< Neo-Quenya

Ancient ImperativeEdit

The ancient form of the imperative is only used with primitive verbs.

It is formed by adding \`C -a to the stem without lengthening the stem-vowel (so it is like the present tense but with a short central vowel):

1T7EÁ tira! "watch!"

This imperative is very direct, so you shouldn't use it when you want to be polite.

Standard ImperativeEdit

This is formed by placing the particle ~C á before the infinitive:

~C 1T7RÁ á tirë! "watch!"
~C yEj#Á á vala! "rule!"

When the central vowel of the infinitive is long, a diphtong or followed by more than one consonant we use the particle `C a instead of ~C á (but this is not obligatory, so using ~C á is never wrong):

`C alDt#Á a caima! "lie down!"
`C t~N1EÁ a móta! "work!"
`C j%2#Á a linda! "sing!"

The combinations ry, ly, ny, ty do not count as a double consonant, so when the central vowel is immediately followed by any one of these we use ~C á:

~C j$j´#´Á á lelya! "go!"


`C t%4Ì#Á a mintya! "remember!"

The particle is pronounced as a unit with these infinitives, so the stress is normally on the particle ~C á and not on `C a (the exceptions are verbs with an infinitive of more than two syllables).

negative imperativeEdit

A prohibition or negative imperative is formed by the particle ~CyE áva. It is the same for all verbs:

~CyE j$j´#Á áva lelya! "don't go!"
~CyE 1T7RÁ áva tirë! "don't look!"

It can also be used on its own, but then the long vowel is shifted:

`Cy~C avá! "don't!"

(note: this is the only two-syllable word that is stressed on the final syllable; see Phonology)

Personal pronouns with the imperativeEdit

When a verb is in the imperative it can have personal pronouns that refer to the subject, the direct object or the indirect object.

subject pronounsEdit

A reference to the subject is not very frequent, only when it is absolutely necessary to specify to whom the command is directed: "Listen you!"

The Quenya endings are \1 -t in the singular and \j -l in the plural:

`C j%2#1Á a lindat! "sing you!" (singular)
`C j%2#jÁ a lindal! "sing you!" (plural)

With a primitive verb the connecting vowel is \`B\ -i- as usual:

~C1T7RÁ á tirë! "watch!"
~C 1T7T1Á \ ~C 1T7TjÁ á tirit!/á tiril! "watch you!"

These endings can also be used in the negative imperative:

~CyE 1Uj$Á áva tulë! "don't come!"
~CyE 1Uj%11Á \ ~CyE 1Uj%jÁ áva tulit!/áva tulil! "don't come you!"

direct object pronounsEdit

To indicate the direct object we can use the nominative of the independant personal pronouns:

`C jlD1E 1RÁ a laita te! "bless them!"
~C 1T7R 5Ì$Á á tirë nye! "watch me!"

It is however also possible to add this nominative as an ending to the particle ~C á.
This could be used for less emphasis on the direct object so it is not as commanding (in this situation we always use ~C á never `C a):

~C1R jlD1EÁ átë laita! "bless them!"
~C5Ì$ 1T7RÁ ányë tirë! "watch me!"

Also with the negative imperative both forms are possible:

~CyEt$ 1T7RÁ ávamë tirë! "don't watch us!"
~CyE 1T7R t$Á áva tirë me! "don't watch us!"

indirect object pronounsEdit

With an indirect object we obviously use the dative forms of the pronouns:

~Ct$5 j%2#Á ámen linda! "sing for us!"

When a verb has both a direct and an indirect object, you have the choice which is applied to the particle ~CyE á or ~CyE áva and which is used a separate word:

~C5%5 aD7R 1EÁ ánin carë ta! "do it for me!"
~C1E aD7R 5%5 áta carë nin! "do it for me!"

>> Neo-Quenya >> Verbs >> Imperative