Solution to Exercise 8 of Lesson 8:

Exercises 8

Exercise 8.1: Translate into English:

1. Indha visheiath ei pathi peesza pooradhu yaaru, nie a, naan a ? 'Is it you or I, who is going to speak on this subject ?'

2. Keeka vara poora peer ellaam on oodu students thaan e ! 'Those who are going to come to listen are your students, aren't they ?

3. Nie peesza poora vishaiam avaa ellaar u k um pidicha vishaiam thaan e ? 'The subject you are foinf to speak on is one that is liked by all, isn't it ?

4. Adhu avaahl ei keet aa thaan therium. 'That onel should onlu ask them.'

Exercise 8.2: Translate into Braahmik:

1. Are you the one who has come to see me ? 'En ei paaka vandh irukaradhu nie dhaan a ?

2. No, sir, I am sitting here just like that. I don't know who is going to see you.

'Illei, saar, naan chummaa thaan inge okaandhund iruken. Ongahl ei paaka pooradhu yaaru ena ku theriaadhu.

3. All right, if anybody comes to see me now, tell him to come tomorrow. I have to go now.

'Szari, ipo yaar aavadhy en ei paaka vandh aa, (avan ei) naahlei ki vara chollu,

4. I won't be here, sir, I will go away in a short time.

'Naan inge iruka maaten, saar, konja neerathu le naan pooyduven.'


Vedi kaalambra romba neeram thuungind e irukaradhu thapu.

Muzhipu vandhadhu k apram um izhuthu poothindu thuungaradhu iruk e, adhu adh ei vida peria thapu.

Chat na ezhundhirundhom, pal ei theechom, muunj alambindom, vandh okaandhu konja neeram kanh ei muudindu dhhyaanam pahnninom. apram szuru szurup a veelei ei gavanichom innu irukahnam.

Padikara paszangahl a irundh a, neethei ki nadandha paadath ei oru dhadavei padichutu, innei ki nadaka poora poodath ei puriara varei k um rendu dhadavei muuhnu dhadavei padikahnum.

Padichadh ei cholli paathukahnum. Cholli paathukara poodhu thadumaarrin a, in oru dhadavei padikahnum.

Ipdi padich a, padipu le epo um e mun eerralaam.

English Translation

Going on sleeping early in the morning is wrong.

As for pulling the blanket round you even after you are awake and go on sleeping, it is a wrong that is much worse than that.

It must be like this : We got up quickly, brushed the teeth, washed the face, came and sat down and meditated for some time with closed eyes, and then began to attend to our work vigorously.

If (we are) students, (we) should read once the lesson done yesterday and should read the lesson to be done today two or three times until (we) understand it.

We should repeat to ourselves what we read.. If (we) falter during recapitulation, (we) should read (it) once again.

If we study like this, it is possible to make progress in (our) studies.


  • Most of the sentences in this passage are peculiar to Braahmik and are not as in English.
  • In the first sentence, the expression thuungind e irukaradhu 'going on sleeping' is a participial noun phrase functioning as the subject and the subject complement is thapu 'wrong'.
  • The copula 'is' is not expressed in the present tense.
  • In the last sentence Ipdi padich a, padipu le epo um e mun eerralaam 'if studied like this, it is possible to make progress in studies.', no subject is overtly expressed, making the sentence an impersonal construction.
  • The sentence, Chat na ezhundhirundhom, pal ei theechom, muunj alambindom, vandh okaandhu konja neeram kanh ei muudindu dhhyaanam pahnninom. apram szuru szurup a veelei ei gavanichom innu irukahnam, 'We did this, we did that, etc., etc., it should be like that', is a very special style of talking, to give corrective instructions to someone. The real meaning is 'You should do this, you should do that, etc.', without the tag statement 'it should be like that.
  • The link verb iru 'to be' is expressed in the past and the future, though not in the present tense :
  • A statement like naan padikara paian 'I am a student' is in the present tense with no copula.
  • But, in the past tense naan padikara paian a irundhen 'I was a student', there is the copula irundhen presnt. At the same time, the subject complement is changed into an 'adverb' by placing the 'adverbialising paticle' a or aa.
  • When the past participle is used in place of a finite past tense, no subject need be mentioned, as in padikara paian a irundh a 'if (I, you, he, she, it) were a student'.
  • A sentence, in which the finite verb has an impersonal suffix like -hnim, -(l)aam is an impersonal sentence , to which a subject has to be supplied in the *English translation, depending upon the context.
  • Rendu dhadavei muujnu dhdavei, rendu muuhnu dhadavei 'Two or three times'.


Braahmik English
Vedi kaalambra early in the morning
romba neeram for a long time
thuungu (-ar, -in, -uv) to sleep
thuungind iru be sleeping
thuungind irukaradhu sleeping (pres particip noun)
thuungind e irukaradhu going on sleeping
thapu wrong, mistake.
muzhipu blinking, waking up
muzhipu vandhadhu k apram after wakiong up
um and, also, even
izhu (-kar, -thu, -pu) to pull
izhuthu poothiko (-kar, -nd, -kuv/-pu) pull (the blanket) over (oneself tightly)
poothindu thuungaradhu sleeping well covered (with blanket)
iruk e as for (what is... )
(adh) ei vida peria greater than that
chat na/nu quickly
ezhundhiru (-kar, -ndhu, -pu) get up
pal, pallu tooth, (teeth)
pal (ei) theey (-kar, -chu, -pu) to brush the teeth
moham, muunji face
alambu (-bar, -bin, -buv) to wash
konja neeram (for) a little time
kahn ei muudiko (-kar, -nd, -kuv) close your eyes
dhhyaanam pahnnu (-ar, -in, -uv) to meditate
apram then, after
szuru szurup a actively, vigorously
veelei ei gavani (-kar, chu, -pu) attend to one's work, mind one's business
innu irukahnam it should be like that.
padikara paszanga(hl) students
a irundh a/aa(l) if (one) is
neethei ki uesterday
nadandha paadam (-thu) the lesson that was taken
oru dhadavei once
padichudu (-dar, -tu, -duv) to finish reading
innei ki today
nadaka poora poodam (thu) lesson that is going to be taken
puri (-ar, -nju, (-um)) to be understood (imper verb)
puriara varei k um till it is understood
rendu (dhadavei) muuhnu dhadavei two or three times
padichadhu what is read
cholli paaru (paakar, paathu, paapu) repeat, try to say again
thadumaarru (-ar, -in, -uv) falter
Ipdi padich a if one reads likel this
padipu le in studies
epo um e at any time, always
men eerral progress, making progress