This book is useful for geography students and teachers for pre-university level for climate related subjects. Typically, this would be for an introduction to geography course which is taken by most under graduate student in colleges.

How does climate affect our life and earth? edit

Climate is a broad term, but it always describes a long-term change of a climate system. Often 'climate' is used to mean the long-term mean state of the atmosphere, including temperature, humidity, and wind. In other contexts, 'climate' can include the oceanic state, the cryosphere (snow and sea-ice), the biosphere, and sometimes even the lithosphere (Earth's crust). The pattern of human life in any particular region is to a very large extent determined by the climate:--

Shelter: edit

The design of houses in different geographical regions of the world is determined by climatic conditions. In areas of heavy rainfall, the houses have sloping roofs. The material used in construction is, however, determined by the availability of construction material. The roof could be tiled or comprise bamboos covered with hay where clay for making tiles may not be available.

In dry regions like Rajasthan, flat stone pieces are used for roofing. Partition walls are made of wood in very cold countries. In regions of high temperature, there are open courtyards attached to each dwelling. In hill districts, houses are made on stilts with the ground floor reserved for cattle.

Dress: edit

Loose dresses are popular in regions where the climate is hot. In colder regions, people wear dresses that are body hugging. A very wide variety of head gears is used again depending on the climate. The Sola hat was so popular with the British people living in the hot plains of India. Where rainfall is abundant people wear head gears that provide protection against rain while people are at work.

The lungi is popular in the southern regions of the country where it is relatively hot but not so in colder region as Himachal Pradesh. Woollens are worn in cold regions while cotton clothing is worn in hot and temperate regions. Synthetic clothing may be suitable in cold climates but not so at places where people perspire during the day.

Wealth edit

The wealth of a country can also be impacted by climate. If a country has a very inhospitable climate, such as ice and snow, or desert, then it will not be easy for agriculture or other profitable industry to be carried out, so the country will not be able to sustain a very large population, or to give a good lifestyle to those it does sustain.

Occupations: edit

During the winter months when outdoor living is not easy, the people of Kashmir remain indoors and follow up occupations like making carpets, handicrafts; silk wares that can be weaved sitting indoors. Agriculture is practiced where rainfall is adequate.

People living in dry regions follow pastoral occupations moving from place to place along with their herds of cattle looking for water and grass where ever it may be available. Where rainfall is abundant, forestry comes up as an important occupation for the people.

Art and Culture: edit

Open air stage performances are popular in areas that are not very cold. A wide variety exists at places where people have opportunity to remain out doors for most part of the year.

Food habits: edit

Since climate determines the nature of crops that can be grown in any part, the food habit also get influence by the climate. In Bengal, the staple food is rice since heavy rainfall in that region is most suited for paddy cultivation. The northern parts of the country, wheat are the staple diet. Millets are popular in dry regions like Rajasthan.

Crops like Bajra are grown there since this crop can survive even with scant water supply. The people living in Tundra region have no chance of being vegetarians. The climate does not allow growing any cereals or food crops.

Migration: edit

People living in extremely cold climates are known to migrate to warmer places in search of jobs. Where the climates are temperate, people tend to live a more settled life.

Effect on environment : edit

As the climate warms, it changes the nature of global rainfall, evaporation, snow, stream flow and other factors that affect water supply and quality. Specific impacts include: Warmer water temperatures may affect water quality and accelerate water pollution.

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