Biblical Studies/Christianity/Roman Catholicism/History

History of the Catholic Church edit

Several approaches to describing the history of the Catholic Church after Christ's Ascension may be used. Three different methods are currently in use in this page. The first is to organize it by the succession of each Roman Pontiff. The second way is to organize it by what was taking place within the Church at large. The third is to organize it by date.

Apostolic Age edit

Pontificate of St Peter edit

1 April AD 33 - Appointed Leader of the Church by Jesus himself
29 June AD 67 - Matyred by Roman Soldiers (execution by Upside-down Crucifixion)

Pontificate of St Linus edit

Pontificate of St Anacletus edit

Pontificate of St Clement I edit

Ante Nicene Era edit

  • Evaristus
  • Alexander I
  • Sixtus I
  • Telesphorus
  • Hyginus
  • Pius I
  • Anicletus [1]

Pontificate of St Soter edit

Bio: It appears that he was particularly known for his generosity, but this book currently has no information regarding any alms or kindness he bestowed. He either died or was martyred about the year 175.[2][2]
AD 167* St. Soter declared Bishop of Rome
AD 174 St. Soter martyred
  • Eleuterus
  • Victor I
  • Zephyrinus
  • Callixtus I

First Council of Nicaea edit

  • Urban I

Late Antiquity edit

  • Pontian
  • Anterus
  • Fabian
  • Cornelius
  • Lucius I
  • Stephen I
  • Sixtus II
  • Dionysius
  • Felix I
  • Eutychian
  • Caius
  • Marcellinus
  • Marcellus I
  • Eusebius
  • Miltiades
  • Sylvester
  • Mark
  • Julius I
  • Liberius
  • Damasus I
  • Siricius
  • Anastasius I
  • Innocent I
  • Zosimus
  • Boniface I
  • Celestine I
  • Sixtus III
  • Saint Leo I the Great
  • Saint Hilarius
  • Simplicius
  • Felix III
  • Gelasius I
  • Anastasius II
  • Symmachus
He was the son of Fortunatus and a native of Sardinia. He was elected to the papacy on November 22, 498 at the Lateran Basilica. On the day of his consecration, a faction went to Santa Maria Maggiore and elected Archpresbyter Laurentius as an antipope.[3]
  • Hormisdas
  • Saint John I
  • Saint Felix IV
  • Boniface II
  • John II
  • Saint Agapetus I (also "Agapitus")
  • Saint Silverius
  • Vigilius
  • Pelagius I
  • John III
  • Benedict I
  • Pelagius II
  • Saint Gregory I the Great
  • Saint Sabinian
  • Boniface III
  • Saint Boniface IV
  • Adeodatus I
  • Boniface V
  • Honorius I
  • Severinus
  • John IV
  • Theodore I
  • Saint Martin I
  • Saint Eugene I
  • Saint Vitalian
  • Adeodatus II
  • Donus [3]
Donus became Pope on November 2, 676. While he was Pope he had the atrium in front of St. Peter's Basilica paved and St. Euphemia's on the Appian Way restored. He also had another church repaired which was either St. Paul's Outside the Walls or a church on the route to it. He died on April 11, 678 after a pontificate of one year, five months, and ten days.[4]
  • Saint Agatho
He was born in the late 500's and became Pope in 678. During his papacy he restored St. Wilfred to his see. He also had an ecumenical council held in Constantinople in 680 to suppress the Monothelite heresy, but died before he was able to sign the decrees of the council. He died in Rome in 681 and was buried in St. Peter's Basilica on January 10, 681. It appears he was responsible for a significant number of miracles and was sometimes called "Thaumaturgus" (Wonderworker), but this book currently has no information regarding what miracles he performed or which miracles were attributed to him.[5]
  • Saint Leo II
  • Saint Benedict II
  • John V
  • Conon
  • Saint Sergius I
  • John VI
  • John VII
  • Sisinnius
  • Constantine
  • Saint Gregory II
  • Gregory III
  • Saint Zachary
    • Pope-elect Stephen II
  • Stephen II[4]
  • Saint Paul I
  • Stephen III
  • Adrian I

Pontificate of St Leo III edit

800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope St. Leo III

Pontificate of Stephen IV edit

  • Saint Paschal I
  • Eugene II
  • Valentine
  • Gregory IV
  • Sergius II
  • Saint Leo IV
  • Benedict III
  • Saint Nicholas I the Great
  • Adrian II
  • John VIII
  • Marinus I
  • Saint Adrian III
  • Stephen V
  • Formosus
  • Boniface VI
  • Stephen VI
  • Romanus
  • Theodore II
  • John IX
  • Benedict IV
  • Leo V
  • Sergius III
  • Anastasius III
  • Lando
Lando was the son of Taino and a native of the Sabina. It appears he became pope in either July or August of 913. He apparently granted a privilege of some variety to a church in Sabina. He died in either February or March of 914. He had a pontificate of slightly more than six months.[6]
  • John X
  • Leo VI
  • Stephen VII
  • John XI
  • Leo VII
  • Stephen VIII
  • Marinus II
  • Agapetus II
  • John XII
  • Benedict V
  • Leo VIII
  • John XIII

Pontificate of Benedict VI edit

973 May 7 Emperor Otto I the Great dies. [7]

Pontificate of Benedict VII edit

  • John XIV
  • John XV
  • Gregory V
  • Silvester II
  • John XVII [5]
  • John XVIII
  • Sergius IV
  • Benedict VIII
  • John XIX
  • Benedict IX
  • Silvester III
  • (second term of Benedict IX)
  • Gregory VI
  • Clement II
  • (third term of Benedict IX)
  • Damasus II
  • Saint Leo IX
  • Victor II
  • Stephen IX
  • Nicholas II
  • Alexander II
  • Saint Gregory VII
  • Blessed Victor III
  • Blessed Urban II
He was born about 1042 with the name Otho[6] of Lagery in Châtillon-sur-Marne in Champagne. He studied in Reims, and was promoted to the office of an archdeacon and canon while residing there. He went to Cluny about 1070 and joined the monastery there, and was later advanced to the position of prior. Saint Hugh sent him to Rome to assist Pope Gregory VII, and became Cardinal Bishop of Ostia in 1078. He was assigned to be the legate to Germany and France from 1082 to 1085. When he returned to Rome in 1085, Victor III had been elected to the papacy. After Pope Victor III died, Otho was elected to the papacy on March 12, 1088, and took the name Urban II. During the course of his papacy the possession of Rome frequently changed hands between him and the antipope Guibert of Ravenna. In November of 1095 he convened a council in Clermont, at which the First Crusade was proclaimed and Philip of France was excommunicated on account of adultery. Urban regained possession of the Castel Sant'Angelo in 1098, and convened a council in Bari to attempt a reconciliation with Eastern bishops by addressing the matter of the filioque clause. He died on July 29, 1099, was buried in the crypt of Saint Peter's Basilica, and was beatified on _______ by Pope Leo XIII. [8]
  • Paschal II
  • Gelasius II
  • Callixtus II
  • Honorius II
  • Innocent II
  • Celestine II
  • Lucius II
  • Blessed Eugene III
  • Anastasius IV
  • Adrian IV
  • Alexander III
  • Lucius III
  • Urban III
  • Gregory VIII
  • Clement III
  • Celestine III
  • Innocent III
  • Honorius III
  • Gregory IX
  • Celestine IV
  • Innocent IV
  • Alexander IV
  • Urban IV
  • Clement IV
  • Blessed Gregory X
  • Blessed Innocent V
  • Adrian V
  • John XXI
  • Nicholas III
  • Martin IV [7]
  • Honorius IV
  • Nicholas IV
  • Saint Celestine V
  • Boniface VIII
  • Blessed Benedict XI
  • Clement V
  • John XXII
  • Benedict XII
  • Clement VI
  • Innocent VI
  • Blessed Urban V
  • Gregory XI
  • Urban VI
  • Boniface IX
  • Innocent VII
  • Gregory XII
  • Martin V
  • Eugene IV
  • Nicholas V
  • Callixtus III
  • Pius II
  • Paul II
  • Sixtus IV
  • Innocent VIII
  • Alexander VI
  • Pius III
  • Julius II
  • Leo X
  • Adrian VI
  • Clement VII
  • Paul III
  • Julius III
  • Marcellus II
  • Paul IV
  • Pius IV

Council of Trent edit

  • Saint Pius V

The Counter-Reformation edit

  • Gregory XIII
  • Sixtus V
  • Urban VII
  • Gregory XIV
  • Innocent IX
  • Clement VIII
  • Leo XI
  • Paul V
He was originally born as Camillo Borghese on September 17, 1550 in Rome. He became a cardinal in 1596. He died on January 28, 1621.[9]
  • Gregory XV
  • Urban VIII
  • Innocent X
  • Alexander VII
  • Clement IX
  • Clement X
  • Blessed Innocent XI
  • Alexander VIII
  • Innocent XII
  • Clement XI
  • Innocent XIII
  • Benedict XIII
  • Clement XII
His original name was Lorenzo Corsini. He was born on April 7, 1652 in Florence. He became titular archbishop of Nicomedia in 1691 and a cardinal-deacon on May 17, 1706. He was elected to the papacy on July 12, 1730. During his pontificate he paved the streets of Rome and restored the Arch of Constantine. In 1738 he issued the first papal decree against the Freemasons. He died on February 6, 1740.[10]
  • Benedict XIV
  • Clement XIII
  • Clement XIV
  • Pius VI
  • Pius VII
  • Leo XII
  • Pius VIII
  • Gregory XVI

First Vatican Council edit

Blessed Pius IX edit

Pius IX was born with the name Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti in Sinigaglia on May 13, 1792. He ws ordained on April 10, 1819. He was promoted to the position of Archbishop of Spoleto by Pope Leo XII on May 21, 1827. He was assigned to the Diocese of Imola by Pope Gregory XVI.[11]

Post Vatican I edit

  • Leo XIII
Leo XIII was born with the name Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci on March 2, 1810 in Carpineto to Count Lodovico Pecci and Anna ProsperiBuzi. Gioacchino entered the Collegio Romano in 1824, and received his doctorate in 1832. He was promoted to the rank of domestic prelate in January of 1837 by Gregory XVI. He was ordained on December 31, 1837 by Cardinal Odeschalchi at the chapel of Saint Stanislaus on the Quirinal. Pope Gregory XVI assigned him to Benevento, where he worked diligently to annihilate the brigands and smugglers infesting the region. Pope Gregory XVI then assigned him to Perugia, where Gioacchino started a savings bank specifically to assist farmers and small businesses in obtaining low interest rates. In January of 1843 Gioacchino was promoted to the position of nuncio to Brussels, and was consecrated titular bishop of Damiata on February 19, 1843 by Cardinal Lambruschini. Pope Gregory XVI appointed Gioacchino to the See of Perugia when it became vacant, but permitted him to retain the title of Archbishop. He was created a cardinal on December 19, 1853 by Pope Pius IX. He was appointed to be the Camerlengo in August of 1877, and was elected to the papacy on February 20, 1878, taking the name Leo XIII. He wrote the encyclical Rerum Novarum, dated May 18, 1891. He died in Rome on July 20, 1903.[12]
  • Saint Pius X was born Giuseppe Sarto on June 2, 1835 in Venice. His father was a postman. Giuseppe did well in his studies, gaining a scholarship to study at the seminary of Padua in 1850. He was ordained in 1858 became Patriarch of Venice in 1893. He was crowned Pope on Sunday, August 9, 1903.[13] Died in 1914.[14]

Pontificate of Benedict XV edit

Pontificate of Pius XI edit

Pontificate of Pius XII edit

Pontificate of John XXIII edit

Second Vatican Council edit

Pontificate of Bl. Paul VI edit

21 June 1963 - Bl. Cardinal Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini elected 262nd Pope.
3 April 1969 - Pope Paul VI promulgates the Novus Ordo Mass
25 July 1968 - Pope Paul VI publishes Humanae Vitae

Post Vatican II edit

Pontificate of John Paul I edit

Pontificate of St John Paul II edit

16 October 1978 - Cardinal Karol Wojtyla elected 264th Pope
25 January 1983 - Pope approves update to Code of Canon Law
11 October 1992 - Pope orders publication of the Catechism of the Catholic Church
22 April 2001 - 1st Celebration of Divine Mercy Sunday
2 April 2005 - St. John Paul II dies

Pontificate of Benedict XVI edit

19 April 2005 - Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger Elected 265th Pope
28 February 2013 - Pope Resigns, first pope in 500 years to resign

Pontificate of Francis edit

13 March 2013 - Jorge Cardinal Bergoglio Elected 266th Pope


Organization by Era edit

[9] After the Ascension of the Lord, the Apostolic Age was begun, which ended with the death of the last Apostle, Saint John the Evangelist.

This was followed by the Age of Martyrs.

After the death of Nero, persecutions of Christians were intermittent, and varied in rigor. This period was ended with the Edict of Milan, which was promulgated by the Emperor Constantine in 313. [15]

This was followed by the Dawn of the Early Heresies.

Soon after the Christians were no longer threatened with civil punishment on account of the Faith, heretical sects arose which frequently had a twofold aim: to both advance a particular doctrine and to also gain control of the Church through the aid of civil leaders sympathetic to their cause. Some of the principal heretical sects at this time were the Arians, the Nestorians, the Gnostics, and the Monophysites. An unusual reversal of the state of affairs occurred during the reign of Julian the Apostate, who attempted to restore paganism and rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem, of which both attempts failed.

This was roughly at the same time as the Conversion of Europe to Christianity.

While large portions of the Roman Empire were coming under the control of heretical sects, large portions of Europe were also converting from paganism to Christianity, particularly Ireland, France, and Germany. Eventually Europe became, in a sense, a Christian continent in which most of the inhabitants were either Catholic or belonged to a heretical or schismatic sect.

Middle Ages and the Crusades edit

Hostility between nations, the possession of properties, and the quest for additional revenues and incomes frequently gave rise to clashes between the Church and rulers of nations and other principalities, particularly regarding the appointment of bishops. When the Muslims succeeded in their conquest of the Holy Land, Blessed Pope Urban II declared a crusade to regain the Holy Land in 1095, and subsequent crusades were declared when necessary. Toward the end of the Middle Ages the Bubonic Plague ravaged Europe, in which many pious clergy cared for the sick and also contracted the disease, while many of the less pious clergy fled and returned after the plague had subsided. This was followed by the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Counter-Reformation.

Besides the bubonic plague, several factors also contributed heavily to the progression of the era: the "Avignon Captivity" and the "Great Schism," the conflicting interests of the Catholic Church and national governments (especially regarding revenues, property ownership, and the appointment of bishops), the conflicts between European nations (particularly the "Hundred Year's War" between France and England), the immoral lives of many of the clergy and many members of the upper classes, and the reintroduction of pagan culture. The French cardinal _________ was elected to the papacy on ___________ and took the name ______________, but Rome was the scene of much self-destruction by the local Italians. The French king __________ extended the invitation to Pope _________ to come to peaceful Avignon and take residence for a while, and the Popes did not want to leave Avignon and return to Rome for over one hundred years. When Pope _________ finally submitted to the entreaties and rebukes of Saint Catherine of Siena (?) and Saint Gertrude (?), it was only a few yers before he was disgustd with the situation in Rome and wanted to return to Avignon, which was only prevented on account of his death. His successor, the Roman (?) cardinal _____________ was elected on _________ and took the name ___________, but the cardinals soon disliked him and elected the French cardinal __________ as an antipope, who took the name ________________. An attempt to solve this division of the Church was later made to persuade the successors to both simultaneously resign and permit the cardinals to elect a new pope, but this only resulted in three "popes." Eventually this situation was ended at a conclave (?) when the Roman pope and third "pope" (Pisan?) simultaneously resigned, the cardinals eleced Cardinal ______________ to the papacy (who took the name _________), and the majority (or was it all?) of the European nations transferred their allegiance to the new pope.
Saint Peter's Basilica was in the process of construction, and Pope ______________ announced that an indulgence (plenary or partial?, also, did one have to follow the usual conditions to obtain it: pray for the pope, confession, communion, no attachment to sin?) could be gained when a person contributed (how much?) to its construction. The pope appointed the Dominicans to handle the collection of the funds, which was greatly resented by the Augustinians. One of the Augustinians, Martin Luther, voiced his distaste of the situation differently than most and began condemning the indulgences themselves, and his superior ____________ was delighted and encouraged Martin Luther to continue his denunciation of the indulgences. The Dominicans in turn invoked higher authority, and when Luther's superior found that the papal authorities were determined to censure Luther if he continued, he privately advised Luther to cease the accusations. Luther, however, enjoyed the publicity and respect he received,[10] and decided to enter into complete rebellion instead. Flocks of commoners hastened to his side, and looted monasteries and churches to enrich themselves. A great number of princes declared their support of Luther, and hastily seized ecclesiastical properties for themselves.
King Henry VII of England's son Arthur had married Catherine of Aragon (daughter of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand), but Arthur died during his father's reign, so Arthur's brother Henry married Catherine (now his brother's widow). This Henry ascended to the throne as King Henry VIII of England. Some time after his ascension to the throne, he published a rebuttal of Luther's doctrines, and received the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope ____________. At one point, Henry had a sinful relationship with Mary Boleyn, but did not publicise it. When he later wished to have a relationship with Mary Boleyn's sister Anne Boleyn, Anne Boleyn firmly said she would only do so if she was his queen. Henry VIII decided to try to get an annulment, and approached the matter by confiding to Cardinal Wolsey (the English Chancellor) that he was being tormented by scruples regarding the validity of his marriage to Catherine. Wolsey was delighted to hear this and proposed that the king marry the French princess ______________. Henry was not pleased and told Wolsey he wanted to marry Anne Boleyn. Wolsey wished to object to Henry's marriage to a mere local noblelady rather than a marriage that would strengthen the bond between England and its most powerful ally at the time, but seeing the heightening anger of Henry, Wolsey acquiesced to his monarch's wishes. A delegation was sent to Pope ________ which related that Henry was concerned about his marriage to Catherine and asked about getting a n annulment. The pope's responded that he trusted Henry's judgement on the issue and told him to follow the normal local procedures to investigate whether the marriage was valid and issue an annulment if necessary, but the pope also asked Henry to wait until Charles V (Catherine's nephew) was defeated by the Italian and papal forces significantly enough in order that Charles V would not take revenge on the pope because of the annulment. After Charles V was no longer a threat, the process in England was started to investigate the validity of the marriage to Catherine, but soon was stalled by the lack of impediments in the marriage to Catherine and the existence of an impediment in the proposed marriage to Anne Boleyn. Another delegation was sent to the pope to request special permission to remove the impediment to the proposed marriage to Anne Boleyn, which the pope granted (?). The English bishops, however, were faced with a problem: to the best of their knowledge the marriage to Catherine was perfectly valid, but they knew Henry wished to get the annulment so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Rather than attempt to declare a false annulment for which the bishops would be morally responsible, an attempt was made to deceive the pope into declaring an annulment through the pope's ignorance of the situation. (correct?) The pope, however, was growing suspicious of the matter and seriously began to doubt the honesty of Henry's statements regarding Anne Boleyn's exemplary virtue and piety. After being bombarded with a distasteful number of requests for the annulment,[11] Pope __________ determined that the marriage to Catherine was valid. Cranmer proposed to Henry VIII that he free himself from the moral jurisdiction by taking control of the Church of England, which Henry promptly did. After Henry's death and his son Edward's death, Queen Mary I of England attempted to restore Catholicism to England, but when she was ready to die, King Philip II of Spain (who was married to Queen Mary) did want the monarchy to pass to Mary of the Scots (who was married to the King of France), as it could be a powerful alliance against Spain. Mary selected Anne Boleyn's daughter Elisabeth to be her successor, and Elizabeth promised Mary to keep England Catholic. Upon Mary's death and Elisabeth's coronation, Elisabeth promptly disregarded her promise and, by the end of her life, had completely undone the work of Mary and firmly entrenched England in Anglicanism.
An interest in pagan culture and a laxness in restraining immorality both arose during this era. The philosophies and writings of pagan authors were reintroduced, which were soon followed by the narratives of pagan deities and myths, the paintings and sculptures of pagan deities, and the required study of mythology. As for immorality, many of the clergy had mistresses, carnivals were reintroduced, and nudity and impurity were glorified in the works of the most skilled artists of the era. The Council of Trent was convened in ________ and addressed many of the problems wrought by heresy and the immoral conduct of the clergy.

This was followed by the Enlightenment.

The reintroduction of philosophies and writings by pagan writers, which were not suppressed or greatly opposed in the work of the Counter-Reformation, may have sown the seeds of alternative ideals and alternative morality which greatly or completely excluded the Creator in philosophical reasoning processes. Self-made philosophers abounded, and were highly endorsed by those who were comforted by the new norms of morality these philosophers set. These philosophers frequently clashed with the Catholic Church, and many times resorted to violence, particularly in the case of the French Revolution.

This was followed by the Industrial Revolution.

Inventors were constantly discovering and designing faster and more efficient ways of performing common tasks which were frequently laborious, and were inventing new products to promote a better and higher standard of living. This era, which was so full of promise for the betterment of the whole human race, was instead beset by the poverty of many. A primary factor of this widespread poverty was the greed of business owners who, while living luxuriously themselves, paid their laborers wages which could scarcely support the laborers and their families. The seeds sown by the carnivals and amusements (which had not been greatly opposed in the work of the Counter-Reformation as a whole) may have contributed to a second factor of this widespread poverty: the frivolity of many members of the lower classes who squandered their wages with amusements, alcohol, tobacco products, and other pleasures.[12] In the United States a movement among workers called the Knights of Labor was begun to unite laborers together to require business owners to pay higher wages. Regarding this, Pope Leo XIII wrote the encyclical Rerum Novarum which required the laborers to respect the property of their employers and to work well, while also requiring employers to pay decent wages that would support the laborers and their families. Pope Leo XIII's encyclical was mostly ignored, and additional self-made philosophers such as Karl Marx arose to offer alternatives. These philosophers were also highly endorsed by those who felt comfortable with the alternative ideals and the alternative morals presented by them. Some philosophers presented that man was nothing but a brute beast, that there was no life after death and no punishment after death for those who did evil, that there was no God, that man should follow his desires and indulge in his passions, and that women were inferior to men unless they become like men. Other philosophers taught that laborers should unite to overthrow the upper classes, and, soon after, they also taught that the government should take possession of the property of the upper classes and control the means of production and wealth itself. The methods proposed by these philosophers usually resulted in one of two things when they were observed: either the strong oppressed the weak, or the weak united and invoked the government, which first seized the property and possessions of the strong, then oppressed the weak without fear of opposition.
Also in this era was the Reunification of Italy, which mostly took away the temporal power of the papacy and placed Italy and the Pope on bad terms with one another.

This was followed by the Modern Age:

The ideas of the self-made philosophers of the Industrial Age were heavily implemented in this era, and reaped their bountiful harvest. World War I vanquished the strongest and hurled monarchs from their thrones, and in World War II the "strong" first slaughtered the weak by the millions, the weak then vanquished the strong, and in the end much of Asia and Europe came to be governed by governments that oppressed the weak without any fear of opposition. Self-made philosophers abounded and new ideas were introduced: the government, its wellbeing, and its safety were the basis of morality; the government could determine when citizens were no longer useful and exterminate them when they were no longer necessary or considered useful; the government could determine when life started, define who was and was not a person, and exterminate anyone who they did not consider a "real" person; chastity and purity were unnecessary and regular indulgence of the passions was encouraged; people should not be held responsible for their actions; and may other ideas which, although the general idea was not new, were presented in a different manner than in former eras.
Also in this era Pope Pius XI signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy, which allotted Vatican City to the popes with an annuity in recompense for the papal states. Pius XI then had the relative freedom to write encyclicals against the errors held by surrounding nations such as Germany, Russia, Spain, and even Italy itself. This sovereignty also assisted his successor Pope Pius XII in his protection of Jews from the Nazis during World War II.
In 1962 Pope John XXIII opened the Second Vatican Council, which was originally convened to freshen the doctrine of the Church. In the course of the Council, Pope John XXIII died and was succeeded by Pope Paul VI, who wrote the encyclical Humanae Vitae while the Council was still in progress. This encyclical was greatly disliked by many of the bishops, who often voiced their opposition to it publicly. When the Council was finished in 1965, the bishops returned to their dioceses and implemented whatever they wished to implement. Soon churches were being razed and rebuilt to modern architectural tastes, liturgical abuses were widespread, divorce and adultery became common among Catholics, and millions left the Faith. The seeds sown by mythology and the impurity and nudity in the works of the skilled artists of the Renaissance (which were not greatly opposed in the work of the Counter-Reformation) may have born the following bountiful fruit: impurity and unchaste behavior became relatively normal among Catholics, and paganism and superstition once again became common among educated persons.
Beginning with Pope Paul VI, the popes began to visit countries on a regular basis. Pope John Paul II visited many countries during his pontificate, and even learned languages so that he would be able to speak to the people in their native tongue. Pope Benedict XVI followed a similar itinerary during the beginning years of his pontificate.

Chronological Organization of Facts edit

  • 1st Century AD
On Pentecost Sunday the Holy Spirit descended on the twelve Apostles in the Upper Room.
Saint Paul is converted to Christianity.
The Roman Emperor Nero begins his persecution of Christians after a fire devours much of the city of Rome.
Saints Peter and Paul are martyred in Rome.
Jerusalem is conquered by Roman forces
79 June 23 Emperor Vespasian dies. [16]
  • 2nd Century AD
117 August 7 Emperor Trajan dies. [17]
  • 4th Century AD
313 Diocletian dies. [18]
313 Constantine I legalizes Christianity by the Edict of Milan [19]
325 The first Council of Nicea was convened to make a determination on Arianism.


337 May Emperor Constantine the Great dies. [21]
Emperor Julian the Apostate attempts to restore paganism and rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem.
363 June 26 Emperor Julian the Apostate dies. [22]
387 Saint Augustine is baptised by Saint Ambrose.
  • 5th Century AD
Saint Jerome completes the Vulgate Bible.
  • 6th Century AD
  • 7th Century AD
  • 8th Century AD
741 October 21 King Charles Martel of the Franks dies. [23]
768 September 24 King Pepin the Short of the Franks dies. [24]
  • 11th Century AD
1095 Blessed Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade to regain the Holy Land.
  • 12th Century AD
  • 13th Century AD
1216 June 16 Pope Innocent III dies. [25]
St. Dominic founds the Dominican order. [26]
1226 October 3: St. Francis, founder of the Franciscan order, dies in Assisi. [27]
  • 14th Century AD
1309 Pope Clement V moves Roman Curia from Rome to Avignon.
1378 Pope Gregory XI moves papacy back to Rome from Avignon.
  • 15th Century AD
Saint Joan of Arc mostly frees France from English rule.
Johannes Gutenberg begins production of the Bible with the printing press.
Columbus discovers America
  • 16th Century AD
1547 January 28 King Henry VIII of England dies.[28]
1558 Charles V, former Holy Roman Emperor, dies. [29]
1558 November 17 Queen Mary Tudor of England dies. [30]
The apparitions of Our Lady of Guadalupe to Saint Juan Diego
The Jesuit order is founded. [31]
1598 September 13 King Philip II of Spain dies. [32]
  • 17th Century AD
1626 November 18: St. Peter's Basilica dedicated by Urban VIII. [33]
  • 18th Century AD
American War for Independence begins
French Revolution begins
  • 19th Century AD
The Louisiana Purchase is bought by the USA
The American Civil War is fought
Unification of Italy
Marian apparitions to Saint Bernadette at Lourdes, France
The Spanish-American War is fought
  • 20th Century AD
Pope St. Pius X dies during World War I, succeeded by Pope Benedict XV
1917: Marian apparitions at Fatima
Lenin gains control of Russia
Creation of Poland
Pope Benedict XV dies, succeeded by Pope Pius XI
Pius XI signs treaty with Italy, recognizing the existence of the Vatican City State
Germany annexes Austria
Pope Pius XI dies, is succeeded by Pope Pius XII
World War II is declared
World War II is ended, large sections of Europe are dominated by Communist rule.
Pope Pius XII dies, is succeeded by Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII opens the Second Vatican Council
Pope John XXIII dies, is succeeded by Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI dies, is succeeded by Pope John Paul I
Pope John Paul I dies shortly after the beginning of his pontificate, is succeeded by Pope John Paul II
The Berlin Wall is razed.

Biographies of the Saints (Hagiographies) edit

These have been moved to: Saint Biographies

Footnotes edit

  1. This is the correct spelling, and this pope's name was slightly different than the name of Anacletus
  2. Catholic Encyclopedia says a less likely source (Harnack) says he was pope from 166 to 174.
  3. His name can also be written Domnus.[1]
  4. another Stephen was elected before him but died before episcopal consecration, so he is not classified as a pontiff for the purposes of this book (which is why he is italicized and indented.) Numbering in this book is calculated as though he was not a pontiff. Old references (and maybe even some new ones) might include him as a pontiff.
  5. John XVII took the "XVII" because it was thought at the time that Antipope John XVI was a true Pope.
  6. or Otto or Odo
  7. He took the "IV" because Marinus I and Marinus II were mistakenly considered Martin II and Martin III at the time. There is no Martin II or Martin III.
  8. see Wikipedia w:List_of_popes
  9. Most of this section of Organization by Era was composed by memory rather than through verification, is mostly unverified, some facts may be incorrect, may not completely or properly conform to the neutral point of view policy, and may contain original research or untrue comparisons. The Section on the Popes and the Chronological order of events are mostly verified and NPOV, however.
  10. History of England, Volume 4?, written by Lingard?,this was done from memory, not with the text in front of the contributor, so some facts may be inaccurate
  11. History of England, Volume 4?, written by Lingard?,this was done from memory, not with the text in front of the contributor, so some facts may be inaccurate
  12. Maybe this is not really a significant factor or, even if it is, it does not need mentioning here. Then again, maybe it does.