Neo-Quenya/Possessive pronouns

< Neo-Quenya

Most of the time we use possessive endings instead of independent possessive pronouns.

These should not be confused with the endings of the possessive case (e.g. "my prince's horse" would become 7Ya;Y aU2&5Ì#yE rocco cundunyava where aU2& cundu both gets a possessive pronoun ending \5Ì# -nya to denote "my" and a possessive case ending \yE -va to denote the English genitive ending).


Contents

Possessive endingsEdit

They can be formed by changing the final -ë of the subject endings of the verbs (see Verbs) into -a:

Pronoun Ending Translation Possessive Ending Translation
\5Ì$
-nyë
I \5Ì#
-nya
My
\j´$
-lyë
You \j´#
-lya
Your
\jyR
-lvë
We (incl.) \jyE
-lva
Our (Incl.)
\jt$
-lmë
We (excl.) \jt#
-lma
Our (Excl.)
\t:$
-mmë
We (dual) \t:#
-mma
Our (Dual)
\7ÎR
-ryë
He/She/It \7ÎD
-rya
His/Her/Its
\4$
-ntë
They \4#
-nta
Their

They are used as endings of nouns:

  • aY`C5Ì# coanya "my house"
  • 7Ya;Yj´# roccolya "your horse"
  • 5~N7R4# nórenta "their country"


The different endings for "our" correspond to the different endings for "we":

  • aY`CjyE coalva "our house (and also yours)"
  • aY`CjtE coalma "our house (but not yours)"
  • aY`Ct:# coamma "the house of the two of us"


When a possessive ending and a case ending are added to the same noun we always apply the possessive ending first and only afterwards the case ending:

  • `C5#6 aDj&yE 1T`Vj´#5:# Anar caluva tielyanna "the sun will shine towards your path"

So we find 1T`Vj´#5:# tielyanna = 1T`V tië + j´# lya (possessive) + 5:# nna (allative).


In fact is easiest to look upon a noun with a possessive ending as a new noun that is declined according to the rules of the nouns on -a (see Declension Paradigms). Let's e.g. look at sambelya "your room":

Case Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative iDw$j´#
sambelya
iDw$j´#6
sambelyar
iDw$j´#1
sambelyat
iDw$j´#j%
sambelyali
Genitive iDw$j´^
sambelyo
iDw$j´#7Y5
sambelyaron
iDw$j´#1Y
sambelyato
iDw$j´#j%`N5
sambelyalion
Possessive iDw$j´#yE
sambelyava
iDw$j´lDyE
sambelyaiva
iDw$j´#1nE
sambelyatwa
iDw$j´#j~ByE
sambelyalíva
Dative iDw$j´#5
sambelyan
iDw$j´lD55
sambelyain
iDw$j´#4
sambelyant
iDw$j´#j%5
sambelyalin
Ablative iDw$j´#j°^
sambelyallo
iDw$j´#j°^5
sambelyallon
iDw$j´#j°^6
sambelyallor
iDw$j´#j1Y
sambelyalto
iDw$j´#j%j°^5
sambelyalillon
iDw$j´#j%j°^6
sambelyalillor
Allative iDw$j´#5:#
sambelyanna
iDw$j´#5:#6
sambelyannar
iDw$j´#4#
sambelyanta
iDw$j´#j%5:#
sambelyalinna
iDw$j´#j%5:#6
sambelyalinnar
Locative iDw$j´#,R
sambelyassë
iDw$j´#,R5
sambelyassen
iDw$j´#1R+
sambelyatsë
iDw$j´#j%,R
sambelyalissë
iDw$j´#j%,R5
sambelyalissën
Instrumental iDw$j´#5$5
sambelyanen
iDw$j´lD5$5
sambelyainen
iDw$j´#4$5
sambelyanten
iDw$j´#j~B5$5
sambelyalínen
Respective iDw$j´#8
sambelyas
iDw$j´lD8
sambelyais
iDw$j´#1R8
sambelyates
iDw$j´#j%8
sambelyalis

Note:

  • the ending \4#-nta is also the ending of the dual allative. So aG7ÎD4# ciryanta can mean "their ship" as well as "towards both ships". Of course "towards both their ships" is aG7ÎD4#4# ciryantanta.
  • nouns with possessive endings always have t-duals, never u-duals.
  • there is also an informal second person possessive ending: \a;D-cca:
t#aGj$a;D macilecca "your sword"


Adding possessive endings to nounsEdit

When the noun ends in a vowel no the endings can be added without any difficulty.

I-stems and U-stems add possessive endings to their stem-forms:

`Cs&j´# angulya "your snake" (nom. ango)
j%x%4#6 lingwintar "their fishes" (nom. lingwë)

Nouns ending in -ë that are not I-stems always add possessive endings to the singular:

j#,R5Ì# lassenya "my leaf" (nom. lassë)
j#,R5Ì#6 lassenyar "my leaves"

When the noun ends on a consonant we have to add an extra vowel before we can add the possessive ending. When the noun has a stem-form we use the stem-form before adding these endings.

We follow these rules:

  • in the plural or before \5Ì#-nya this vowel is \`B\ -i-
t#aGj%5Ì# macilinya "my sword" (nom. t#aGj macil)
t#iG5Ì#6 masinyar "my homes" (nom. t#6 mar)
1RaGj%4#6 tecilintar "their pens" (nom. 1RaGj tecil)
  • in the singular it is \`V\ -e- (except with \5Ì# -nya)
`C1E7Rj´# atarelya "your father" (nom. `C1E6 atar)
`Ct%j°$4# amillenta "their mother" (nom. `Ct%j amil)
  • in the dual it is \`M\ -u- (except with \5Ì# -nya)
t#aGj&7ÎD1 maciluryat "both his/her swords" (nom. t#aGj macil)
eG`N2&jt#1 fiondulmat "both our hawks" (nom. eG`N5 fion)

(but note: `Cm# alda "tree" has `Cm& aldu as dual, but when a possessive ending is added we don't find the \`M\ -u- as it ends in a vowel: `Cm#7ÎD1 aldaryat).

An optional rule is used whenever the noun ends on the same consonant as the first consonant of the possessive ending. In that case no extra vowel is added and the two identical consonants merge into one:

`C7E5Ì#6 aranyar "my kings" (but `C7E5%5Ì#6 araninyar is also acceptable)
t#aGj´# macilya "your sword" (but t#aGj$j´# macilelya is also acceptable)

The expressions "my son", "my daughter" and "my child" have irregular contractions with the ending -nya:

hÎY2^ yondo + 5Ì# nya = hÎY5Ì# yonya "my son"
hÎRm$ yeldë + 5Ì# nya = hÎR5Ì# yenya "my daughter"
9~B5# hína + 5Ì# nya = 9~B5Ì# hínya "my child"

When the possessive endings \5Ì#-nya, \j´#-lya or 7ÎD-rya are applied to 2-letter nouns the final long vowel of these nouns is not shortened as the combinations ny, ly and ry are not seen as double consonants (see Phonology):

t~C7ÎD1 máryat "both his/her hands" (nom. t~C )
9~N5Ì# hónya "my owl" (nom. 9~N )

But the long vowel has to be shortened before the other possessive endings:

qR4#1 pentat "both their lips" (nom. q~V )

Infinitives with possessive endingsEdit

In the page on verbal forms the long infinitive can be found. It is used when the infinitive has a direct object:

t$7T5 aD7T1E8 merin caritas "I want to do it"

It is also possible to express a different subject for the infinitive by adding a possessive ending:

t$7T5 aD7T1Ej´#8 merin caritalyas "I want you to do it"
t$65$j´$ 1T7T1E5Ì#1 mernelyë tiritanyat "you wanted me to look at them"

This construction can also be used when the direct object is something else than a personal pronoun:

merin tiritalya i seldor "I want you to look at the boys"

Independent Possessive pronounsEdit

When you look at the independent personal pronouns, it is apparent that the possessive and genitive cases are missing.

When the possessive pronoun is not emphasized we use the possessive endings as discussed above, but sometimes we do want to stress these pronouns and in that case we use the independent forms. They are used as adjectives:

j$5Ì# qE6t# lenya parma "your book (and no one else's)"

and can also be used predicatively:

`B qE6t# 5~C j$tÌ# i parma ná lenya "the book is yours"

These pronouns are formed by adding \hÎD -ya to the dative of the independent personal pronouns,

this gives following overview:

Pronoun Translation
5%5Ì#
ninya
Mine
j$5Ì#
lenya
Yours
t$5Ì#
menya
Ours
t$4Ì#
mentya
Ours (dual)
iY5Ì#
sonya
His
iR5Ì#
senya
Hers
1E5Ì#
tanya
Its, Thereof
1T`V5Ì#
tienya
Theirs


This last word of course also means "my path", but normally these two meanings shouldn't be confused.

Note: there also exists an informal second person: aR5Ì# cenya "yours".



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