Arabic/Classical Arabic Readings

The Qur'an is often claimed to be, in addition to the Muslim scripture, the pinnacle of Arabic literature. The Qur'an is divided into chapters (in Arabic, sura pl. suwar [سورة ج. سور]). The sura in this link is the first sura in the Qur'an and is a common starting point for reading the Qur'an. Note though, that after this sura, it's often not advised to read the suwar in sequence, since the second sura, al-Baqara, is the longest in the Qur'an and can be daunting.

Ibn Khaldun is considered one of the most important figures of Islamic history writing; some consider him the most important pre-modern historian from any culture. He developed a philosophy of history and is considered by some to be a founding father of sociology. The Muqaddima, or Introduction, is his most famous work, and is the first part of a longer work of universal history. In the Muqaddima, he lays out his philosophy of history.