Canadian LGBT History/1960s Onward/Overview< Canadian LGBT History
In the 1960s, what became known as the Quiet Revolution took place in Quebec, overthrowing the old establishment which centered on the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec and led to modernizing of the economy and society. Québécois nationalists demanded independence, and tensions rose until violence erupted during the 1970 October Crisis. In 1976 the Parti Québécois was elected to power in Quebec, with a nationalist vision that included securing French linguistic rights in the province and the pursuit of some form of sovereignty for Quebec. This culminated in the 1980 referendum in Quebec on the question of sovereignty-association, which was turned down by 59% of the voters.
In 1965, Canada adopted the maple leaf flag, although not without considerable debate and misgivings among large number of English Canadians. The World's Fair titled Expo 67 came to Montreal, coinciding with the Canadian Centennial that year. The fair opened April 28, 1967, with the theme "Man and his World" and became the best attended of all BIE-sanctioned world expositions until that time.
Legislative restrictions on Canadian immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were amended in the 1960s, opening the doors to immigrants from all parts of the world.> While the 1950s had seen high levels of immigration from Britain, Ireland, Italy, and northern continental Europe, by the 1970s immigrants increasingly came from India, China, Vietnam, Jamaica and Haiti. Immigrants of all backgrounds tended to settle in the major urban centres, particularly Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.
During his long tenure in the office (1968–79, 1980–84), Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau made social and cultural change his political goals, including the pursuit of official bilingualism in Canada and plans for significant constitutional change. The west, particularly the petroleum-producing provinces like Alberta, opposed many of the policies emanating from central Canada, with the National Energy Program creating considerable antagonism and growing western alienation.
In 1982, the Canada Act was passed by the British parliament and granted Royal Assent by Queen Elizabeth II on March 29, while the Constitution Act was passed by the Canadian parliament and granted Royal Assent by the Queen on April 17, thus patriating the Constitution of Canada. Previously, the constitution has existed only as an act passed of the British parliament, and was not even physically located in Canada, though it could not be altered without Canadian consent. At the same time, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms was added in place of the previous Bill of Rights. The patriation of the constitution was Trudeau's last major act as Prime Minister; he resigned in 1984.
On June 23, 1985, Air India Flight 182 was destroyed above the Atlantic Ocean by a bomb on board exploding; all 329 on board were killed, of whom 280 were Canadian citizens. The Air India attack is the largest mass murder in Canadian history.
The Progressive Conservative (PC) government of Brian Mulroney began efforts to gain Quebec's support for the Constitution Act 1982 and end western alienation. In 1987 the Meech Lake Accord talks began between the provincial and federal governments, seeking constitutional changes favourable to Quebec. The constitutional reform process under Prime Minister Mulroney culminated in the failure of the Charlottetown Accord which would have recognized Quebec as a "distinct society" but was rejected in 1992 by a narrow margin.
Under Brian Mulroney, relations with the United States began to grow more closely integrated. In 1986, Canada and the U.S. signed the "Acid Rain Treaty" to reduce acid rain. In 1989, the federal government adopted the Free Trade Agreement with the United States despite significant animosity from the Canadian public who were concerned about the economic and cultural impacts of close integration with the United States. On July 11, 1990, the Oka Crisis land dispute began between the Mohawk people of Kanesatake and the adjoining town of Oka, Quebec. The dispute was the first of a number of well-publicized conflicts between First Nations and the Canadian government in the late 20th century. In August 1990, Canada was one of the first nations to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, and it quickly agreed to join the U.S.-led coalition. Canada deployed destroyers and later a CF-18 Hornet squadron with support personnel, as well as a field hospital to deal with casualties.
- Dickinson, John; Young, Brian (2003). A Short History of Quebec. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 372. ISBN 0773523936. http://books.google.ca/books?id=kRHmr-rDFrwC&lpg=PP1&dq=A%20Short%20History%20of%20Quebec&pg=PA372#v=onepage&q&f=true. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
- "Chronology of the October Crisis, 1970, and its Aftermath – Quebec History". http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/chronos/october.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- "First "Canadian flags"". Department of Canadian Heritage. 2007-09-24. http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/symbl/df5-eng.cfm. Retrieved 2008-12-16.
- "Bid to hold the world's fair in Montreal". Expo 67 Man and His World. Library and Archives Canada. 2007. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/expo/0533020101_e.html. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
- Vivian Shalla (March 2006). Working in a global era: Canadian perspectives. Canadian Scholars' Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-55130-290-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=VQ1mvurCyTIC&pg=PA223.
- "Immigration Policy in the 1970s". Canadian Heritage (Multicultural Canada). 2004. http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/Encyclopedia/A-Z/i2/10. Retrieved 2010-04-12.
- Mark Tushnet (20 July 2009). Weak Courts, Strong Rights: Judicial Review and Social Welfare Rights in Comparative Constitutional Law. Princeton University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-691-14320-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=OJ04DIfeTjUC&pg=PA52.
- Vicente, Mary Elizabeth (2005). "The National Energy Program". Canada’s Digital Collections (Heritage Community Foundation). http://www.abheritage.ca/abpolitics/events/issues_nep.html. Retrieved 2008-04-26.
- "Constitution Acts, 1867 to 1982". Department of Justice Canada. 2010. http://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/Const/Const_index.html. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
- George V (December 11, 1931), Statute of Westminster, 4, Westminster: King's Printer, http://www.gov.ns.ca/legislature/legc/westmins.htm, retrieved 2010-04-21
- "The Night of Long Knives", Canada: A People's History. CBC. Retrieved 2006-04-08.
- Tonelli, Carla (2007). "Oka, 1990: "Our land is our future"". This Magazine. http://www.thismagazine.ca/issues/2007/07/risingup.php#oka. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- "IN DEPTH: AIR INDIA". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2005. Archived from the original on 2005-03-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20050318220743/http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/airindia/victims.html. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
- William D Gairdner (6 August 2011). The Trouble with Canada ... Still! a Citizen Speaks Out. BPS Books. p. 418. ISBN 978-1-926645-67-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=mJpvibLL3RgC&pg=PA418.
- Canadian Public Policy The Federal Budget and Energy Program October 28, 1980. Brian L. Scarfe. Department of Economics, the University of Alberta. 1981.
- Bosch, Núria; Solé Ollé, Albert (2010). The political economy of inter-regional fiscal flows: measurement .... Edward Elgar. p. 374. ISBN 1848443730. http://books.google.ca/books?id=3fHMeJFikYkC&pg=PA374&dq=Charlottetown+Accord+rejected++by#v=onepage&q&f=true. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
- Transforming The Nation: Canada and Brian Mulroney Christopher Waddell. "Policy and Partisanship on the Campaign Trail: How Mulroney Works His Magic Twice". ch.1 of R.B. Blake, (2007) p.22
- "The Oka Crisis" (Digital Archives). Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2000. http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/civil_unrest/topics/99/. Retrieved 2010-04-16.
- "Canada and Multilateral Operations in Support of Peace and Stability". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. 2010. http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/news-nouvelles/news-nouvelles-eng.asp?cat=00&id=914. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
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