Neo-Quenya/U-stems

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Nouns in -o that keep -o in all casesEdit

They are declined as follows (we use aD6qY carpo "frog"):

singular plural dual part. plural
nominative aD6qY
carpo
aD6qY6
carpor
aD6qY1
carpot
aD6qYj%
carpoli
genitive aD6qY
carpo
aD6qY7Y5
carporon
aD6qY1Y
carpoto
aD6qYj%`N5
carpolion
possessive aD6qYyE
carpova
aD6qlY
carpoiva
aD6qY1nE
carpotwa
aD6qYj~ByE
carpolíva
dative aD6qY5
carpon
aD6qlY5
carpoin
aD6qY4
carpont
aD6qYj%5
carpolin
ablative aD6qYj°^
carpollo
aD6qYj°^5 ›6›
carpollon(r)
aD6qYj1Y
carpolto
aD6qYj%j°^ ›5-6›
carpolillo(n-r)
allative aD6qY5:#
carponna
aD6qY5:#6
carponnar
aD6qY4#
carponta
aD6qYj%5:# ›6›
carpolinna(r)
locative aD6qY,F
carpossë
aD6qY,F5
carpossen
aD6qY1R+
carpotsë
aD6qYj%,F ›5›
carpolisse(n)
instrumental aD6qY5$5
carponen
aD6qlY5$5
carpoinen
aD6qY4$5
carponten
aD6qYj~B5$5
carpolínen
respective aD6qY8
carpos
aD6qlY8
carpois
aD6qY1R8
carpotes
aD6qYj%8
carpolis

The u-duals in this group are declined as follows (we use `N2^ ondo "stone"):

Nom. `N2& ondu
Gen. `N2&`N onduo
Poss. `N2&yE onduva
Dat. `N2&5 ondun,
Abl. `N2&j°^ ondullo
All. `N2&5:# ondunna
Loc. `N2&,F ondussë
Instr. `N2&5$5 ondunen
Resp. `N2&8 ondus.

Nouns in -u that keep -u in all casesEdit

There also exist words that end in the nominative in \`Mu, these are however not U-stems. They differ from the U-stems in the nominative and the genitive plural. They also always have a t-dual.

They are declined as follows (we use 9R7U heru "lord"):

singular plural dual part. plural
nominative 9R7U
heru
9R7U6
herur
9R7U1
herut
9R7Uj%
heruli
genitive 9R7U
heru
9R7U7Y5
heruron
9R7U1Y
heruto
9R7Uj%`N5
herulion
possessive 9R7UyE
heruva
9R7lUyE
heruiva
9R7U1nE
herutwa
9R7Uj~ByE
herulíva
dative 9R7U5
herun
9R7lU5
heruin
9R7U4
herunt
9R7Uj%5
herulin
ablative 9R7Uj°^
herullo
9R7Uj°^5 ›6›
herullon(r)
9R7Uj1Y
herulto
9R7Uj%j°^ ›5-6›
herulillo(n-r)
allative 9R7U5:#
herunna
9R7U5:#6
herunnar
9R7U4#
herunta
9R7Uj%5:# ›6›
herulinna(r)
locative 9R7U,F
herussë
9R7U,F5
herussen
9R7U`R+
herutsë
9R7Uj%,F ›5›
herulisse(n)
instrumental 9R7U5$5
herunen
9R7lU5$5
heruinen
9R7U4$5
herunten
9R7Uj~B5$5
herulínen
respective 9R7U8
herus
9R7lU8
heruis
9R7U`R8
herutes
9R7Uj%8
herulis

Nouns in -o with a U-stemEdit

These are the real U-stems. But there are two exceptional categories: the nouns in \aH -co and the nouns in \s^ -ngo.

The others are declined as follows (we use t#j^ malo, t#j&\ malu- "pollen"). Note that these nouns don't follow the normal rule for the formation of the plural: they get \`B -i as extension instead of the \6 -r that ordinarily follows vowels.

singular plural dual part. plural
nominative t#j^
malo
t#jlU
malui
t#j&1
malut
t#j&j%
maluli
genitive t#j&`N
maluo
t#jlU`N5
maluion
t#j&1Y
maluto
t#j&j%`N5
malulion
possessive t#j&yE
maluva
t#jlUyE
maluiva
t#j&1nE
malutwa
t#j&j~ByE
malulíva
dative t#j&5
malun
t#jlU5
maluin
t#j&4
malunt
t#j&5
malulin
ablative t#j&j°^
malullo
t#j&j°^5 ›6›
malullon(r)
t#j&j1Y
malulto
t#j&j%j°^ ›5-6›
malulillo(n-r)
allative t#j&5:#
malunna
t#j&5:#6
malunnar
t#j&4#
malunta
t#j&j%5:#
malulinna(r)
locative t#j&,F
malussë
t#j&,F5
malussen
t#j&1R+
malutsë
t#j&,F ›5›
malulisse(n)
instrumental t#j&5$5
malunen
t#jlU5$5
maluinen
t#j&4$5
malunten
t#j&j~B5$5
malulínen
respective t#j&8
malus
t#jlU8
maluis
t#j&1R8
malutes
t#j&j%8
malulis

The u-duals in this group are declined as follows (we use iG1Y sito, iG1U\ situ- "habit"):

Nom. iG1U situ
Gen. iG1U`N situo
Poss. iG1UyE situva
Dat. iG1U5 situn
Abl. iG1Uj°^ situllo
All. iG1U5:# situnna
Loc. iG1U,F situssë
Instr. iG1U5$5 situnen
Resp. iG1U8 situs.

Note that these forms are, except for the nominative, all equal to the singular.


The noun 1U`N tuo "muscle" behaves rather strangely because its Old-Elvish stem was 1~M`M\ túu-. This long ~M ú appears when the ending begins in a single consonant; when the ending starts in a consonant cluster or a vowel, we find `M u instead of ~M ú, e.g.

Dative singular: 1~M5 tún
Ablative singular: 1Uj°^ tullo

U-stems in -coEdit

The special feature here is that the combination aJ`B cui changes in zG qui. As an example we look at `M6aH urco, `M6aJ\ urcu- "bogey":

singular plural dual part. plural
nominative `M6aH
urco
`M6zG
urqui
`M6aJ1
urcut
`M6aJj%
urculi
genitive `M6aJ`N
urcuo
`M6zG`N5
urquion
`M6aJ1Y
urcuto
`M6aJj%`N5
urculion
possessive `M6aJyE
urcuva
`M6zGyE
urquiva
`M6aJ1nE
urcutwa
`M6aJj~ByE
urculíva
dative `M6aJ5
urcun
`M6zG5
urquin
`M6aJ4
urcunt
`M6aJj%5
urculin
ablative `M6aJj°^
urcullo
`M6aJj°^5 ›6›
urcullon(r)
`M6aJj1Y
urculto
`M6aJj%j°^ ›5-6›
urculillo(n-r)
allative `M6aJ5:#
urcunna
`M6aJ5:#6
urcunnar
`M6aJ4#
urcunta
`M6aJj%5:# ›6›
urculinna(r)
locative `M6aJ,F
urcussë
`M6aJ,F5
urcussen
`M6aJ1R+
urcutsë
`M6aJj%,F ›5›
urculisse(n)
instrumental `M6aJ5$5
urcunen
`M6zG5$5
urquinen
`M6aJ4$5
urcunten
`M6aJj~B5$5
urculínen
respective `M6aJ8
urcus
`M6zG8
urquis
`M6aJ1R8
urcutes
`M6aJj%8
urculis

The u-duals are just as in the example of iG1Y sito, except for the nominative, all equal to the singular.

Two nouns behave irregularly:

  • 7.DaH rauco "demon" is only a U-stem in the singular, partitive plural and dual. The plural is formed with the stem 7.DaD\ rauca-.
  • 1RjaH telco "leg, stem" is only a U-stem in the plural and the dual. The singular and partitive plural are formed with the stem 1RjaH\ telco- (see above for nouns that end in \`N -o).

U-stems in -goEdit

The special feature here is that the combination s& ngu + `B i changes in x% ngwi. As an example we look at `Cs^ ango, `Cs&\ angu- "snake":

singular plural dual part. plural
nominative `Cs^
ango
`Cx%
angwi
`Cs&1
angut
`Cs&j%
anguli
genitive `Cs&`N
anguo
`Cx%`N5
angwion
`Cs&1Y
anguto
`Cs&j%`N5
angulion
possessive `Cs&yE
anguva
`Cx%yE
angwiva
`Cs&1nE
angutwa
`Cs&j~ByE
angulíva
dative `Cs&5
angun
`Cx%5
angwin
`Cs&4
angunt
`Cs&j%5
angulin
ablative `Cs&j°^
angullo
`Cs&j°^5 ›6›
angullon(r)
`Cs&j1Y
angulto
`Cs&j%j°^ ›5-6›
angulillo(n-r)
allative `Cs&5:#
angunna
`Cs&5:#6
angunnar
`Cs&4#
angunta
`Cs&5j%:# ›6›
angulinna(r)
locative `Cs&,F
angussë
`Cs&,F5
angussen
`Cs&1R+
angutsë
`Cs&j%,F ›5›
angulisse(n)
instrumental `Cs&5$5
angunen
`Cx%5$5
angwinen
`Cs&4$5
angunten
`Cs&j~B5$5
angulínen
respective `Cs&8
angus
`Cx%8
angwis
`Cs&1R8
angutes
`Cs&j%8
angulis

The u-duals are just as in the example of iG1Y sito, except for the nominative, all equal to the singular.



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