in the block area and only girls playing in the housekeeping area. Curriculum will have equivocally and all students would be learning the same life skills.
The manner in which curriculum is delivered will be determined by the society in which is living. All of the definitions of curriculum have some commonality that will link to part of another definition. Curriculum is the information that is or will be taught. What determines how or what is important to teach will be defined by status, position and politics that are evolving at the time the curriculum is planned. There has been change in the definition of curriculum since its original, but that change in definition has accommodated the change in society. Overall curriculum as a definition has adapted with time but the method in which curriculum is delivered has changed.
Bobbitt, J. F. (1918). The curriculum. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Tyler, R. W. (1949). Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
American Psychological Association, January 18, 2006. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from http://www.psychologymatters.org/thinkagain.html
Bloom, J. W. (2006). Background to curriculum: historical definitions. The exploring science site. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from http://elsci.coe.nau.edu/readarticle.php?article_id=19
Lekan, T. (2009). Retrieved April 15, 2009, from http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/janicke/Dewey.html
Ornstein, A., Hunkins, F. (2004). Curriculum: foundation, principles, and issues. (p2). Boston: Pearson.
1.1 Review QuestionsEdit
1. What is your definition for curriculum? How does it compare to historical definitions? Compare it to three different historical definitions.
2. What are major social influences on curriculum today? Political influences?
3. How has technology changed the way that we look at curriculum?
4. Males and females are shown to be psychologically different when it comes to learning. How could you regulate your classroom to be able to accommodate each?
5. How could the way that different people learn change the way that we look at curriculum?
6. Has the overall idea and definition of curriculum changed from historical times to modern times? Explain.
1. http://elsci.coe.nau.edu/readarticle.php?article_id=19 2. http://elsci.coe.nau.edu/readarticle.php?article_id=19 3. http://elsci.coe.nau.edu/readarticle.php?article_id=19 4. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/janicke/Dewey.html 5. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/janicke/Dewey.html
Chapter 1/Section 2
- Elizzabeth Wilmes: Content Author
- Larry: Semantic Architect
- Mohammed: Content Editor
- Elizzabeth Wilmes: Assessment Developer
- Adrian: Software Evaluator
How are these definitions & influences changing with the emergence of information society and globalization? What is the role of personal computing devices in this change?
Students will be able to:
- Define terms
- Discuss the role information society has played in defining the curriculum
- Identify how computers have changed the way students learn
- Discuss how information society characterized by computers and media have influenced curriculum development
Curriculum: course of study offered by an educational institution.
Information Society: a society in which the creation, distribution, diffusion, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity (Wikimedia, 2008).
Industrial Society: "...refers to a society with a modern societal structure."; i.e. industrial revolution. "...generally mass societies." (Wikimedia, 2008).
Globalization: "...process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones." "...people of the world are unified into a single society and function together." (Wikimedia, 2009).
Society: “…population of humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share…distinctive culture and/or institutions”. Broader: “…economic, social and industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied multitude of people.” (Wikimedia, 2009).
Political: of or concerned with government, the state, or politics (LoveToKnow, 2009).
Economic: of or relating to the production, development, and management of material wealth, as of a country, household, or business enterprise (Yahoo! Education, 2000).
Information Literacy: the ability to identify what information is needed and the ability to locate, evaluate, and use information in solving problems and composing discourse.
Society, Political, Technological, and Philosophy not only influence today's curriculum, but they influence each other as well. Each affects and is effected by one or more of the other. Industrial and Informational Societies are heavily influenced by these four points. Industrial Society curriculum was based on occupations and jobs that were based on individual performance and foundational objectives. Currently, we are moving from an Industrial Society (a society evolved from the influences of John Franklin Bobbitt and Werrett Wallace Charters) that has always prepared students, and even adults, for the inevitability of working in meaningless jobs to Informational Society (a society evolved from John Dewey and Ralph W. Tyler) which has pushed us past just working at meaningless jobs to thinking about careers that bring them more enjoyment and better paying wages, which, in turn, make the curriculum mean something more to the student/adult.
In keeping with this phenomenon of today's school curriculum, we can see how heavily influenced the emergence of the Information Society really is. Furthermore, social accountability and other domestic pressures also influence how we see the school curriculum. Information Society is the notion that information sharing and development are the key aspects of modern society. In this vein, modern curriculum requires us to be more information centered. As of now, learners are being prepared to master subject matter as well as to master the use of technology and higher level cognitive skills instead of just pushing towards only working towards a meaningless and unappealing job.
Curriculum Approaches and DefinitionsEdit
The information age curriculum is directed by societal influences that are more global and more technology driven. In this sense, curriculum is seen as both school based (formal) and life based (informal). In a globalized society the curriculum is becoming more directed towards creativity and innovation with technology. In this age there is a need for more learner centered instruction, hands on approaches to learner and more authentic learning experiences. As a result curriculum has come to mean more than a "planned series of educational experiences" ().
To be sure, these new approaches to curriculum is consistent with the Progressive school of curriculum theorists dating back to John Dewey. Following Dewey's model for learning: Become aware of the problem, define the problem, propose a hypothesis to solve the problem, evaluate what would happen using past experiences, and test the best solution. Having students learn from their own experiences and being able to use those experiences for future problems is an important approach to Dewey's model. The jobs in the future will require critical thinkers and problem solvers. We are no longer teaching children for industrial jobs, but jobs that need a more communicative individual who can use experiences to their benefit.
Tyler's approach was that of the "Four Basic Principles". You must first find the purpose of the school. Next, create educational experiences for the purpose of the school. Then, you must organize the experiences. Finally, you must evaluate the purposes. To find the purpose, you must look at three things. You must look at the learner (student), the subject matter, and society. By looking at these three things, you will have a better understanding on what your approach should be for your purpose (objectives).
"How we conceive of curriculum and curriculum making is important because our conceptions and ways of reasoning about curriculum reflect and shape how we see, think and talk about, study and act on the education made available to students" Cornbleth(1990).
There are many definitions for curriculum. Bobbitt, Dewey, and Tyler believe/d curriculum needs objectives. You need to know beforehand what you need to accomplish. Bobbitt believed that curriculum was a way to prepare the student for industrial life. Bobbitt, Charters, Dewey, and Tyler also believe/d in curriculum as a science. You have to study the world around you to find the best ways to teach your students. These educators also needed to know what are the students' needs. What do they need to know to succeed in the world. During the time of the Industrial Society, the classroom was the only place where students learned how to be citizens. How to survive in this job environment.
Information society is characterized by the global distribution of information as distinct from industrial society which is characterized by the use of external energy sources such as petroleum to build a larger and stronger community. Some theorist believe we are in the middle of a transition between Information and Industrial societies due to global technologies. Computers and different media are the tools in an Informational Society. "Progress in information technologies and communication is changing the way we live: how we work and do business, how we educate our children, study and do research, train ourselves, and how we are entertained (Chair's conclusions from the G-7 Ministerial Conference on the Information Society, February 1995).
Having students working in cooperative groups helps build a strong foundation for work place problem solving skills. Creating an environment also help students recognize patterns and envision dynamic models. These curricular approaches improve success for all types of learners and may differentially enhance the performance of at-risk students. "Just as information technology has improved effectiveness in medicine, finance, manufacturing, and numerous other sectors of society, advanced computing and telecommunications have the potential to help students master complex 21st century skills. Research-based curriculum projects are developing technologies that enable online virtual communities of practice using advanced tools to solve real world problems."(Dede)
One of the five essential skills an employee will need in the future workplace is Information literacy. Educating students on the power and scope of information involves communicating and explaining how information is organized. It is also important for the student to show through a variety of sources. This includes the tools to evaluate, organize and apply the information to problems and situations.
Role of the ComputersEdit
There are many different and unique methods computers have for enhancing the learning in the classroom. Some of these include:
- taking real situations/problems that adults face every day and applying them in the curriculum
- using "advanced tools similar to those in today's high-tech workplaces" (Linn 1997) within the classroom
- creating concepts, skills, and complex products (Schank, Fano, Bell, & Jona 1994) through the use of long-term projects;
- using visuals to illustrate the differences of experiences
- incorporating collaborative experiences to supply different perspectives that the students can share
- "developing learning experiences and generating knowledge" (Scardamalia & Bereiter 1994) with those with real world experience
- fostering success for all students through special measures to aid the disabled and the disenfranchised (Behrmann 1998)
To implement these capabilities you will need a large-scale, pedagogy, assessment, and professional development, along with administration support. Most programs need an organized group to continue to research and expand the knowledge of understanding of the topics. Without these working together, the program will not work.
1. Match word with definition:
- Curriculum (E)
- Informational Society (B)
- Industrial Society (C)
- Globalization (A)
- Society (G)
- Political (H)
- Economic (F)
- Information Literacy (D)
A. process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones
B. the creation, distribution, diffusion, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity
C. a society with a modern societal structure
D. ability to identify what information is needed and the ability to locate, evaluate, and use information in solving problems and composing discourse
E. course of study offered by an educational institution
F. of or relating to the production, development, and management of material wealth, as of a country, household, or business enterprise
G. economic, social and industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied multitude of people
H. of or concerned with government, the state, or politics
2. What are 3 roles that computers and telecommunications play to enhance learning? (answers under Roles of the Computers)
3. Compare/Contrast briefly between Industrial Society and Informational Society.
4. How has the 'information' age created Globalization?
5. Give 5 examples of tools you use every day to enhance your knowledge of the world.
THE ASSURE MODELEdit
Analyze Learners =Edit
The first step of the ASSURE model is to identify the learners. The target audience can be a certain grade level, a specific or a particular group. The audience can be analyzed in terms of:
1. General characteristics
2. Specific entry competences or
3. Learning styles
General Characteristics: Describe general characteristics of the learners, such as age and demographic information.
Entry Characteristics: Characterize the learner or learners.
Learning Styles: Enter information about students’ learning styles.
The objectives should be stated next and should be as specific as possible. These are statements as to what the learner will be able to do at the end of instruction. The conditions under which the students is going to perform and the degree of acceptable performance.
The Helpful Hundred list includes suggested action words that contribute to the creation of effective objectives.
Select Methods, Media and MaterialsEdit
Next are the methods to be used along with the listings of media and materials necessary to enable learners to meet the stated objectives.
Methods: Describe the methods used to implement the lesson to the audience you described, to order to achieve the objectives listed on the previous screens.
Media: List any multimedia you intend to use.
Materials: This is a list of learning materials used, such as art supplies, textbooks, or interactive learning guides.
When selecting materials you can:
1. Select available materials
2. Modify existing materials
3. Design new materials
Utilize Media and MaterialsEdit
Create and view the plan for using the selected media and materials to implement the methods of your lesson plan.
Environment Preparation: Outline necessary actions to prepare the environment, including the classroom, facilities, resources, and any equipment that will be used.
Audience Preparation: Describe the plan for preparing the learners to complete the lesson, including any preparation, skills, or groupings that are necessary to use the materials and media included in the lesson.
Students may use the media and materials individually, as in self-instruction, or in small groups, as in cooperative learning. They may use printed materials, such as workbooks, or computer-based technology, such as the internet.
Require Learner ParticipationEdit
To be effective, instruction should require active mental engagement by learners. There should be activities that allow learners to practice the knowledge or skills and to receive feedback on the appropriateness of their efforts before being formally assessed. Outline activities that allow learners to practice their knowledge and skills and receive feedback on their progress.
Create a plan for the active learning process.
Questions to Ask: Identify questions that will help learners focus and understand the objectives.
Activities to Do: Plan activities that require learners to practice skills that build toward the objective, require participation, and allow for immediate feedback.
Skills to Practice: List skills that learners must master in order to achieve the objectives of the lesson.
Plan activities that provide reinforcement and further opportunities for learners to build upon skills and goals defined by the objectives.
Evaluate and ReviseEdit
After assessing individual students, characterize the results for this lesson. Evaluate the effectiveness and impact of the lesson plan in helping learners meet the objectives.
Learner Evaluation Plan: Create a plan for evaluating student learning. Design assessments that reflect the acceptable performance defined for each lesson objective.
Evaluation of Learner Achievement: Determine the effectiveness of the lesson plan and consider how it can be revised.
Methods and Media Evaluation: Evaluate the effectiveness of the methods, media, and materials in assisting the learners meet the objectives.
- Instructional Technology and Media for Learning, Eighth Edition by Sharon E. Smaldino, James D. Russell, Robert Heinich, and Michael Molenda
- Houghton Mifflin Company. (2000). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition [Online Dictionary].
- LoveToKnow, Corp. (2009). Political. In YourDictionary [Online Dictionary].
- Yahoo! Education. (2000). Definition of economic. In The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition [Online Dictionary].
- Null, J. (n.d.). Efficiency Jettisoned: Unacknowledged Changes in the Curriculum Thought of John Franklin Bobbitt. In Franklin Bobbitt [Brief History].
- Net Industries. (2009). W. W. Charters (1875-1952). In Education Encyclopedia: StateUniversity.com
- Corn, R. (n.d.). John Dewey and 21st Century Learning. In staffweb.brownsburg.k12 [Brief History].
- Kreider, A., & Schugurensky, D. (n.d.). 1949 Ralph W. Tyler Publishes Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction . In History of Education: Selected Moments of the 20th Century [Brief History].
Backwards, Design, Cognitive Thought & Hunkins Models of Curriculum Design
The Backward Design ModelEdit
The Backward Design Model is similar to the subject matter analysis model in that it starts by asking what students need to know for a particular task. The Backward Design Model asks, "What should the students know? What skills should they possess at the end of the lesson?" These questions form the first level of deciding on curriculum. The final concept in the above diagram results from the second level of the decision making process which is what essential knowledge both disciplined and nondisciplined the students will possess based on standards. The third level of stage one is to narrow the content to knowledge that will endure. The second stage of the Backward Design Model, according to Wiggins and McTighe, is to determine how to evaluate success (2004). What standards are necessary for the student to be considered to be successful based on the stage one information? This stage should cause teachers to begin to think like assessors. The final stage in the three stage process is to plan the educational activities based on the goals students must accomplish. Some questions teachers should ask at this stage are:
What knowledge and skills will students need to understand and perform to attain success with the course? What activities will enable students to master the requisite knowledge and skills? What must a teacher teach and how should the teacher teach it in order for students to become knowledgeable and skillful in the identified content realm? What materials must be employed to foster student success in the curriculum in question? Does the overall design of this course or unit meet the principles of curriculum development?
The essential knowledge may be assessed using observations by instructors, or using evaluations such as quizzes or performance tasks or projects.
Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. (2004). Curriculum foundations: Principles and theory (4th ed). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
The Cognitive Thought ModelEdit
The Cognitive Thought Model is a model based on the process of thought itself. This model depicts the thought process in a way that shows existing knowledge as the basis of cognition and new thought as informational ques that tap into existing knowledge in a way that builds new knowledge from existing knowledge. This model is highly dependent on the resources and context in which the learner is taking on new information. This model occurs in real-time. Lastly, the Cognitive Thought Model can operate in conjunction with other processes, in the form of information exchange, or alone.
The Cognitive Thought Model Steps
In the Cognitive Thought Model there are seven steps. The steps in this model are not subject to reordering and must be completed in the sequential order given in order to achieve the desired outcome. The steps include the following: Learner Readiness, Starting-Up, The Main Process, Possible Interpretation and Resumption, Purpose, Contemplation, and Final State.
From Ornstein and Hunkins (2004):
Step 1 - Learner Readiness is the ability of the learner to focus on the task at hand, be it physical or mental, by ceasing other distractions.
Step 2 - Starting-Up, action initiation is made with conscious efforts by the learner.
Step 3 - The Main Process is when cognition of new thought begins. Simply stated, this is where the learner stops preparing and becomes engaged.
Step 4 - Possible Interpretation and Resumption. This step occurs while the learner is engaged. The learner has the option at this point to decide if it is more advantageous to continue in the steps, if it is necessary to stop and restart, or if it is permissible to stop without restarting.
Step 5 - Purpose. The point of this step is to allow the learner to make a determination of whether or not the original intent of the learning is being fulfilled.
Step 6 - Contemplation. In this step the learner, assuming the all prior steps were worked successfully, must now start to look for a conclusion in the physical or mental task that they have been engaged in.
Step 7 - Final State. This step allows the learner to contemplate the results of the prior engagement that is now completed.
The cognitive thought model was created using research from neurological studies. Neural control systems have identical characteristics to those of cognitive thought. The basic model for this approach is the same as the model that we use to control physical movement. The way we train athletes is the same way that we can train students.
Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. (2004). Curriculum foundations: Principles and theory (4th ed). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Hunkin’s Decision-Making ModelEdit
The first stage of this model is Curriculum Conceptualization and Legitimization. In this stage participants are demanded to engage in deliberation regarding the nature of the curriculum. This stage stresses understanding the nature and power of curriculum. It also confronts the various conceptions of curriculum. In order for this deliberation to be successful, social contexts, such as power politics, social and cultural views, have to be understood and deliberated. At this stage views of curriculum and its purposes must be legitimized. This is not any easy process; but is the most important.
The second stage of the model is Curriculum Diagnosis. This stage has two major tasks; translating needs into causes and creating goals and objectives from the needs. To begin this process educators develop needs analysis depending on the curriculum and the needs of the students. The needs analysis is derived from student data. When a curriculum is approved and becomes acceptable goals and objectives are generated to serve as guidelines.
The Curriculum Development Content Selection section deals with the “what” that is to be taught or learned. The content refers to the “stuff” of the curriculum. Content or the “what” refers to the procedures students learn to apply knowledge and skills dealing with facts, concepts, principles, theories and generalizations.
The next step in the Hunkin’s Decision- Making Model is Experience Selection. In this section the emphasis is placed on instruction. Here is where the decision of how the content will be taught or experienced. At this stage teachers will decide what materials will be utilized. After the objectives/goals, content and instruction have been approved, is the next stage, implementation. Curriculum Implementation has two stages. The first stage is initial piloting to work out any minor problems and the second stage is the final diffusion stage. The final diffusion of the program is where a management system is set up to ensure the curriculum is ready to be delivered and experienced by the student.Once the program has been implemented then it can be evaluated. Evaluation is the next stage. This stage continues as long as the program is in effect. The purpose of evaluation is to furnish data to continue to modify, or discontinue the program.
The final stage of the model is Curriculum Maintenance. Curriculum Maintenance is the methods and means by which the implemented program is managed to assure its continual functioning.
The Hunkin’s Decision-making Model has a unique feature called the feedback and adjustment loop. This loop allows decision makers to refer back to previous stages to make changes and any modifications. This loop contextualizes the process of creating and implementing curriculum. This aspect of the model addresses many critics of technical models who say that technical models are not related to the times or context in which decisions about curriculum are made.
Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. (2004). Curriculum foundations: Principles and theory (4th ed). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
The Deliberation Model & Hunkins Model of Curriculum Design
Wikibook CDT Chapter 2: Models, Frameworks and Tools of Curriculum Development and the role of media.
Six Phase Deliberation ModelEdit
Six-Phase Deliberation Model. Phase One: Public Sharing. An Educational Group must come together. Discuss what needs to be accomplished. Phase Two: Highlighting Agreements and Disagreements. The educational group must highlight what they have in common and also what they differ in opinion. Phase Three: Explaining Positions. The members of the group will take the information from the previous phases and make clear the various positions. Phase Four: Highlighting Changes in Position. Educators make known any change in position. Why they changed their position. Phase Five: Negotiating Points of Agreement. Engages Participants in searching for solutions. Phase Six: Adopting a Decision. Individuals achieve consensus.
Hunkin's Decision-Making Model