Afrikaans/Vocabulary/Conjunctions

This page will act as a sort of guide to the individual uses of the Afrikaans conjunctions in correspondance to their English counterparts. This page does not cover 'Conjunctive Adverbs', strictly remaining to pure conjunctions.

General DefinitionsEdit

  • Dependent ClauseA dependent clause is a clause that cannot exist without an independent clause, otherwise it remains grammatically incorrect.
    • I love her. = No further change or addition to the sentence is required.
  • Independent ClauseAn independent clause is a clause that can exist as a sole entity, no conjunction required.
    • While I love her... = An independent clause is required to finish the sentence's meaning.
  • Coordinating ConjunctionA conjunction that links together two clauses of the same grammatical value. Conjunctions with such properties generally form SVO and VSO structures. Concerning punctuation, these conjunctions are preceded by a comma. Represented here with a superscript, C.
  • Subordinate ConjunctionA conjunction that links together a dependent clause to an independent clause. Conjunctions with such properties generally form SOV structures. Concerning punctuation, these conjunctions never receive any sort of punctuation mark (with exception to al), unless it is also composed of non-conjunctional elements (such as an adverb or verb) in which a comma does precede it. Represented here with a superscript, S.
  • Correlative ConjunctionA conjunction that links together phrases of the same grammatical value. Conjunctions with such properties generally form SVO and VSO structures. Concerning punctuation, and like coordinating conjunctions, they are preceded by a comma when required to be. Represented here with a superscript, R.

For easier searching, a general list of English conjunctions with their possible translations is provided within the table below.

General List of Conjunctions
English Afrikaans
after
nadat
and
en
albeit
alhoewel
hoewel
although
alhoewel
hoewel
ofskoon
and
en
and yet
maar tog
as
aangesien
namate
soos
terwyl
toe
as far as
sover
insover
as if
asof
as long as
solank
as much as
soveel as wat
as soon as
sodra
so gou as (wat)
as though
asof
as well as
sowel ... as
asook
sowel as
because
omdat
want
omrede
oordat
before
voor(dat)
of
alvorens
eer(dat)
both ... and
sowel ... as
but
maar
by the time
wanneer
either ... or
óf ... óf
hetsy ... hetsy
even if
(selfs) al
even though
(selfs) al
ever since
van(dat)
except that
behalwe (dat)
buiten (dat)
followed by
gevolg deur
for
want
how
hoe
however
hoe ook al
soos (wat)
given that
aangesien
if
as
indien
of
if only
as ... maar
inasmuch as
aangesien
insover as
sover
insover
in case
(vir) ingeval
in order that
sodat
in that
deurdat
in the event that
in die geval (dat)
vir ingeval
just like
net soos
lest
uit vrees (dat)
let alone
laat staan
wat nog te sê...
like
(as)of
much as
soos (wat)
neither ... nor
nóg ... nóg
nor
ook nie
not
nie ... nie
notwithstanding
nieteenstaande
not forgetting (that)
nie te vergete nie
not only ... but (also)
nie net ... nie, maar ook
not to mention
wat nog te sê
not to say
om nie te sê ... nie
now (that)
noudat
on account of
deur(dat)
once
sodra
so gou as (wat)
only
maar
only if
eers
or
of
oftewel
provided (that)
mits
rather than
eerder as om
save
behalwe
seeing as/that
aangesien
siende dat
since
sedert
van(dat)
sinds
aangesien
so
so
sodat
so much so (that)
soveel so (dat)
soseer (dat)
so that
sodat
opdat
such that
sodat
supposing (that)
gestel (dat)
than
as
that
dat
the ... the
hoe ... hoe
hoe ... des te
the way (that)
soos
though
alhoewel
hoewel
ofskoon
till
tot(dat)
to say nothing of
om nie eens van ... te praat nie
to think (that)
om te dink (that)
unless
tensy
until
tot(dat)
what is more
wat nog te sê
when
toe
as
wanneer
met dié dat
metdat
whenever
sodra
telkens
wanneer
where
waar
waarheen
waarnatoe
waarvandaan
wherever
waar ook al
waarheen ook al
waarnatoe ook al
waarvandaan ook al
whereas
terwyl
whether
of
whether ... or (not)
of ... of (nie)
while
terwyl
onderwyl
while [PERS.] is at it
terwyl [PERS.] aan die gang is
whilst
terwyl
onderwyl
yet
dog
maar tog

List of Individual Uses of ConjunctionsEdit

Aangesien
USAGE NOTE:
Another alternate form, siende dat is considered both an Anglicism and a colloquialism.
  • S AS:; SINCE:; SEEING AS/THAT:; GIVEN THAT:; & INASMUCH AS:
    • Being that..., Because...
      • As she refuses to come, I'll be going alone. → Aangesien sy weier om saam te kom, gaan ek alleen.
      • I'm going home since (seeing that) the after-party is cancelled. → Ek gaan huis toe aangesien die napartytjie gekanselleer is.
      • Given that (Seeing as) she is talentless at art, I wouldn't expect a Picasso. → Aangesien sy talentloos is in kuns, sou ek nie ʼn Picasso verwag nie.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Omdat"
(Selfs) Al
USAGE NOTE:
The grammatical structure following al is unusual for a subordinate conjunction. It ends up forming a VSO order. Another odd property is in its punctuation: Unlike other subordinate conjunctions, it is always preceded by a comma.
  • S EVEN THOUGH: & EVEN IF:
    • Regardless of...
      • Even if we're not done today, we did a lot of work. → (Selfs) Al is ons nie vandag klaar nie, het ons baie werk gedoen.
      • I'm pleased with the result, even though it's not perfect. → Ek is tevrede met die resultaat, (selfs) al is dit nie perfek nie.
Al(hoewel)
USAGE NOTE:
Like the English although and though, alhoewel tends to be used at the beginning of sentences, and hoewel in the centre.
  • S AL(THOUGH): & ALBEIT:
    • 1 Despite being...; 2 But...
      • 1.1 Although you're good at math, this is so much more advanced. → Alhoewel jy goed is in wiskunde, is dit soveel meer gevorder.
      • 2.1 I think it's the left one, though I could be wrong. → Ek dink dit is die linkerkantste een hoewel ek verkeerd kan wees.
Alvorens
USAGE NOTE:
Considered formal when compared to voor(dat).
  • S BEFORE:
    • Used to separate two events, one of which occurs earlier than the other.
      • We analyzed all data before the meeting. → Ons het die data alvorens die vergadering ontleed.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Voor(dat)"; "Eer(dat)"
As (wat3)
USAGE NOTE:
1 When in the sense of when, indien can be used if to make sure to differentiate when and if.

2 In colloquial speech, one may add wat. However, it may only be done if a finite verb follows the conjunction.

3 When in the sense of when, wanneer can be used if to make sure to differentiate when and if. When coupled with net, it is modified into meaning just when, which is a general time frame as opposed to met dié dat, which refers to two occurrences at the exact same instant. Informal settings can have "net as" contracted into nes. However, this contraction is possible in the case of net soos.

  • S IF:
    • 1 Supposing that...; In the case that...
      • 1.1 If you win this, I swear I'll eat my hat! → As jy dit wen, sweer ek ek sal my hoed eet!
  • S THAN:
    • 2 In comparison to...
      • 2.1 He is stronger than me. → Hy is sterker as ek.
      • 2.2 I found it more useful than they did. → Ek het dit nuttiger gevind as (wat) hulle (dit gevind het).
  • S WHEN:
    • 3 During a time frame (of present or future) that...; 4 at which time...
      • 3.1 When there are heatwaves, fires tend to occur. → As daar hittegolwe is, is brande geneig om te voorkom.
      • 4.1 I'll probably sit reading when I take the ferry this afternoon. → Ek sal waarskynlik sit en lees as ek vanmiddag met die veerboot reis.
Conjunctive Phrases
  • S RATHER THAN:EERDER AS OM
    • Against the option of.
      • I would go now rather than wait. → Ek sal nou gaan eerder as om te wag.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: 1 "Indien"; "Of"; 3; 4 "Wanneer"; "Met dié dat"
(As)of
  • S LIKE:, AS IF: & AS THOUGH:
    • As if to suggest or in a manner suggesting...
      • It looks like the place is deserted. → Dit lyk soos die plek is verlate.
      • He slumped as if he were an accordion. → Hy het ingesak (as)of hy ʼn akkordeon was.
      • The house was violently shaken as though the world was falling apart. → Die huis was hewig geskud (as)of die wêreld uitmekaar uit val.
Asook
USAGE NOTE:
Considered to be quite formal. Informal usage would prefer sowel ... as.
  • S AS WELL AS:
    • In addition.
      • They sell cakes as well as pastries at the new bakery. → Hulle verkoop by die nuwe bakkery koeke asook terte.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Sowel ... as"
As ... maar
  • S IF ONLY:
    • If to wish for an action of the present or future, or one having occurred in past.
      • If only he'd come visit... → As hy maar net wil kom kuier...
      • If only I had heard about it yesterday. → As ek maar gister daarvan gehoor het.
Behalwe
  • S SAVE:
    • Unless...
      • Always keep his leash on save when you are indoors. → Hou altyd sy leiband aan behalwe as julle binne is.
Dat
USAGE NOTE:
When in a subordinate position, it is possible to exclude dat from a sentence. When used in such a manner, the word order changes: With the conjunction, an SOV order is produced while the omission produces an SVO order. Occasions in which this occurs mimics English.
  • Ek het geweet dat syS vir onsO liegV. → I knew that she was lying to us.
  • Ek het geweet syS liegV vir onsO. → I knew she was lying to us.

It's not uncommon for some definitions of dat to be replaced by wat in colloquial usage.

  • S THAT:
    • 1 Introduces a clause that it related to a verb; 2 Introduces a clause of reason, cause, effect, or feeling.
      • 1.1 I know that he is leaving in the morning. → Ek weet dat hy in die oggend vertrek.
      • 2.1 Is it true that he is a criminal? → Is dit waar dat hy ʼn misdadiger is?
      • 2.2 It was such a surprise that I really fell out of my chair. → Dit was so ʼn verrassing dat ek regtig uit my stool uit geval het.
      • 2.3 That you could say such things is terribly ungrateful! → Dat jy sulke dinge kan sê is verskriklik ondankbaar!
Conjunctive Phrases
  • S EXCEPT (THAT):BEHALWE (DAT) / BUITEN (DAT)
    • With the exception that...
      • I would have left long ago except (that) the flight is delayed. → Ek sou lankal gevlieg het behalwe (dat) die vlug uitgestel is.
  • S IN THE EVENT (THAT):IN DIE GEVAL (DAT)
    • Supposing that...; In the case that...
      • In the event (that) I'm not home by eight, there's food in the fridge. → In die geval (dat) ek nie teen agtuur tuis is nie, is daar kos in die yskas.
  • S LEST:UIT VREES (DAT)
    • For fear that...
      • I hid the cake from him lest he is too greedy. → Ek het die koek van hom weggesteek uit vrees (dat) hy oor gretig is.
  • S SO MUCH SO (THAT):SOVEEL SO (DAT) / SOSEER (DAT)
    • To the extent that...
      • He was brilliant, so much so (that) he could be considered the greatest. → Hy was briljant soveel so (dat) (soseer dat) hy as vernaamste beskou kan word.
  • S SUPPOSING (THAT):GESTEL (DAT)
    • If to consider...
      • Supposing (that) I watch the TV series, will you finally be happy? → Gestel (dat) ek die TV-reeks kyk, sal jy uiteindelik gelukkig wees?
  • S TO THINK (THAT):OM TE DINK (DAT)
    • With the exception that...
      • To think (that) he would leave me there! → Om te dink (dat) hy my daar sou los!
Deurdat
  • S ON ACCOUNT OF: & IN THAT:
    • Based on the fact of or that...
      • I will have to take over on account of him making mistakes continually. → Ek sal moet oorneem deurdat hy heeltyd foute begaan.
      • It was good in that it covered all requirements. → Dit was goed deurdat dit alle vereistes dek.
Dog
  • C YET:
    • Nevertheless...; However...
      • He was intelligent, yet eccentric. → Hy was intelligent, dog eksentriek.
Eer(dat)
USAGE NOTE:
Uncommon form of voor(dat).
FOR USAGE, SEE: "Voor(dat)".
Eers
  • S ONLY (IF):
    • However...; But...
      • They could easily win only if they practice hard. → Hulle kan maklik wen eers as hulle hard oefen.
En
  • C AND:
    • Used to link between together two unrelated nouns or clauses.
      • Salt and pepper. → Sout en peper.
      • I knew them and often visited. → Ek het hul geken en gereeld besoek.
Gevolg deur
  • S FOLLOWED BY:
    • S As a consequence...
      • They started with soup, followed by a fish dish. → Hulle het met sop begin, gevolg deur ʼn visgereg.
Hoe
  • S HOW:
    • The manner in which...
      • I watched how the snake slunk out from underneath the rock. → Ek het gekyk hoe die slang het van onder die rots uitgesluip.
+ "ook al"
  • HOWEVER:
    • Regardless of the way that...
      • However you look at it, he's definitely selfish. → Hoe jy ook al daarna kyk, hy is beslis selfsugtig.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Soos"
Hoe ... Des te
USAGE NOTE:
More formal than hoe ... hoe.
  • R THE ... THE:
    • Used to form the comparative correlative.
      • The greater the project, the greater the profits. → Hoe groter die projek, des te groter die wins.
Hoe ... Hoe
USAGE NOTE:
Less formal but more common than hoe ... des te.
  • R THE ... THE:
    • Used to form the comparative correlative.
      • The more I think about it, the stupider it sounds. → Hoe meer ek daaroor dink, hoe dommer klink dit.
Hoewel
SEE: "Alhoewel"
Indien
USAGE NOTE:
Considered formal. In contrast to as, it adds a definitiveness to a statement and removes any doubt.
  • S IF:
    • Supposing that...; In the case that...
      • If I get a phone call, please answer it for me. → Indien ek ʼn oproep ontvang, beantwoord dit vir my, asseblief.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "As"; "Asof"
(Vir) Ingeval
USAGE NOTE:
If to add vir, it more accurately translates to In the event that....
  • S (JUST) IN CASE: & IN THE EVENT THAT:
    • For the possible event that...
      • In case she arrives early, I'm cleaning the house now. → Ingeval sy vroeër aankom, maak ek die huis nou skoon.
      • In the event that you need it, I'm leaving medicine. → Vir ingeval jy dit nodig het, los ek medisyne.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Dat"
Insover
USAGE NOTE:
Considered more formal than sover. FOR EXTRA NOTES, SEE: "Sover".
  • S AS FAR AS:
    • To the extent that....
      • As far as it concerns the dog, the situation is too dangerous. → Insover dit die hond aanbetref, is die situasie te gevaarlik.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Sover"
Laat staan
USAGE NOTE:
Another possible construction is wat nog te sê..., however, this more accurately translates as what is more... or not to mention....
  • S LET ALONE:
    • As a consequence...
      • Come now! He scarcely walk, let alone run a mile! → Toe nou! Hy kan skaars loop, laat staan ʼn myl hardloop!
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Wat nog te sê..."
Met dié dat (Metdat)
USAGE NOTE:
To contrast the other meanings of when, met dié dat (metdat being the informal and uncommon variant) refers to simultaneous occurrence of action. As for a general, just when, net as is used.
  • S (JUST) WHEN:
    • At the exact same instant that...
      • When I pulled on the rope, the whole thing fell down. → Met dié dat (Metdat) ek aan die tou getrek het, het die hele ding inmekaar geval.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "As"
Maar
  • C BUT:
    • 1 Nevertheless...; 2 Rather...;
      • 1.1 I don't know much, but I'll try to learn something about it. → Ek ken nie baie daaroor nie, maar ek sal probeer om iets daaroor te leer.
      • 2.1 I wasn't reading a horror novel but a romance. → Ek was nie besig ʼn gruwelroman te lees nie, maar ʼn liefdesroman.
  • C ONLY:
    • 3 Except...
      • 3.1 I would write a book, only I'm scared it will fail. → Ek sou 'n boek skryf, maar ek is bang dit sal misluk.
Maar tog
USAGE NOTE:
Though itself marked as a conjunction, composed of and and yet, it more accurately translates as but still as tog is an adverb.
  • C AND YET:
    • As a consequence...
      • Years have passed, and yet, he still waits for her return. → Jare het verbygegaan, maar tog wag hy nog steeds vir haar terugkeer.
Mits
USAGE NOTE:
More formal usage may use met dien verstande dat instead.
  • S PROVIDED (THAT):
    • Only if...
      • Provided (that) we keep order, we should likely have no issues. → Mits ons orde behou, sal ons waarskynlik geen probleme optel nie.
Nadat or Ná
USAGE NOTE:
If -dat is omitted, usually if after a preposition, an accent is added to na. Thus:
  • S AFTER:
    • Used to separate two events, one of which occurs later than the other.
      • I was able to read after I had finished all my work. → Ek het die geleentheid gekry om te lees nadat () ek al my werk klaargemaak het.
      • A rainbow appeared after it rained. → ʼn Reënboog het verskyn nadat dit gereën het.
      • We should wait until after the storm. → Ons sou wag tot die storm.
Namate
USAGE NOTE:
A slightly more formal usage when compared to soos.
  • S AS:
    • In the same proportion to through time...
      • As I grow older, the longer it takes to finish my tasks. → Namate ek ouer word, hoe langer neem dit om my take klaar te maak.
Net soos
USAGE NOTE:
In informal settings, the conjunction can be contracted into nes. However, this contraction is possible in the case of net as.
  • S JUST LIKE:
    • One clause takes place later than another.
      • Just like her brother, she is good at music. → Net soos (Nes) haar broer, is sy goed in musiek.
FOR "NES", SEE SIMILAR MEANINGS: "As"
Nie ... nie
USAGE NOTE:
The double negative in Afrikaans is very complicated, with many different rules of which shan't be covered here. Also, unlike English, the conjunction is subordinate and not coordinating.
  • S NOT:
    • And not...
      • I wanted the blue one, not the green one. → Ek wou die blou een hê, nie die groene nie.
Nie net ... nie, maar ook
  • R NOT ONLY ... BUT (ALSO):
    • Of one property and in addition...
      • He was not only academic, but (also) practical. → Hy was nie net akademies nie, maar (ook) prakties.
Nie te vergete nie
USAGE NOTE:
bygesê (dat) is another possible usage.
  • R NOT FORGETTING (THAT):
    • In addition...
      • Buying all those utensils is expensive, not forgetting (that) we still need ingredients. → Om al daardie gereedskap te koop is duur nie te vergete nie (dat) ons nog bestanddele nodig het.
Nieteenstaande
  • S NOTWITHSTANDING:
    • Although...
      • I enjoyed the trip, notwithstanding it was too short. → Ek het van die reis gehou, nieteenstaande dit te kort was.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Laat staan"
Nóg ... Nóg
  • R NEITHER (NOT) ... NOR:
    • One clause takes place later than another.
      • This is neither (not) your real home, nor your adopted home! → Dit is nóg jou regte tuiste, nóg jou aangenome tuiste.
      • Neither he, nor his brother finished school. → Nóg hy, nóg sy broer, het die skool klaargemaak.
Noudat
  • S NOW (THAT):
    • Due to the fact that...
      • Now that they're gone, we can get to work. → Noudat hulle weg is, kan ons begin werk.
Of
USAGE NOTE:
4 This is never in the past tense.
  • C OR:
    • 1 Forms the "inclusive or", connecting parts of the sentence in which any could be true, 2 otherwise...
      • 1.1 We can take the train or drive ourselves. → Ons kan die trein neem of self bestuur.
      • 2.1 Stop that or I'll call the police! → Hou op of ek bel die polisie!
  • S WHETHER: & IF:.
    • 3 Introduces a noun clause and indirect question.
      • Do you know whether (if) the traffic is going to be bad? → Weet jy of die verkeer sleg sal wees?
      • I wonder if he's alright. → Ek wonder of hy reg is.
  • C BEFORE: & WHEN:
    • 4 Typically reserved for instances that denote a sort of interrupted progress.
      • 4.1 We weren't far from the town when (before) our tire suddenly burst. → Ons was nie ver van die dorp nie of ons band het skielik gebars.
      • 4.2 But that means she'll be here only a day when (before) she has to go again! → Maar dit beteken sy sal net ʼn dag hier wees of sy weer moet gaan!
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Of ... of"
Of ... of (nie)
USAGE NOTE:
Another form is as of ... dan wel (nie), which is considered somewhat formal.
  • R WHETHER (...) OR (NOT):
    • 1 Between two possibilities; 2 No matter if...
      • 1.1 The boat sailed ashore whether by sturdiness or fortune. → Die boot het aan wal geseil of deur forsheid of geluk.
      • 2.1 Whether he's here or not, I'm still doing it. → Of hy hier is of nie, doen ek dit nog steeds.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Of"
Óf ... óf
USAGE NOTE:
Another form is as hetsy ... hetsy, however, this isn't nearly as common.
  • R EITHER ... OR:
    • Introduces two options or possibilities of which one will occur based on circumstance.
      • Either I go, or he does! → Óf ek gaan, óf hy!
Ofskoon
USAGE NOTE:
Considered formal and in some sense, uncommon.
  • S ALTHOUGH:
    • Despite being...
      • Although profits were down this month, they will rise within the next month. → Ofskoon wins hierdie maand laer was, sal dit binne die volgende maand styg.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Sover"
Oftewel
  • C OR:
    • Used to give equivalent or alternate names or values.
      • He goes by Willie or Willem. → Hy gebruik Willie oftewel Willem.
      • The temperature hit 95 degrees Fahrenheit, or 35 degrees Celsius. → Die temperatuur het 95 grade Fahrenheit getref, oftewel 35 grade Celsius.
      • The city, Constantinople, or now, Istanbul. → Die stad, Konstantinopel, oftewel nou, Istanboel.
Om nie eens van ... te praat nie
  • S TO SAY NOTHING OF:
    • If not to mention...
      • It was fantastic, if to say nothing of a miracle! → Dit was fantasties om nie eens van ʼn wonderwerk te praat nie!
Om nie te sê ... nie
  • S NOT TO SAY:
    • Perhaps even...
      • That was a sick joke, not to say full of malice! → Dit was ʼn siek grap, om nie te sê vol kwaadwilligheid nie!
Omdat
USAGE NOTE:
One must be careful in differentiating between omdat and want. Though the two almost always overlap, there is a still minor difference between the two besides that omdat is classified as a subordinating conjunction and want as a coordinating conjunction. Omdat gives a sense of cause for the other clause, whereas want gives a sense of reason.

Because want is a coordinating conjunction, it can never start a sentence, only the subordinate, omdat can. When in the middle of the sentence however, want can be used in every situation, and omdat cannot.

  • We own many umbrellas because it rains a lot here. → Ons besit baie sambrele want dit reën baie hier. / omdat dit hier baie reën. = There is a cause and a reason.
  • We could go out because the weather is nice. → Ons kan uitgaan want die weer is lekker / omdat die weer lekker is. = There is a cause (The weather's state is cause for going outside) and reason.
  • I think Jan left because I found this note. → Ek dink Jan het geloop want ek het hierdie nota gekry / omdat ek hierdie nota gekry het.
    • This example can be viewed in two ways: A) Jan had already left, leaving a note ; B) Jan left as a result of the note being found.
      • A) - want' can only be used in this instance, as the finding of the note isn't the direct cause of the individual's leaving. Thus omdat cannot be used.
      • B) - Either conjunction is acceptable in this case as we have a reason and a direct cause.

Omdat has a formal form, omrede and an uncommon form, oor(dat).

  • S BECAUSE:
    • By the cause of...
      • Because I am going on holiday, I want you to water my plants every week. → Omdat ek met vakansie gaan, wil ek hê jy moet elke week my plante natmaak.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Want"; "Aangesien"
Omrede
USAGE NOTE:
Formal when compared to omdat.
  • S BECAUSE:
    • By the cause of...
      • Because we are unsure, we won't procede with it. → Omrede ons onseker is, sal ons nie daarmee voortgaan nie.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Omdat"
Onderwyl
USAGE NOTE:
More formal form of terwyl.
FOR USAGE, SEE: "Terwyl".
Ook nie
  • C NOR:
    • An action is made more negative.
      • His shouting didn't stop, nor did it get any softer. → Sy geskree het nie opgehou nie ook nie sagter geword nie.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Nóg ... nóg"
Oor(dat)
USAGE NOTE:
Uncommon form of omdat.
FOR USAGE, SEE: "Omdat".
Opdat
USAGE NOTE:
Considered very formal and very uncommon when compared to sodat.
  • S SO THAT:
    • With the purpose that...
      • We signed the contract so that construction could continue. → Ons het die kontrak onderteken opdat konstruksie kan voortgaan.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Sodat"
Sedert
USAGE NOTE:
Slightly more common than van(dat).

Also has the rare alternate form, sinds.

  • S SINCE:
    • From the time that...
      • Since the TV broke, we've become more and more bored. → Sedert die TV gebreek het, het ons meer en meer verveeld geraak.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "(Van)dat"
So
USAGE NOTE:
Exists as a subordinating conjunction in Afrikaans rather than a coordinating conjunction.

In any instance that it is a shortening of so that, the conjunction used is sodat.

  • S SO:
    • Used to mean 1 with the reason that... , or 2 to ask a question relating to prior-mentioned events.
      • 1.1 He wanted an ice-cream, so he walked to the parlour. → Hy wou ʼn roomys gehad het so het hy winkel toe gestap.
      • 2.1 So how did he pay the busfare? → So hoe het hy die busgeld betaal?
Sodat
USAGE NOTE:
The much more-frequently used conjunction when compared to opdat.
  • S SO (THAT):; SUCH THAT:; & IN ORDER THAT:
    • With the purpose that...
      • We wanted an air conditioner so that we won't overheat during the summer. → Ons wou ʼn lugversorger hê so ons nie gedurende die somertyd sal oorverhit nie.
      • He was so busy, such that he forgot his manners. → Hy was so besig sodat hy sy maniere vergeet het.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Opdat"
Sodra
USAGE NOTE:
Considered less formal than so gou as.
  • S AS SOON AS:; ONCE: & WHENEVER:
    • At the moment when...
      • As soon as (once) the pasta is done, tell me. → Sodra die pasta gekook is, sê vir my.
      • We can go whenever (as soon as) he decides to wake up. → Ons kan vertrek sodra hy besluit om wakker te word.
So gou as (wat)
USAGE NOTE:
Considered more formal than sodra.
  • S AS SOON AS: & ONCE:
    • At the exact time that...
      • As soon as (once) we have confirmation, the race may begin. → Sou gou as (wat) ons bevestiging het, kan die wedren begin.
Solank
USAGE NOTE:
In informal settings, one can add "... as wat".
  • S AS LONG AS:
    • 1 Provided that...; 2 Since...
      • 1.1 As long as it is safe. → Solank dit veilig is.
      • 2.1 I can't finish my work as long as you are here. → Ek kan nie my werk klaarmaak nie solank jy hier is.
Soos (wat)
USAGE NOTE:
3 Considered slightly less formal than namate.
  • S (JUST) AS:; MUCH AS:; THE WAY (THAT):
    • 1 In the manner that...; 2 In comparison to..; 3 In the same proportion to through time...
      • 1.1 As I thought, it is tomorrow. → Soos ek gedink het, is dit môre.
      • 1.2 You said you would paint it as was agreed! → Jy het gesê jy sou dit verf soos was ooreengekom!
      • 1.3 I thought he was interesting the way (that) you wrote him. → Ek het gedink hy was interessant soos jy hom geskryf het.
      • 2.1 He is not as smart as I am. → Hy is nie so slim soos ek nie.
      • 3.1 As I continue to work night shifts, the more tired I become. → Soos ek aanhou om nagskof te werk, word ek al moeër.
  • HOWEVER:
    • 4 In any which way...
      • 4.1 I will help out however I can. → Ek sal uithelp soos wat ek kan.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "(As)of"
Soveel as wat
  • S AS MUCH AS:
    • 1 To the same degree; 2 To the same amount; 3 Despite
      • 1.1 I don't like chocolate as much as I like vanilla. → Ek hou nie soveel van sjokolade nie as wat ek van vanielje hou.
      • 2.1 There was as much alcohol as there was water. → Daar was soveel alkohol as wat daar water was.
      • 3.1 As much as I hate it, I have no choice. → Soveel as wat ek dit haat, het ek geen keuse nie.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Insover"
Sover
USAGE NOTE:
Considered less formal than insover. The aforementioned insover is often not used when expressing opinion, this typically reserved for sover.

One difference lies in "As far as one is concerned", which instead forms as 'Wat [POSS.] betref'.

  • As far as I'm concerned, I want nothing to do with him. → Wat my aanbetref wil ek niks met hom te doen hê nie.
  • S AS FAR AS: & INSOFAR AS:
    • To the extent that....
      • As far as I know, his birthday is today. → Sover ek weet, is sy verjaarsdag vandag.
      • Fill the jug but insofar as necessary. → Maak die kruik vol maar net sover soos nodig.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Insover"
Sowel ... as (Sowel as)
USAGE NOTE:
Another form is as èn ... èn, however, this isn't nearly as common. As for the contracted form, sowel as and the alternate form, beide ... en are both considered to be Anglicisms.
  • R BOTH ... AND: & AS WELL AS:
    • In addition.
      • Both me and your brother think it's best. → Sowel ek as jou broer dink dit is die beste.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Asook"
Telkens
USAGE NOTE:
Considered more formal and less common than both sodra and wanneer.
  • S WHENEVER:
    • Every time that...
      • Every time I try to speak, she interrupts me! → Telkens probeer ek om te praat, val sy my in die rede in!
Tensy
USAGE NOTE:
When using the hypothetical conditional, Afrikaans uses the present tense rather than the past.
  • S UNLESS:
    • 1 During an occasion in the past, 2 Introduces the counterfactual conditional, 3 Introduces the hypothetical conditional.
      • 1.1 I'll consider your offer unless a better one comes up. → Ek sal jou aanbied oorweeg tensy ʼn beter een op kom.
      • 2.1 Unless the mall has already closed, you would get there in time. → Tensy die winkelsentrum reeds toe is, sal jy dalk daar betyds aankom.
      • 3.1 Unless you have had experience in it, you would never know what to do. → Tensy jy ondervinding daarin het, sal jy nooit weet wat om te doen nie.
Terwyl
USAGE NOTE:
Is the general and less formal form of onderwyl.
  • S WHEREAS:
    • 1 In contrast to...
      • 1.1 I'm very tall whereas my sister is very short. → Ek is baie lank terwyl my suster baie kort is.
  • S WHILE:; WHILST: & AS:
    • 2 At the same time that...
      • 2.1 We had to stop while driving to Durban. → Ons moes stil hou terwyl ons op pad Durban toe gery het.
      • 2.2 As I sat in comfort, my thoughts floated to another place. → Terwyl ek in gemak gesit het, het my gedagtes na ʼn ander plek toe gevlug.
  • S WHILE: & WHILST:
    • 3 Although...; 4 As long as...
      • 3.1 While I feel bad, I'm not going to apologize. → Terwyl ek sleg voel, sal ek nie om verskoning vra nie.
      • 4.1 While he's here, you'll never win. → Terwyl hy hier is, sal jy nooit wen nie.
Terwyl [PERS.] aan die gang is
  • S WHILE [PERS.] IS AT IT:
    • While busy with one thing...
      • If you're going to the kitchen, make a cup of tea while you're at it. → As jy kombuis toe gaan, maak ʼn koppie tee terwyl jy aan die gang is.
Toe
  • S WHEN: (+ Past) & S AS: (+ Pres.)
    • 1 During a time frame (of the past); 2 At the same instance that...
      • When I broke my leg, nothing was as painful. → Toe ek my been gebreek het, was niks so pynvol nie.
      • As the branch began to crack, we searched for shelter. → Toe die tak begin kraak, het ons skuilplek gesoek.
Tot(dat)
  • S UNTIL: & TILL:
    • Up to the time that...
      • I wouldn't make up your mind until we have all the facts. → Ek sou nie ʼn besluit neem nie tot(dat) ons al die feite het.
      • He laughed till he was blue in the face. → Hy het gelag tot(dat) hy blou in die gesig geword het.
Van(dat)
  • S (EVER) SINCE:
    • From the time that...
      • I haven't seen him since we argued. → Ek het hom nie gesien nie van(dat) ons baklei het.
      • We've seen less and less of him ever since he started working. → Ons het al hoe minder van hom gesien vandat hy begin werk het.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Sedert"
Voor(dat)
USAGE NOTE:
Voor(dat) is the general form of before, its synonyms, alvorens and eer(dat) being uncommon or formal.
  • S BEFORE:
    • Used to separate two events, one of which occurs earlier than the other.
      • Before we saw each other, I was going to the train station. → Voor(dat) ons mekaar gesien het, was ek op pad treinstasie toe.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Alvorens"; "Eer(dat)"
A Waar; B Waarheen; Waarnatoe; C Waarvandaan
  • S A WHERE:; B (TO) WHERE: & C (FROM) WHERE:
    • 1 - A At/In a place (that); 2 - B To a place (that); 3 - C From a place (that)...
      • 1.1 I wish I could remember where I was in my presentation. → Ek wens ek kan onthou waar ek in my presentasie was.
      • 2.1 I'm going where it snows all winter. → Ek gaan waarheen (waarnatoe) dit die hele winter sneeu.
      • 3.1 Where I was standing, it looked better. → Waarvandaan ek gestaan het, het dit beter gelyk.
+ "ook al"
  • S A WHEREVER:; B (TO) WHEREVER: & C (FROM) WHEREVER:
    • 1 A At/in, B to, and C from any place that...; 2 A At/in, B to, and C from every place that...
      • 1.1 Wherever you go, I'll follow. → Waarheen (Waarnatoe) jy ook al gaan, sal ek volg.
      • 2.1 Wherever I go, I see her face. → Waar ek ook al gaan, sien ek haar gesig.
Wanneer
  • S WHEN: & BY THE TIME:
    • 1 An event occurring in the past.
      • When you're overseas, will you send me postcards? → Wanneer jy oorsee is, sal jy my poskaarte stuur?
  • S WHENEVER:
    • 1 At any time that... 2 Every time that...
      • 1 I blush whenever I think about it. → Ek bloos wanneer ek daaraan dink.
      • 2 My back aches whenever I do work in the garden. → My rug raak seer wanneer ek in die tuin werk.
Want
USAGE NOTE:
One must be careful in differentiating between omdat and want. Though the two almost always overlap, there is a still minor difference between the two besides that omdat is classified as a subordinating conjunction and want as a coordinating conjunction. Omdat gives a sense of cause for the other clause, whereas want gives a sense of reason.

Because want is a coordinating conjunction, it can never start a sentence, only the subordinate, omdat can. When in the middle of the sentence however, want can be used in every situation, and omdat cannot.

  • We own many umbrellas because it rains a lot here. → Ons besit baie sambrele want dit reën baie hier. / omdat dit hier baie reën. = There is a cause and a reason.
  • We could go out because the weather is nice. → Ons kan uitgaan want die weer is lekker / omdat die weer lekker is. = There is a cause (The weather's state is cause for going outside) and reason.
  • I think Jan left because I found this note. → Ek dink Jan het geloop want ek het hierdie nota gekry / omdat ek hierdie nota gekry het.
    • This example can be viewed in two ways: A) Jan had already left, leaving a note ; B) Jan left as a result of the note being found.
      • A) - want' can only be used in this instance, as the finding of the note isn't the direct cause of the individual's leaving. Thus omdat cannot be used.
      • B) - Either conjunction is acceptable in this case as we have a reason and a direct cause.
  • C BECAUSE: & FOR:
    • 1 Done on the account of another action's occurrence.
      • 1.2 He cannot eat prawns because he has a fish allergy. → Hy kan nie garnale eet nie want hy het ʼn visallergie.
Wat nog te sê
  • S WHAT IS MORE: & NOT TO MENTION:
    • As well as...
      • He is always rude in public, not to mention his lack of grace. → Hy is altyd in die openbaar onbeskof, wat nog te sê sy gebrek aan goedgunstigheid.
FOR SIMILAR MEANINGS, SEE: "Laat staan"