In Neo-Quenya the nominative case is used for:
- The subject
- The predicate
- The direct object
- After most prepositions
- (only `V1 = `C6nE = 7~C = ~M et, arwa, rá and ú take another case)
The nominative is the basic form that can be found in a dictionary. The plural, dual and partitive plural of this case can be found on the main page about nouns.
The use of the nominative for the direct object has implications for the word order:
- in a normal sentence the word order is subject - verb - object, or SVO:
- `B 5~V6 7lY1E `B 7Ya;Y i nér roita i rocco "the man chases the horse"
- `B 7Ya;Y 7lY1E `B 5~V6 i rocco roita i nér "the horse chases the man"
All other parts of the sentence can be in any order:
- `B `C7E5 `C4# 7Ya;Y `B 7YzF5$5 i aran anta rocco i roquenen "the king gives a horse to the knight"
- `B `C7E5 `C4# `B 7YzF5$5 7Ya;Y i aran anta i roquenen rocco "the king gives to the knight a horse"
- `B `C7E5 `B 7YzF5$5 `C4# 7Ya;Y i aran i roquenen anta rocco "the king, to the knight, gives a horse"
- `B 7YzF5$5 `B `C7E5 `C4# 7Ya;Y i roquenen i aran anta rocco "to the knight, the king gives a horse"
It purely depends on the emphasis one likes to express.
In Book Quenya (this is an ancient precursor of Neo-Quenya) there existed a separate accusative case that was used for the direct object and after prepositions. But in the Quenya at the time of the Lord of the Rings this case had disappeared.
It was formed as follows:
- When the nominative singular ends in a consonant, the accusative singular is identical to the nominative, the accusative plural ends in \~B -í
- When the nominative singular ends in a vowel, this vowel is lengthened in the accusative singular, in the accusative plural we add \`B -i
- But when the nominative singular ends in `B -i or \`B`V -ië, the accusative plural ends in \~B -í
- When the nominative dual ends in `M -u, this `M u is lengthened to ~M ú; when it ends in \1 -t, the Accusative dual is identical to the nominative dual
- In the accusative partitive plural we always find \~B -í
`Cm# alda (tree)
- Singular – `Cm~C aldá
- Plural – `CmlD aldai
- Dual – `Cm~M aldú
- Partitive plural – `Cm#j~B aldalí
t#aGj macil (sword)
- Singular – t#aGj macil
- Plural – t#aGj~B macilí
- Dual – t#aGj$1 macilet
- Partitive plural – t#aGj°~B macillí
j%`V lië (people)
- Singular – j%~V lié
- Plural – j~B lí
- Dual – j%`V1 liet
- Partitive plural – j%`Vj~B lielí