The Imperative is used to issue commands.
The ancient form of the imperative is only used with primitive verbs.
It is formed by adding \`C -a to the stem without lengthening the stem-vowel (so it is like the present tense but with a short central vowel):
- 1T7EÁ tira! "watch!"
This imperative is very direct, so you shouldn't use it when you want to be polite.
This is formed by placing the particle ~C á before the infinitive:
- ~C 1T7RÁ á tirë! "watch!"
- ~C yEj#Á á vala! "rule!"
When the central vowel of the infinitive is long, a diphtong or followed by more than one consonant we use the particle `C a instead of ~C á (but this is not obligatory, so using ~C á is never wrong):
- `C alDt#Á a caima! "lie down!"
- `C t~N1EÁ a móta! "work!"
- `C j%2#Á a linda! "sing!"
The combinations 7Î ry, j´ ly, 5Ì ny, 1Î ty do not count as a double consonant, so when the central vowel is immediately followed by any one of these we use ~C á:
- ~C j$j´#´Á á lelya! "go!"
- `C t%4Ì#Á a mintya! "remember!"
The particle is pronounced as a unit with these infinitives, so the stress is normally on the particle ~C á and not on `C a (the exceptions are verbs with an infinitive of more than two syllables).
A prohibition or negative imperative is formed by the particle ~CyE áva. It is the same for all verbs:
- ~CyE j$j´#Á áva lelya! "don't go!"
- ~CyE 1T7RÁ áva tirë! "don't look!"
It can also be used on its own, but then the long vowel is shifted:
- `Cy~CÁ avá! "don't!"
(note: this is the only two-syllable word that is stressed on the final syllable; see Phonology)
Personal pronouns with the imperativeEdit
When a verb is in the imperative it can have personal pronouns that refer to the subject, the direct object or the indirect object.
A reference to the subject is not very frequent, only when it is absolutely necessary to specify to whom the command is directed: "Listen you!"
The Quenya endings are \1 -t in the singular and \j -l in the plural:
- `C j%2#1Á a lindat! "sing you!" (singular)
- `C j%2#jÁ a lindal! "sing you!" (plural)
With a primitive verb the connecting vowel is \`B\ -i- as usual:
- ~C1T7RÁ á tirë! "watch!"
- ~C 1T7T1Á \ ~C 1T7TjÁ á tirit!/á tiril! "watch you!"
These endings can also be used in the negative imperative:
- ~CyE 1Uj$Á áva tulë! "don't come!"
- ~CyE 1Uj%11Á \ ~CyE 1Uj%jÁ áva tulit!/áva tulil! "don't come you!"
direct object pronounsEdit
To indicate the direct object we can use the nominative of the independant personal pronouns:
- `C jlD1E 1RÁ a laita te! "bless them!"
- ~C 1T7R 5Ì$Á á tirë nye! "watch me!"
It is however also possible to add this nominative as an ending to the particle ~C á.
This could be used for less emphasis on the direct object so it is not as commanding (in this situation we always use ~C á never `C a):
- ~C1R jlD1EÁ átë laita! "bless them!"
- ~C5Ì$ 1T7RÁ ányë tirë! "watch me!"
Also with the negative imperative both forms are possible:
- ~CyEt$ 1T7RÁ ávamë tirë! "don't watch us!"
- ~CyE 1T7R t$Á áva tirë me! "don't watch us!"
indirect object pronounsEdit
With an indirect object we obviously use the dative forms of the pronouns:
- ~Ct$5 j%2#Á ámen linda! "sing for us!"
When a verb has both a direct and an indirect object, you have the choice which is applied to the particle ~CyE á or ~CyE áva and which is used a separate word:
- ~C5%5 aD7R 1EÁ ánin carë ta! "do it for me!"
- ~C1E aD7R 5%5Á áta carë nin! "do it for me!"