Neo-Quenya/Exceptional stems

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Words with misguiding final letterEdit

Following words look as words on \6 -r but they are in fact words on \8 -s:

a~C6 cáraD8\ cas- "head"
aY6 coraY8\ cos- "war"
eD2^6 fandoreD2^8\ fandos- "monster"
t#6 mart#8\ mas- "home, dwelling"
5%`V6 nier5%`V8\ nies- "honey-bee"

They only have a final \6 -r in the nominative singular, in all other cases they are declined as aY8 cos (see Declension Paradigms).

And these words look as words on \8 -s but they are really words on \1 -t:

aF7R8 ceresaF7R1\ ceret- "earthenware"
9R8 hes9R1\ het- "sibling"
qEj%8 palisqEj%1\ palit- "sward, lawn"

They only have a final \8 -s in the nominative singular, in all other cases they are declined as iD7E1 sarat (see Declension Paradigms).

Doubled t-stemsEdit

doubled stems in tsEdit

When these words end in \1 -t we don’t find a genuine doubling but rather an extra \8 -s:

9Rj$1 helet9Rj$1+\ helets- "fur-coat"
9R5$1 henet9R5$1+\ henets- "window"
`N7Y1 orot`N7Y1+\ orots- "cave"
zFj$1 queletzFj$1+\ quelets- "corpse"

Also some words in \8 -s belong to this group:

`C7T8 aris`C7T1+\ arits- "daughter"
aDs#7T8 cangarisaDs#7T1+\ cangarits- "weaver"
eD8 faseD1+\ fats- "tassel"
5^8 nos5^1+\ nots- "damp"
`H`C7T8 oaris`H`C7T1+\ oarits- "mermaid"

And one exceptional word in \`V -ë:

yT1R vitëyT1+\ vits- "sap"

These words have a special locative and possessive singular, and they all have a u-dual:

singular plural dual part. plural
nominative 9Rj$1
helet
9Rj$1T+
heletsi
9Rj$1U+
heletsu
9Rj$1iRj%
heletseli
genitive 9Rj$1Y+
heletso
9Rj$1iG`N5
heletsion
9Rj$1iJ`N
heletsuo
9Rj$1iRj%`N5
heletselion
possessive 9Rj$1nE
heletwa
9Rj$1iGyE
heletsiva
9Rj$1iJyE
heletsuva
9Rj$1iRj~ByE
heletselíva
dative 9Rj$1iR5
heletsen
9Rj$1iG5
heletsin
9Rj$1iJ5
heletsun
9Rj$1iRj%5
heletselin
ablative 9Rj$1iRj°^
heletsello
9Rj$1iGj°^5 ›6›
heletsillon(r)
9Rj$1iJj°^
heletsullo
9Rj$1iRj%j°^ ›5 - 6›
heletselillo(n)(r)
allative 9Rj$1iR5:#
heletsenna
9Rj$1iG5:#6
heletsinnar
9Rj$1iJ5:#
heletsunna
9Rj$1iRj%5:# ›6›
heletselinna(r)
locative 9Rj$1R+
heletsë
9Rj$1iG,R5
heletsissen
9Rj$1iJ,R
heletsussë
9Rj$1iRj%,R ›5›
heletselisse(n)
instrumental 9Rj$1iR5$5
heletsenen
9Rj$1iG5$5
heletsinen
9Rj$1iJ5$5
heletsunen
9Rj$1iRj~B5$5
heletselínen
respective 9Rj$1iR8
heletses
9Rj$1iG8
heletsis
9Rj$1iJ8
heletsus
9Rj$1iRj%8
heletselis

doubled stems in ttEdit

aDj&t$1 calumetaDj&t$1;\ calumett- "lamp"
aFd1RaF1 cehtecetaFd1RaF1;\ cehtecett- "cuckling"
j#1 latj#1;\ latt-, "flap, lid"
j$zF1 lequetj$zF1;\ lequett- "joint"
t#1 matt#1;\ matt- "meal"
5#1 nat5#1;\ natt- "thing"
1RaF1 tecet1RaF1;\ tecett- "letter"

doubled stems in htEdit

aFaF1 cecetaFaFd1\ ceceht- "pheasant"
t$1 mett$d1\ meht- "mark, aim"
t&1 mutt&d1\ muht- "dirt, filth"
iD7E1 saratiD7Ed1\ saraht- "plank"
1R7R1 teret1R7Rd1\ tereht- "auger, gimlet"
1R1 tet1Rd1\ teht- "spot, mark"
nRj$1 weletnRj$d1\ weleht- "boil, tumour"
hÍE1 yathÍEd1\ yaht- "neck"

Vowel shorteningEdit

In some nouns a long vowel is shortened in the stem-form, but otherwise they are declined as if they didn't have that long vowel in the nominative singular.

j~C6 lárj#6\ lar- "ear"
5~V5 nén5$5\ nen- "water"
5~V6 nér5$6\ ner- "man"
z~V5 quénzF5\ quen- "person"
1~Cj tál1Ej\ tal- "foot"
hÍ~C6 yárhÍE6\ yar- "blood" ^

^ The normal word for blood is iR6aF sercë.

The word hÍ~V5 yén "Elvish year" is an exception, as its stem-form also has a long ~V é: hÍ~V5% yéni.

Vowel lengtheningEdit

In a few words we find the reverse situation. But they are all proper names:

`V7UdT5 Eruhin`V7Ud~B5\ Eruhín- "Child of Eru"
yEj#1E6 ValataryEj#1~C6\ Valatár- "Valar-king"
`C1E5#1E6 Atanatar`C1E5#1~C6\ Atanatár- "Forefather"
aDiD6 CasaraD8~C6\ Casár- "Dwarf"

Vowel changingEdit

In some words the vowel completely changes. The most frequent words are the U-stems and the I-stems.

There are 2 words that have a stem-forms in \`Ca but a nominative in \`No:

7.DaY rauco7.DaD\ rauca- "demon"
iJ2^ sundoiJ2#\ sunda- "root"

Note: 7.DaY rauco is in singular and dual a U-stem.

There are also 2 words on \`C\a with a stem-form on \`B\i:

9~B5# hína9~B5%\ híni- "child"
~N5^5# ónona~N5^5%\ ónoni- "twin"

Words with exceptional connecting vowelsEdit

As we have seen: when a case-ending that begins with a consonant, is applied to a noun ending in a consonant we add an \`V\e– between the stem and the ending, e.g.

t#aGj$5 macilen "to a sword" (dative)
`C5#7R5:# anarenna "to a king" (allative)

There are however four words that have a different connecting vowel: With \`N\o

1Yj tol1Yj°\ toll- "island"
t#2^8 Mandost#2^81\ Mandost- "Mandos"
so we find e.g.
1Yj^,R tolossë "on an island" (locative)
t#2^81Y5:# Mandostonna "to Mandos" (allative)

With \`C\a

1~Cj tál1Ej\ tal- "foot"
`Mw#6 umbar`Mw#61\ umbart- "fate"
so we find e.g.
1Ej#5 talan "to a foot" (dative)
`Mw#61E5$5 umbartanen "with fate" (instrumental)

Irregular stem-formsEdit

First a group of connected words: All words that denote a "room" end on \iD5san. This is derived from iDw$ sambë "room", e.g.:

alDt#iD5 caimasanalDt#iDw\ caimasamb- "bedroom"

These two words also belong to this group:

9C5 han9Cw\ hamb- "ground"
iD5 saniDw\ samb- "chamber"

But some words are totally irregular:

aGj#qT cilapiaGj#qTf\ cilapinc- "robin"
9ÍC6 hyar9ÍC6t\ hyarm- "plough"
j#8 lasj#a|\ lax- "snare"
j$f$ lencëj$z\ lenqu- "limb"
lY1Y oitolY`H4\ oiont- "lack"
`Nj^8 olos`Nj^6\ olor- "dream"
qE1 patqEq1\ papt- "small leaf"
qRj1E8 peltasqRj1Ea|\ peltax- "pivot"
qT`V1 pietqT`Va;\ piecc- "pin"
iD1 satiGq1\ sapt- "hole"
iGj%1 silitiGj%z\ siliqu- "flint"
iGf$ sincëiGv\ sinqu- "mineral, metal"
1D7E5 taran1E7Ew\ taramb- "buffet"
1Rj%5 telin1Rj%w\ telimb- "roof, covering"
1ÎU8 tyus1ÎUa|\ tyux- "cud"
`Mj&5 ulun`Mj&r\ ulump- "camel"

Some words resemble 2-letter words, but they have a stem-form:

7~C 7~Cy\ ráv- "lion"
5~N 5~Nn\ nów- "idea"
1~N 1~Nn\ tów- "wool"

The possessive singular of these words always ends on -va, the genitive on -vo:

7~C 7~CyE - 7~CyY ráva, rávo
5~N 5~NyE - 5~NyY nóva, nóvo
1~N 1~NyE - 1~NyY tóva, tóvo

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