# C Programming/Further math

 Previous: Strings C Programming Next: Libraries

The <math.h> header contains prototypes for several functions that deal with mathematics. In the 1990 version of the ISO standard, only the double versions of the functions were specified; the 1999 version added the float and long double versions. To use these math functions, you must link your program with the math library. For some compilers (including GCC), you must specify the additional parameter -lm.

The math functions may produce one of two kinds of errors. Domain errors occur when the parameters to the functions are invalid, such as a negative number as a parameter to sqrt (the square root function). Range errors occur when the result of the function cannot be expressed in that particular floating-point type, such as pow(1000.0, 1000.0) if the maximum value of a double is around 10308.

The functions can be grouped into the following categories:

## Trigonometric functions

### The acos and asin functions

The acos functions return the arccosine of their arguments in radians, and the asin functions return the arcsine of their arguments in radians. All functions expect the argument in the range [-1,+1]. The arccosine returns a value in the range [0,π]; the arcsine returns a value in the range [-π/2,+π/2].

 #include <math.h>
float asinf(float x); /* C99 */
float acosf(float x); /* C99 */
double asin(double x);
double acos(double x);
long double asinl(long double x); /* C99 */
long double acosl(long double x); /* C99 */


### The atan and atan2 functions

The atan functions return the arctangent of their arguments in radians, and the atan2 function return the arctangent of y/x in radians. The atan functions return a value in the range [-π/2,+π/2] (the reason why ±π/2 are included in the range is because the floating-point value may represent infinity, and atan(±∞) = ±π/2); the atan2 functions return a value in the range [-π,+π]. For atan2, a domain error may occur if both arguments are zero.

 #include <math.h>
float atanf(float x); /* C99 */
float atan2f(float y, float x); /* C99 */
double atan(double x);
double atan2(double y, double x);
long double atanl(long double x); /* C99 */
long double atan2l(long double y, long double x); /* C99 */


### The cos, sin, and tan functions

The cos, sin, and tan functions return the cosine, sine, and tangent of the argument, expressed in radians.

 #include <math.h>
float cosf(float x); /* C99 */
float sinf(float x); /* C99 */
float tanf(float x); /* C99 */
double cos(double x);
double sin(double x);
double tan(double x);
long double cosl(long double x); /* C99 */
long double sinl(long double x); /* C99 */
long double tanl(long double x); /* C99 */


## Hyperbolic functions

The cosh, sinh and tanh functions compute the hyperbolic cosine, the hyperbolic sine, and the hyperbolic tangent of the argument respectively. For the hyperbolic sine and cosine functions, a range error occurs if the magnitude of the argument is too large.

The acosh functions compute the inverse hyperbolic cosine of the argument. A domain error occurs for arguments less than 1.

The asinh functions compute the inverse hyperbolic sine of the argument.

The atanh functions compute the inverse hyperbolic tangent of the argument. A domain error occurs if the argument is not in the interval [-1, +1]. A range error may occur if the argument equals -1 or +1.

 #include <math.h>
float coshf(float x); /* C99 */
float sinhf(float x); /* C99 */
float tanhf(float x); /* C99 */
double cosh(double x);
double sinh(double x);
double tanh(double x);
long double coshl(long double x); /* C99 */
long double sinhl(long double x); /* C99 */
long double tanhl(long double x); /* C99 */
float acoshf(float x); /* C99 */
float asinhf(float x); /* C99 */
float atanhf(float x); /* C99 */
double acosh(double x); /* C99 */
double asinh(double x); /* C99 */
double atanh(double x); /* C99 */
long double acoshl(long double x); /* C99 */
long double asinhl(long double x); /* C99 */
long double atanhl(long double x); /* C99 */


## Exponential and logarithmic functions

### The exp, exp2, and expm1 functions

The exp functions compute the base-e exponential function of x (ex). A range error occurs if the magnitude of x is too large.

The exp2 functions compute the base-2 exponential function of x (2x). A range error occurs if the magnitude of x is too large.

The expm1 functions compute the base-e exponential function of the argument, minus 1. A range error occurs if the magnitude of x is too large.

 #include <math.h>
float expf(float x); /* C99 */
double exp(double x);
long double expl(long double x); /* C99 */
float exp2f(float x); /* C99 */
double exp2(double x); /* C99 */
long double exp2l(long double x); /* C99 */
float expm1f(float x); /* C99 */
double expm1(double x); /* C99 */
long double expm1l(long double x); /* C99 */


### The frexp, ldexp, modf, scalbn, and scalbln functions

These functions are heavily used in software floating-point emulators, but are otherwise rarely directly called.

Inside the computer, each floating point number is represented by two parts:

• The significand is either in the range [1/2, 1), or it equals zero.
• The exponent is an integer.

The value of a floating point number $v$  is $v={\rm {significand}}\times 2^{\rm {exponent}}$ .

The frexp functions break the argument floating point number value into those two parts, the exponent and significand. After breaking it apart, it stores the exponent in the int object pointed to by ex, and returns the significand. In other words, the value returned is a copy of the given floating point number but with an exponent replaced by 0. If value is zero, both parts of the result are zero.

The ldexp functions multiply a floating-point number by a integral power of 2 and return the result. In other words, it returns copy of the given floating point number with the exponent increased by ex. A range error may occur.

The modf functions break the argument value into integer and fraction parts, each of which has the same sign as the argument. They store the integer part in the object pointed to by *iptr and return the fraction part. The *iptr is a floating-point type, rather than an "int" type, because it might be used to store an integer like 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 which is too big to fit in an int.

The scalbn and scalbln compute x × FLT_RADIXn. FLT_RADIX is the base of the floating-point system; if it is 2, the functions are equivalent to ldexp.

 #include <math.h>
float frexpf(float value, int *ex); /* C99 */
double frexp(double value, int *ex);
long double frexpl(long double value, int *ex); /* C99 */
float ldexpf(float x, int ex); /* C99 */
double ldexp(double x, int ex);
long double ldexpl(long double x, int ex); /* C99 */
float modff(float value, float *iptr); /* C99 */
double modf(double value, double *iptr);
long double modfl(long double value, long double *iptr); /* C99 */
float scalbnf(float x, int ex); /* C99 */
double scalbn(double x, int ex); /* C99 */
long double scalbnl(long double x, int ex); /* C99 */
float scalblnf(float x, long int ex); /* C99 */
double scalbln(double x, long int ex); /* C99 */
long double scalblnl(long double x, long int ex); /* C99 */


Most C floating point libraries also implement the IEEE754-recommended nextafter(), nextUp( ), and nextDown( ) functions. 

### The log, log2, log1p, and log10 functions

The log functions compute the base-e natural logarithm of the argument and return the result. A domain error occurs if the argument is negative. A range error may occur if the argument is zero.

The log1p functions compute the base-e natural logarithm of one plus the argument and return the result. A domain error occurs if the argument is less than -1. A range error may occur if the argument is -1.

The log10 functions compute the common (base-10) logarithm of the argument and return the result. A domain error occurs if the argument is negative. A range error may occur if the argument is zero.

The log2 functions compute the base-2 logarithm of the argument and return the result. A domain error occurs if the argument is negative. A range error may occur if the argument is zero.

 #include <math.h>
float logf(float x); /* C99 */
double log(double x);
long double logl(long double x); /* C99 */
float log1pf(float x); /* C99 */
double log1p(double x); /* C99 */
long double log1pl(long double x); /* C99 */
float log10f(float x); /* C99 */
double log10(double x);
long double log10l(long double x); /* C99 */
float log2f(float x); /* C99 */
double log2(double x); /* C99 */
long double log2l(long double x); /* C99 */


### The ilogb and logb functions

The ilogb functions extract the exponent of x as a signed int value. If x is zero, they return the value FP_ILOGB0; if x is infinite, they return the value INT_MAX; if x is not-a-number they return the value FP_ILOGBNAN; otherwise, they are equivalent to calling the corresponding logb function and casting the returned value to type int. A range error may occur if x is zero. FP_ILOGB0 and FP_ILOGBNAN are macros defined in math.h; INT_MAX is a macro defined in limits.h.

The logb functions extract the exponent of x as a signed integer value in floating-point format. If x is subnormal, it is treated as if it were normalized; thus, for positive finite x, 1 ≤ x × FLT_RADIX-logb(x) < FLT_RADIX . FLT_RADIX is the radix for floating-point numbers, defined in the float.h header.

 #include <math.h>
int ilogbf(float x); /* C99 */
int ilogb(double x); /* C99 */
int ilogbl(long double x); /* C99 */
float logbf(float x); /* C99 */
double logb(double x); /* C99 */
long double logbl(long double x); /* C99 */


## Power functions

### The pow functions

The pow functions compute x raised to the power y and return the result. A domain error occurs if x is negative and y is not an integral value. A domain error occurs if the result cannot be represented when x is zero and y is less than or equal to zero. A range error may occur.

 #include <math.h>
float powf(float x, float y); /* C99 */
double pow(double x, double y);
long double powl(long double x, long double y); /* C99 */


### The sqrt functions

The sqrt functions compute the positive square root of x and return the result. A domain error occurs if the argument is negative.

 #include <math.h>
float sqrtf(float x); /* C99 */
double sqrt(double x);
long double sqrtl(long double x); /* C99 */


### The cbrt functions

The cbrt functions compute the cube root of x and return the result.

 #include <math.h>
float cbrtf(float x); /* C99 */
double cbrt(double x); /* C99 */
long double cbrtl(long double x); /* C99 */


### The hypot functions

The hypot functions compute the square root of the sums of the squares of x and y, without overflow or underflow, and return the result.

 #include <math.h>
float hypotf(float x, float y); /* C99 */
double hypot(double x, double y); /* C99 */
long double hypotl(long double x, long double y); /* C99 */


## Nearest integer, absolute value, and remainder functions

### The ceil and floor functions

The ceil functions compute the smallest integral value not less than x and return the result; the floor functions compute the largest integral value not greater than x and return the result.

 #include <math.h>
float ceilf(float x); /* C99 */
double ceil(double x);
long double ceill(long double x); /* C99 */
float floorf(float x); /* C99 */
double floor(double x);
long double floorl(long double x); /* C99 */


### The fabs functions

The fabs functions compute the absolute value of a floating-point number x and return the result.

 #include <math.h>
float fabsf(float x); /* C99 */
double fabs(double x);
long double fabsl(long double x); /* C99 */


### The fmod functions

The fmod functions compute the floating-point remainder of x/y and return the value x - i * y, for some integer i such that, if y is nonzero, the result has the same sign as x and magnitude less than the magnitude of y. If y is zero, whether a domain error occurs or the fmod functions return zero is implementation-defined.

 #include <math.h>
float fmodf(float x, float y); /* C99 */
double fmod(double x, double y);
long double fmodl(long double x, long double y); /* C99 */


### The nearbyint, rint, lrint, and llrint functions

The nearbyint functions round their argument to an integer value in floating-point format, using the current rounding direction and without raising the "inexact" floating-point exception.

The rint functions are similar to the nearbyint functions except that they can raise the "inexact" floating-point exception if the result differs in value from the argument.

The lrint and llrint functions round their arguments to the nearest integer value according to the current rounding direction. If the result is outside the range of values of the return type, the numeric result is undefined and a range error may occur if the magnitude of the argument is too large.

 #include <math.h>
float nearbyintf(float x); /* C99 */
double nearbyint(double x); /* C99 */
long double nearbyintl(long double x); /* C99 */
float rintf(float x); /* C99 */
double rint(double x); /* C99 */
long double rintl(long double x); /* C99 */
long int lrintf(float x); /* C99 */
long int lrint(double x); /* C99 */
long int lrintl(long double x); /* C99 */
long long int llrintf(float x); /* C99 */
long long int llrint(double x); /* C99 */
long long int llrintl(long double x); /* C99 */


### The round, lround, and llround functions

The round functions round the argument to the nearest integer value in floating-point format, rounding halfway cases away from zero, regardless of the current rounding direction.

The lround and llround functions round the argument to the nearest integer value, rounding halfway cases away from zero, regardless of the current rounding direction. If the result is outside the range of values of the return type, the numeric result is undefined and a range error may occur if the magnitude of the argument is too large.

 #include <math.h>
float roundf(float x); /* C99 */
double round(double x); /* C99 */
long double roundl(long double x); /* C99 */
long int lroundf(float x); /* C99 */
long int lround(double x); /* C99 */
long int lroundl(long double x); /* C99 */
long long int llroundf(float x); /* C99 */
long long int llround(double x); /* C99 */
long long int llroundl(long double x); /* C99 */


### The trunc functions

The trunc functions round their argument to the integer value in floating-point format that is nearest but no larger in magnitude than the argument.

 #include <math.h>
float truncf(float x); /* C99 */
double trunc(double x); /* C99 */
long double truncl(long double x); /* C99 */


### The remainder functions

The remainder functions compute the remainder x REM y as defined by IEC 60559. The definition reads, "When y ≠ 0, the remainder r = x REM y is defined regardless of the rounding mode by the mathematical reduction r = x - ny, where n is the integer nearest the exact value of x/y; whenever |n - x/y| = ½, then n is even. Thus, the remainder is always exact. If r = 0, its sign shall be that of x." This definition is applicable for all implementations.

 #include <math.h>
float remainderf(float x, float y); /* C99 */
double remainder(double x, double y); /* C99 */
long double remainderl(long double x, long double y); /* C99 */


### The remquo functions

The remquo functions return the same remainder as the remainder functions. In the object pointed to by quo, they store a value whose sign is the sign of x/y and whose magnitude is congruent modulo 2n to the magnitude of the integral quotient of x/y, where n is an implementation-defined integer greater than or equal to 3.

 #include <math.h>
float remquof(float x, float y, int *quo); /* C99 */
double remquo(double x, double y, int *quo); /* C99 */
long double remquol(long double x, long double y, int *quo); /* C99 */


## Error and gamma functions

The erf functions compute the error function of the argument ${\frac {2}{\sqrt {\pi }}}\int _{0}^{x}e^{-t^{2}}\,\mathrm {d} t$ ; the erfc functions compute the complimentary error function of the argument (that is, 1 - erf x). For the erfc functions, a range error may occur if the argument is too large.

The lgamma functions compute the natural logarithm of the absolute value of the gamma of the argument (that is, loge|Γ(x)|). A range error may occur if the argument is a negative integer or zero.

The tgamma functions compute the gamma of the argument (that is, Γ(x)). A domain error occurs if the argument is a negative integer or if the result cannot be represented when the argument is zero. A range error may occur.

 #include <math.h>
float erff(float x); /* C99 */
double erf(double x); /* C99 */
long double erfl(long double x); /* C99 */
float erfcf(float x); /* C99 */
double erfc(double x); /* C99 */
long double erfcl(long double x); /* C99 */
float lgammaf(float x); /* C99 */
double lgamma(double x); /* C99 */
long double lgammal(long double x); /* C99 */
float tgammaf(float x); /* C99 */
double tgamma(double x); /* C99 */
long double tgammal(long double x); /* C99 */