The Catalan language descended from Latin, which the Romans brought to Hispania after the defeat of the Carthaginian army of Hannibal in the Second Punic War. It is closely related to Spanish, French, Italian, and especially Occitan. There are over 7.5 million native Catalan speakers and an additional 3 million non-native speakers. The Catalan language is an eminent poetic language, known for its long and rich poetic tradition. It is the second most widely-spoken language in Spain and enjoys extensive use in culture and art.
Catalan had its first "golden age" in medieval times. It was the language of the Crown of Aragon and, until the 15th century, a key Mediterranean tongue. From the 15th century until 19th, Catalan suffered a long period of relative disuse and decadence that culminated in its first prohibition by Philip V of Spain. Since the 19th century, Catalan has recovered its former status, in spite of suffering a second prohibition in Francoist Spain.