Biblical Studies/Christianity/Roman Catholicism/Other Topics


The pope beatifies and canonizes certain individuals who have led a life of heroic example. Recent canonizations and beatifications are documented on the Vatican website.[1]

Vatican CityEdit

Vatican City State is an independent nation where the pope resides. Saint Peter's Basilica and many of the papal offices are located in Vatican City State. Vatican City State is approximately 108 acres inside the city of Rome, Italy. Included in the nation are several non-adjacent basilicas and the pope's summer residence.

Ecumenical CouncilsEdit

Currently there have been only twenty-one Ecumenical Councils. They were: First Council of Nicaea; First Council of Constantinople; Council of Ephesus; Council of Chalcedon; Second Council of Constantinople; Third Council of Constantinople; Second Council of Nicaea; Fourth Council of Constantinople; First Lateran Council; Second Lateran Council; Third Lateran Council; Fourth Lateran Council; First Council of Lyon; Second Council of Lyon; Council of Vienne; Council of Constance; Council of Basel, Ferrara, and Florence; Fifth Lateran Council; Council of Trent; First Vatican Council; Second Vatican Council.

An ecumenical council's decrees do not have an obligatory force unless they have been approved by both the council fathers and the pontiff, and the pontiff has ordered the decrees to be promulgated.[2]

The Evangelical CounselsEdit

The evangelical counsels are poverty, chastity, and obedience. Priests in a religious order take vows to observe all three; diocesan priests take vows of only chastity and obedience. Although not an evangelical counsel, the Jesuits also take a fourth vow of obedience to the Pope regarding assignments.

Religious ordersEdit

Some major religious orders are the Dominicans, Franciscans, Jesuits, Trappists, Benedictines, Augustinians, and Carmelites. There are many more religious orders of many sizes, some of which are derived from another order.

The Code of Canon LawEdit

The Code of Canon Law is a law code used in the Church's administration. The current version is available on the Vatican's website.[3]

The Seven Gifts of the Holy SpiritEdit

The seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are: Wisdom, Understanding, Counsel, Fortitude, Knowledge, Piety, and Fear of the Lord.

The Twelve Fruits of the Holy SpiritEdit

The Twelve Fruits of the Holy Spirit are: Charity, Joy, Peace, Patience, Kindness, Goodness, Generosity, Gentleness, Faithfulness, Modesty, Self-control, Chastity.

The Four Last ThingsEdit

The Four Last things are: Death, Judgement, Heaven, and Hell.

Marian ImagesEdit

  • Saint Juan Diego's Tilma (image of Our Lady of Guadalupe)
  • The Black Madonna of Częstochowa