# AP Physics C/Printable version

AP Physics C

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# Motion in One Dimension

## Scalars vs. Vectors

Scalars
measurements that have no direction to them
Examples: Distance, speed
Vectors
measurements that have a direction to them
Examples: displacement, velocity

## Displacement vs. Distance

Displacement - the most direct route from one point to another. (The net distance traveled)

Distance- the length traveled

Example Problem:

If a car travels 3m directly east then 5m directly west, what is the displacement and what is the distance traveled?

Displacement: if a car goes 3m east, and then it goes 5m opposite of east, the car will travel enough to cancel out the 3m east traveled, and go an extra 2m after that. This is best represented in an equation:

If east is positive:

=3m (east) + 5m (opp. east)

=3m (east) + (-5)m east

= -2m east

= 2m west

Displacement is often represented by the variable s, or x.

## Velocity vs. Speed

Speed- change in distance over change in time

Velocity- the change in displacement divided by the change in time. It is also defined as the derivative of the displacement equation. Velocity is a vector.

# Fundamentals of Electric Charge

• Intrinsic to fundamental particles
• 2 types: positive (+), negative (-)

Positive - Lack of electrons Negative - More electrons No charge = Neutral

Same charges repel: + and + or - and - Opposite charges attract: + and -

• Coulomb: Measurement of the amount of electric charge (similar to moles in chemistry)
Atomic Particle Mass Charge
Neutron 1.675 * 10−27 kg 0 C
Proton 1.673 * 10−27 kg 1.602 * 10−19 C
Electron 9.11 * 10−31 kg -1.602 * 10−19 C

# Atomic Notation

${\displaystyle _{Z}^{A}E}$

• A = Atomic mass = # protons + # neutrons
• Z = Atomic Number = # protons
• E = element symbol (like U for Uranium)