European History

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A Survey of Modern European History
This project discovers the history of Modern Europe, starting at the Hundred Years War and ending at the present time. A chronological perspective of history is attempted within this text. Although this is the case, it is also important to understand patterns within European History, therefore chapters will attempt to cover a breadth of material even though their titles might be that of a specific pattern in history rather than a time period.
Chapter 1 - A Background of European History

Fall of the Roman Empire, unification of Barbarians, Romanesque and Gothic architecture, Papal power and society during the Middle Ages

Constantine I, First Christian Emperor
Chapter 2 - The Crises of the Middle Ages Realistic art and vernacular literature, beginnings of religious reform, the Great Schism, Growth of National Monarchies, Hundred Years' War, Black Death and the Plague
Dante Alighieri
Chapter 3 - Renaissance Europe

Renaissance, Social Change, Humanism, Courtly Life, New Monarchies

Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci
Chapter 4 - The Age of Exploration and Discovery

The Age of Exploration, Portuguese and Spanish Exploration

Vasco da Gama
Chapter 5 - Early Modern Colonialism and Commerce

Columbian Exchange, Mercantilism, Transatlantic Slave Trade, Dutch East India Company

Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Chapter 6 - Challenges to Spiritual Authority

Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Other Reformers, Key Religions, Counter-Reformation

Martin Luther
Chapter 7 - Religious Wars in Europe

Warfare and Unrest from the Reformation, The Spanish Armada, The Thirty Years' War

Henry IV of France
Chapter 8 - Absolutism in Europe

Louis XIV, The War of Spanish Succession, Mercantilism, The Rise of Prussia, Stuart England, The Dutch Republic, Peter the Great of Russia

Louis XIV of France
Chapter 9 - Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

The Age of Science, The Age of Enlightenment, Enlightened Despotism, The War of Austrian Succession, The Seven Years' War

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Chapter 10 - Revolution in France

Precursors, The New Governments

Maximilien Robespierre
Chapter 11 - Napoleon Bonaparte and the Rise of Nationalism

The Consulate, The Empire, The Congress of Vienna, The Bourbon Restoration, A Shift in Foreign Policy, The New Nationalism

Napoleon I of France
Chapter 12 - Age Of Revolutions The Industrial Revolution, New Economic Movements, New Political Movements, Political Revolutions, The Era of Realpolitik, Reforms in Britain
British Prime Minister Robert Peel
Chapter 13 - European Imperialism and Nationalism

German Unification, Revolt of the Paris Commune, Darwin's Theory of Evolution, Imperialism, Russia in the 1800s, Social Changes in Europe, The Crimean War, The Victorian Age

Otto von Bismarck
Chapter 14 - World War I

Precipitating Factors, The Alliances, The Schlieffen Plan, The War, The Russian Revolution

Vladimir Lenin
Chapter 15 - Europe: 1918 to 1945 The Treaty of Versailles, German Problems, The Rise of Pacifism and Isolation in the 1920s, Challenges to Democracy in the 1930s, Fascism in Italy and Germany, The Spanish Civil War, The Outbreak of World War II
Adolf Hitler
Chapter 16 - Europe: 1945 to Present Western Europe 1945 to Present, The European Union, The Soviet Union and Its Fall
Mikhail Gorbachev
Glossary Definitions of terms.
Joseph Stalin
A Brief Outline of European History An outline of key events in European History.
Leonid Brezhnev
Authors and Contributors Participants helping to develop this text.
Tony Blair
Bibliography A list of sources used to author this book.
European Union.