History of wireless telegraphy and broadcasting in Australia/Topical/Stations/6WF Perth/Notes

6WF Perth - Transcriptions and notesEdit

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Overview of Wireless in 1922 mentions the USA Department of Agriculture radio farm service, the philosophy of which would be adopted by 6WF

THE WIRELESS AGE. Less than 150 years ago, there was rejoicing in England because the average speed for the delivery of the mails was increased, at a single bound, from three to ten miles an hour. Today the people of one continent may transmit messages, across thousands of miles of land and ocean, to the people of another continent in one-fifteenth of a second. Living, as we do in Australia, on the edge of the world, where great things are happening, we have only a dim perception of the extent to which wireless has revolutionised communication. A few days ago the news that the Prime Minister, while travelling by the steamer Karoola from Melbourne to Sydney, had conversed with his wife in the Victorian capital by means of wireless telephony installed on board the ship, was considered of sufficient interest to be telegraphed across Australia. And the item was of interest; it represented, in our present stage of development, a noteworthy achievement. In America, however, communication by such means has entered into the everyday life of the business community. Present developments point to its being a common occurrence before long for the traveller on a trans-Atlantic liner to be called to the ship's telephone to speak direct to his home or his office. Already any telephone subscriber in the United States may call up and converse with a person located on the Catalina Islands, off the coast of California, the space intervening between the ordinary telephone systems having been bridged by the radiophone. Within the last two or three years the uses to which wireless telephony has been put in America have been multiplied enormously. Radiophone receiving outfits threaten to dispute supremacy with the phonograph. They may be obtained at a cost of a few pounds, and it is estimated that upwards of 300,000 of them are already in use in the United States. Equipped with one of these outfits, for the use of which no knowledge of radio is essential, the owners may sit in their own homes and listen to the musical and educational programmes sent out daily by the nearest radiophone station. It was necessary for the Prime Minister's wife to visit the Domain plant in Melbourne for the purpose of hearing her husband's voice. Furnished with an inexpensive receiving outfit, it would be possible for her to sit in comfort in her own home, and listen to the flowing periods with which her eminent spouse charms the multitude. It is true that under such conditions Dame Hughes would not be able to "talk back," but that is a relatively unimportant matter. Mr. Hughes, ready talker though he is, is reputed to be a very impatient listener. Whilst wireless telephony has ministered to the social amenities in America it has been made to serve more utilitarian purposes. The Department of Agriculture recently inaugurated a radio farm service, which, by means of broadcasting stations, sends out weather and market reports, together with other information of importance to the agriculturist. All that the farmer is required to do to place himself in a position to benefit from these activities is to install, at the cost of a few pounds, a receiving outfit which will enable him to "listen in." It is difficult to imagine any means by which the isolation of our scattered farming communities could be more effectively overcome than by the practical application of recent developments in wireless telephony. But, if we may take our relatively, slow progress, in the field of wireless telegraphy as a criterion, it will be long before radio-telephony becomes a considerable factor in our community life. Today, not less than 15 per cent. of international communication is carried on by means of ethereal impulses, but the British Empire has failed lamentably to take its rightful place in the van of the movement. There has been much talk — it began in 1911 — of an "all red" wireless chain throughout the world, but there has been little action. Organisations representing the newspaper Press all over the Empire at numerous meetings have insisted on the urgency of wireless as a means of supplementing the expensive and inadequate cable services. The American Press receives much of its trans-Atlantic news by radio telegraphy; even China obtains quicker and fuller news from Europe than does Australia. The Chinese Press receives French, German, and American news from Chinese Government wireless stations; newspapers in the Balkans, in Egypt, and in other countries publish copious news from the same sources. Only to a small extent does such news emanate from English stations, for the reason that they are unequal to their long range competitors. The injury which this must inevitably impose upon British trade and British national interests is incalculable. The Overseas Dominions are out of touch with the mother country. Communication with the Dominions is a sphere which the British Post Office has reserved exclusively to itself, but the obligation which it has assumed it has so far failed to fulfil. For this, possibly, some of the responsibility attaches to the Dominions themselves, most of whom have exhibited an astonishing apathy in regard to the installation of an Imperial wireless scheme. Nevertheless, the British Government cannot escape the charge of culpable inaction. When the war broke out it decided to "mark-time" in the matter of world wireless, whereas in France, Italy and the United States the war merely acted as a stimulus to progress, and notable advances were made by these countries in long distance transmission. The lethargy which was then displayed has not yet been wholly shaken off. International propaganda is assuming an ever increasing importance, and cheap, rapid, and adequate communication is a vital necessity of Empire. Lord Northcliffe, after visiting India, emphasised the urgent need for bringing that country into closer touch with England, if irreparable damage was to be averted. So far as Australia is concerned, under the agreement signed recently between the Commonwealth Government and the Amalgamated Wireless the company guaranteed to enter into a reciprocal arrangement for the receipt and despatch of messages in England and Canada, and failure to fulfil this undertaking will involve cancellation of the agreement. When the last Imperial Conference was held it had before it the scheme of the Norman Committee providing for a series of relay stations between England and Australia, each with a 2,000-mile range. Mr. Hughes insisted upon direct communication, which the Norman Committee declared to be impracticable. With further investigation, however, the Expert Commission appointed by the Norman Committee has retreated from the position of uncompromising hostility adopted by the Committee. It now admits that "during portions of each day much of the Imperial strategic, official, and news traffic could be carried on by direct communication between any pair of principal centres, the intermediate stations being omitted; though it still clings to the view that the intermediate stations would be necessary for relay work during the less clear portions of the days." The Australian agreement with the Amalgamated Wireless, which provides for direct communication, will necessitate a prompt and clear definition of the policy of the British Government. While the British experts are piling up reports upon the subject, the Empire is in danger of losing the wave lengths necessary to give efficient service over long distances. If the scheme for direct communication — which the experts first dismissed as "altogether exaggerated," and which they are now damning with faint praise — be really impracticable, then it would seem that America, France, Germany, and Italy are foolishly wasting millions on scientific playthings.[1]

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Westralian Farmers, Ltd. annual meeting 1922 makes no reference to future broadcasting plans but does reference the introduction of the voluntary wheat pool which would lead to greater communication needs for its clients and higher costs, a driver for 6WF establishment

THE WESTRALIAN FARMERS LTD. The eighth annual general meeting of shareholders in Westralian Farmers, Ltd., was held at Perth, on Thursday evening last, October 12. The chairman of directors (Mr. C. W. Harper) presided, and was supported on the platform by the managing director (Mr. Basil L. Murray), and the following directors:— Messrs. J. Hawter, W. Marwick, J. J. Mather, D. Milne, A. P. Sharp, and C. P. Wansbrough; also the auditor, Mr. S. J. McGibbon. Apologies were received from Mr. Tanner, of Beverley, and Dr. Boyd, of Geraldton. About 120 shareholders were present, and the meeting, from first to last, was most enthusiastic, the chairman and Mr. Murray from time to time affording every possible information in response to inquiries respecting the annual report and the financial statement. The necessary legal preliminaries having been attended to, Mr. Harper read the annual report. This showed that 6,024 shares had been allotted during the year, making the total number of shares issued 68,193, and on which the sum of £59,534 had been paid. The profit as disclosed by the balance-sheet is £6,353 14s 2d. After providing for redemptions and other contingencies, the directors recommend a dividend at the rate of 7 per cent. on the paid-up capital of the company as at the 31st May, 1922, the date of payment to be left to the discretion of the board, and that the balance be transferred to general reserve. Notwithstanding the diminished figures in crop insurance, due to the lower insurable value of wheat, a substantial increase has been shown in general insurance business. The year has proved to be a record one for losses (principally hail), thus causing the final profit to be lower than anticipated. The company again handled the entire wheat of the State for the 1921-22 season, with satisfactory results. The total wheat handled for the season was 11, 799,600 bushels. Bearing in mind the rapid development of the South-West, the directors have purchased a central block of land in Bunbury, and intend, at an early date, to erect thereon suitable offices in order that a better service may be rendered to members in that area. The directors also have pleasure in announcing that they have decided to enter fully into the wool business. All the Government wool stores at Northe Fremantle have been purchased outright, and structural alterations are being effected to provide thoroughly up-to-date accommodation for the proper appraisement and storage of wool. An experienced manager, has been secured from one of the largest wool houses in Victoria, and everything possible is being done to make this new branch of the company's activities successful. In March last the wheat growers of the State decided in favor of handling the 1922-23 harvest through a Co-operative Voluntary Pool. Subsequently, upon the decision of the Government being announced that it would not continue the State Wheat Pool, details of the Voluntary Co-operative Pool were completed, and Messrs. A. J. Monger, C. W. Harper, B. L. Murray, and J. S. Teasdale were appointed trustees. The company's tender for handling the coming harvest has been accepted by the trustees. The Australian Producers' Wholesale Co-operative Federation, Ltd., for the formation of which the company was largely responsible, is now firmly established in London, and the volume of business handled, amounting to over £2,500, 000, has fully justified the establishment of this important centre of the Producers' Co-operative Organisation. Three representatives — Messrs. Badcock (South Australia), Ibbot (Victoria), and Trethowan (New South Wales) — have completed arrangements at the Federation office, in London, whereby the Western Australian office participates in the handling of all Australian co-operative wheat sent to London. The arrangements made provide for handling separately the wheat shipped by each State. The report and financial statements having been formally adopted, Mr. Harper and Mr. Basil Murray addressed the meeting. The election of directors resulted in Messrs. Harper and Mather being re-elected, and Dr. Boyd, of Geraldton, added to the board. Mr. McGibbon was re-elected auditor under the same conditions as in the previous year. After some important alterations were made to the articles of association, the proceedings closed with an enthusiastic vote of thanks to the directorate and the staff which were acknowledged by the chairman, Mr. Murray, Mr. Mather, and Mr. Hawter. The progress of the co-operative movement in the State was most favorably commented upon by the shareholders present.[2]

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Coxon foreshadows the need for a high powered transmitter at Perth to provide a full broadcasting service to the city

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . Wireless Telephony. — An interesting address on recent advances in wireless telephony was delivered by Mr. W. E. Coxon at the last meeting of the Astronomical Society. After a brief historical sketch of the subject, the lecturer explained that the recent developments, which had made possible the wireless telephone, and the broadcasting of speeches, news, and concerts, depended mainly on the discovery of the device known as the thermionic valve. This permitted the sending out of a continuous wave, in place of the old wireless system, which consisted of a series of waves of very brief duration. The latter could be used for the transmission of the Morse code of dots and dashes, but could not be adapted to convey the modulations of the voice. The lecturer then gave a demonstration of the instrument, a concert being transmitted from a house in Mt. Lawley. Asked whether the device could not be manufactured in a form suitable for use by country people who had no special knowledge of the subject, Mr. Coxon explained that this depended upon the establishment of a suitable broadcasting station in Perth. As yet this did not exist, and in the meantime wireless concerts could only be enjoyed by people with considerable knowledge of the subject and skill in the delicate adjustments required by a receiving set capable of working in conjunction with low powered transmitting plant. A higher powered broadcasting station would make possible the use of receivers requiring much less adjustment, and consequently adapted to use by people with little technical knowledge.[3]

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Article likely by Robert Wilkes describing 1923 broadcasting conference and proposed meeting of WA broadcasting interests

LISTENING-IN. RADIO FOR THIS STATE. AN INTERESTING PROPOSAL. The advantages of radio for the people of this State, whether they be dwellers in the cities and towns, or lonely men on stations, have presented themselves to scientific men as well as to those engaged in social, commercial, and industrial affairs. The progress that has taken place in America and England and other parts of the world in the provision of listening in to wireless broadcasting has prompted a number of representative citizens to seek first-hand information with regard to the merits and advantages of this new science, and to discover whether it could be advantageously applied in this State. To that end one of their number, who is possessed of the technical and commercial knowledge necessary, paid a visit to the Eastern States for the purpose of attending a conference of Australian representatives interested in broadcasting. The Federal Postmaster-General presided at the conference, which was attended by over 70 persons, who represented every section of public life throughout Australia, and who were there to see that public and commercial interests would be fully safeguarded. The newspapers were represented by members of their business and journalistic staffs. The gentleman who represented Western Australia carefully studied every phase of the question, and listened to the proposals submitted. As a result he is convinced that the time is not far distant when every home in the cities and towns, every farm house in the agricultural areas, and every outback camp throughout the State may be installed with a listening-in set at a very light cost, and with remarkable advantages. As in other parts of the world nightly programmes will be broadcasted from Perth, and these will consist of weather and market reports, followed by the latest news items, with entertainments in the form of children's stories at bedtime, and vocal and instrumental programmes. The conference made provision for the proper control of wireless telephony, to the end that it should not be long before pastoralists in the far north and other distant parts, the farmers in the eastern belts and the south-west, the men in the bush, and others will be able to converse with their neighbors and other people with little cost, and that without overhearing or interfering. It has been shown that radio operations can be carried on successfully from a commercial viewpoint, without a requirement of scientific knowledge on the part of those who use it. Realising that the public of this State will soon demand that they be put in an equal position with those residing in other parts of the world, by the provision of this new and remarkable advantage of listening in, the association of persons interested in the matter have decided to deal with it in practical form. To that end they are inviting the representatives of various public institutions to attend a meeting which will be held on July 27, so that they may have the situation explained to them, hear the views of the representative who attended the Melbourne conference and consider the advisableness of introducing a system of wireless broadcasting throughout the State. Broadcasting regulations have been drawn up and approved by the Federal Postmaster-General, and these in due course will be gazetted. Among the provisions is one that precludes the creating of a monopoly by any particular organisation or company. It is recognised that if broadcasting and wireless telephony are to succeed in Western Australia, its introduction will have to be undertaken and backed by the public generally. Details of the scheme projected will be furnished later. In the meantime it is sufficient to say that the cost to the public will be comparatively small. It is estimated that the best programmes can be secured daily at an annual expenditure, of a maximum of £5. The receiving sets can be installed at anything from £20 to £50, the actual expenditure being regulated by the class of outfit and the distance at which the set is put in from the broadcasting station. Experiments carried out in this State show that messages can be clearly sent for a distance of 1,500 miles.[4]

A potential competitor for the 6WF A Class licence announces its registered offices

PUBLIC NOTICES. . . . TO THE REGISTRAR OF COMPANIES, Supreme Court, Perth. Take Notice that the REGISTERED OFFICE of WEST RADIO BROADCASTING COMPANY, LIMITED, is situate at TATTERSALL'S CLUB BUILDINGS, 7 Barrack-street, Perth. Office hours, 9 to 5 p.m. on each week day except Saturday when the hours are from 10 a.m. to 12 noon. Dated this 13th day of July, 1923. RICHARD HAYNES and CO., Solicitors for the above-named Company. [5]

A potential competitor for the 6WF A Class licence registers its company

NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. The following new company has been registered at the Supreme Court during the past week:— West Radio Broadcasting Company Limited; registered office, Tattersall's Club Buildings, 7 Barrack-street, Perth; authorised capital £10,000, in £1 shares.[6]

The Primary Producers' Association in a circular to its agents and branches details Farmers proposals for a broadcasting service

Wireless Telephony. W.A. FARMERS' SCHEME CIRCULAR TO AGENTS AND BRANCHES. The following circular, which should be read with interest, has been issued by the Primary Producers' Association to its agents and branches:— Owing to the delay in finalising Commonwealth Regulations in Australia, few people are aware of the wonderful strides which have been made in wireless telephony within the last 12 months. A station sending out wireless messages makes such messages public property, and anyone with a wireless receiving set "tuned" to the same wave length can hear the messages, and only by use of codes can they be protected. This fact has been turned to advantage and stations have commenced to cater for the public by "broadcasting." Wonderful developments are being made, and today market news, concerts, educational matters, sermons, dance music, and in fact anything of interest to the public is being delivered into space for the enjoyment of anyone in possession of a cheap receiving set which may cost from two or three shillings to £20 or £30, depending upon the distance from the broadcasting station. It is customary for companies who carry out broadcasting to publish weekly programmes, notifying the date and the hour at which each item will be given, so that those who are looking for entertainment or information know exactly when to "listen in" for the item in which they are particularly interested. The Commonwealth Government has almost completed its regulations, and while these are not yet made public, sufficient is known to permit of preliminary arrangements being made. The Wheat Department of the Westralian Farmers Limited has been put to heavy expense in telegraphing general information to country sidings, and it is anticipated that under the warehousing scheme proposed for next season the expense will be still heavier. After some consideration it was decided to establish wireless communication country agents, and a broadcasting station will be established at the Westralian Farmers Ltd. building. The main function of this station will be to broadcast to agents information connected with the business. This can be done, according to arrangement, at stated times of the day, and codes will be drawn up applying to private information which would damage the company or the local co-operative companies if it became public. Having established this plant, it will be available for additional work in the evenings. The custom has grown in America and England for a set programme to be drawn up for every evening of the week, giving probably between 6.30 and 7 "Bedtime talks to children," which are generally fairy tales, to be followed by items from the newspaper of general interest. Then perhaps the prices relating to produce, in which country friends would be interested, and from 8 p.m. music or any other form of entertainment which may be available, varied on Sundays with sermons being preached in cathedrals or leading churches of the city. We cannot help feeling that a service of this kind installed in Western Australia would be the means of affording a great deal of pleasure to our friends in the country, and also would be of benefit in providing them with early news regarding the price of their produce, upon the satisfactory sale of which they depend for their living. We would, therefore, like yon to see farmers in your district with a view to letting us have their views on the subject, and if it is likely to meet with success, we propose to instal the plant immediately the Government Regulations are known. We have cabled to our representatives in America and England to secure for us the most satisfactory agency for the supply of the requisite plant, and as soon as definite information is received we will advise you of the prices. In the meantime would you be good enough to ascertain from your farmer friends whether they would be prepared to instal receiving plants which would cost from £10 to £20, or for an exceptional plant £30. The installation costing £20, would be capable of receiving from a distance of 2000 miles, or something; over from Perth in a direct air line. The cheaper sets range about 100 miles from Perth direct, These figures are only tentative, and may be reduced or increased. Any indication we receive from farmers of their willingness to instal these sets will be subject entirely to their reconsideration when we obtain correct prices. It is understood that the Commonwealth Government regulations will provide for the Broadcasting Company to use one wave length only, and that the receiving sets must be limited to that wave length. Subscriptions and licenses will be paid through the Broadcasting Company. Exactly what this will mean we cannot tell until the regulations have been published; but taking it for granted that £1 1s will be the licensing fee, and that 1000 farmers were to instal the plant, this company considers that for a fee not exceeding £4 a plant they could afford excellent entertainment throughout the year. It may be that the concerts could be supplied at a less cost than this, and if so, a corresponding reduction would be made. Until definite information is received, however, we are not in a position to give concrete costs. Would you kindly see the farmers at the earliest possible moment, so that we may be in a position to cable our London friends, advising them the number of sets we are likely to require as soon as the Commonwealth Regulations have been published. For the Westralian Farmers Ltd., JOHN THOMSON, Manager Wheat Department, P.S.— In case there may be a misunderstanding the messages can only be sent from the broadcasting station, and the receiving sets which would be supplied the farmers would be quite unable to return messages. [7]

As previous, a briefer announcement

KULIN KOMMENTS. . . . Broadcasting. The Westralian Farmers, Limited, propose to erect at their offices in Perth a "broadcasting" plant and farmers who desire to get the benefit of the news and entertainments which it is proposed to send out daily can purchase through the company home "receivers" with which to "listen in." Apart from getting daily quotations of market prices, concerts, music and other forms of entertainment will be "wirelessed" right to one's fireside and the news of the day may be brought to the breakfast table. Fuller particulars may be obtained from the secretary of the Kulin branch of the Primary Producers' Association, who is anxious to know how many persons in the district are desirous of being joined up wirelessly with the whole of the outside world. The cost is said to be a "a mere bagatelle" compared with the service rendered.[8]

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Perth Daily News journalist reports upon a lecture by P. C. Lindsay on background and future of broadcasting in WA

WIRELESS BROADCASTING. A FASCINATING HOBBY INTERESTING LECTURE. In the lecture hall of the Underwood Business College last night Mr. P. C. Lindsay, R.N.R., formerly instructor at Marconi House, London, delivered an interesting lecture on "Broadcasting" to a large audience. The Mayor (Mr. J. T. Franklin) presided. The lecturer first referred to wave lengths, and emphasised his point by drawings, showing the effect of throwing a stone into a pond. From this analogy he showed that the distance from one wave crest to the next crest was a wave length. He asked the audience to get out of their minds the idea that wireless had anything to do with air, as that was a totally erroneous belief. Wireless waves would travel in any medium, even a vacuum. The distance was controlled by the sending power, and had absolutely no effect on the wave length. Mr. Lindsay said that the new broadcasting licences were now being issued, but as the regulations were contained in a thick book he did not intend to read them. He advised those interested in wireless to get copies at one shilling from the Government Printing Office. The sets that would be sold at an early date in Perth would probably be sealed at a wave length of 500 metres, and he predicted that there would be a certain amount of "jamming," with Applecross Station. For instance, if he started transmitting to a receiving station in North Perth at 9 o'clock, and Applecross came in 10 minutes later, something was sure to happen. He thought that within a short time nearly every homestead and farm in Australia would be equipped with a wireless set. Then the problem arose as to what would happen if a breakdown occurred. One firm in Perth had undertaken to provide several engineers and mechanics to cope with this, but the speaker thought they would need an army of them, as a wireless instrument was a very delicate piece of mechanism. There was also the question of what kind of music to broadcast. Music that was appreciated by some people only bored others. So the best thing to do was to send a little bit of Beethoven, a little bit of jazz, and a song or two for those whose tastes were moderate. In London the "Daily News" was equipped with a broadcasting station, which transmitted news items to the listeners-in. The newspapers also published each morning a timetable showing at what time a certain class of music would be broadcasted by the big stations. He thought that some people would like to hear the Parliamentary debates. (Laughter.) Mr. Lindsay described the interior of a great transmitting station in England, in which artists sung in sound-proof rooms, and modified their voices according to the color of the light that would be switched on in the room, if they were not satisfying the operator. Regarding the broadcasting of plays, the theatre managers at first thought that they would lose patrons, but the curiosity of the listeners-in was so great that packed houses resulted. However, the artists objected to singing to an audience that they could not see, although their audience was really a hundred times greater than the one they sang to. They also said that if they were singing to milions they should be paid proportionately. Naturally, to prevent the chaos that had occurred m the United States, and to a lesser extent in England, some system of control was necessary, but it had to be exercised with a just, rather than a heavy, hand. If farmers all over the country had wireless sets they naturally would not post letters and telegrams, and the P.M.G.'s Department would suffer accordingly. No doubt the P.M.G. would take some action to prevent any loss being caused to this part of the revenue. Mr. Lindsay thought that the recently-formed Broadcasting Company of W.A. would put up a transmitting station and sell receiving installations, so it would not be long before wireless concerts were given here. In moving a vote of thanks to the lecturer, a member of the audience congratulated Mr. Lindsay on the clear manner in which he had conveyed the information, and the breezy and attractive way in which the lecture had been delivered. It had been very interesting, and was much appreciated by those present. The motion was carried with acclamation, Mr Lindsay briefly thanked the audience, and expressed the hope that wireless telegraphy and telephony would soon be firmly established in Western Australia.[9]

West Radio Broadcasting Company, Ltd., a potential competitor to Farmers for the Perth A Class licence, gives a backgrounder on current status of broadcasting in Australia

WIRELESS TELEPHONY. Broadcasting Situation Explained. "The keen interest manifested throughout Australia in broadcasting leaves no room for doubt that within a year or two wireless telephones will be installed in every other home, and "listening-in," both for news and entertainment, will be as general and as popular as it is in England and the United States." This opinion was expressed by Mr. L. W. Matters, who returned to Perth on Sunday, after a visit to the Eastern States, where he inquired into every phase of wireless telephony on behalf of the West Radio Broadcasting Company, Ltd. "As soon as those companies which are organised to operate broadcasting services are ready for business," said Mr. Matters, "there will be a rush of subscribers. In New South Wales and Victoria, I found the people eager for the inauguration of the services, and the companies busy preparing to cope with the demand for apparatus. Broadcasting might have been in operation months ago had Australia followed in the steps of the United Kingdom and America, but, very wisely, I think, the Federal Government decided to keep wireless telephony largely under its control and so obviate the confusion and disorganisation witnessed elsewhere. We are to profit, as a country, from the experience and the mistakes of those nations that could not foresee, when wireless telephony became a practical thing, that a phenomenal demand for it would lead to it getting out of hand, so to speak. To avoid this and assure to the Commonwealth an effective system, the conference of experts was held in Melbourne last May, and what may be called a wireless policy for Australia was devised. All those interested in the matter are satisfied that we now have a system as near perfection as could be framed. The Postmaster-General issued the regulations only last week, and everybody I met is quite satisfied with them." What, broadly, is the general effect or these regulations? "In the first place," Mr. Matters replied, the control of all branches of wireless communication is established by the Post Office. Secondly, wireless telephony is given the status of a public service to be conducted under licence by properly organised bodies, which must show their bona fides and give substantial guarantees that they will do what they claim to do. They must operate their stations for at least five years and give such a service as meets with the approval of the Postmaster-General. In turn, these holders of broadcasting licences are to be protected against "poaching," by being authorised to license the owners of wireless receiving sets. A private owner of a wireless telephone will not be allowed to "listen-in" to several broadcasting stations, unless he has several instruments, each one licensed and adjusted to different transmitting stations. This is the meaning of the "sealed set" instrument. A broadcasting company will be authorised to operate on what is known as a specified "wavelength," and every receiving set that takes the service emanating from that company's station must be adjusted accordingly and sealed. The purpose of this is to assure the broadcasting company, the revenue it ought to receive for the service it renders. A dealer's licence must be obtained by every person desiring to sell the essential parts of wireless telephones. Experimenter's licences will be issued to technical schools, institutions and individuals who are genuinely engaged in experimenting, or giving technical instruction in wireless." Do these regulations render obsolete the instruments already in use? "Not necessarily, but no wireless telephone can, in future, be used unless it is permanently adjusted and sealed, in accordance with the conditions laid down in the regulation, so that its use is restricted to "listening-in" to one broadcasting station only. I have seen a circular purporting to give all details about the system. It speaks of coding the news or information that is broadcasted. This is merely another example of the quaint ideas prevailing regarding wireless telephony and the ignorance of those who have been trying to go ahead before they knew what the system for Australia was to be. There is no need for coding when broadcasted information can go only to those who are entitled to receive it by virtue of their having subscribed to a service, and by reason of the fact that only those instruments "tuned" to one transmitter, can pick up what is sent out. This is a necessary protection for the broadcasting company that spends thousands on its station and the provision of its service." What will be the cost of such a service? "The manufacturing company to which the West Radio Broadcasting Company is affiliated calculates that first-class instruments can be made in Australia and sold to private homes for as low as £7 10s. The service subscription is something that cannot be determined at the moment, but, broadly speaking, the cost will not exceed that of the subscription to the ordinary telephone, and, as the number of subscribers increase, the annual fee will be reduced. In England it is one guinea, and for this sum the subscriber gets a daily service of news of all kinds, and an entertainment programme as well." In conclusion, Mr. Matters stated that some weeks must still elapse before broadcasting on any extensive scale can be inaugurated Australia. "Everybody," he said, "has had to wait for the regulations in order to determine what type of apparatus could be manufactured, and sold, and the Postmaster-General has yet to issue the broadcasting licences, which will be granted only under the stringent conditions referred to. Nevertheless, a practical start should be made in Western Australia at a relatively early date, and when the system is in operation, it will, undoubtedly prove singularly attractive to every householder. The service of the West Radio Company will be organised by the States Press Agency, which has been engaged for the past twenty years in broadcasting news over the ordinary land lines."[10]

Coxon, another "Wireless Prophet" in Perth in mid 1923

WONDERS OF WIRELESS. A Perth Experimenter. Lecture and Demonstration. The Perth Literary Institute was crowded last night, when Mr. W. E. Coxon, a local experimenter in wireless telegraphy, gave a lecture and demonstration relating to recent developments in that science. The stage was fitted with a wireless receiving plant, from which a musical programme was heard, and the audience was also enlightened about the noises that intrude from aerial disturbances, the powerful signals sent out by the Applecross station, and minor rumblings for which the trams were blamed. The Minister for Mines (Mr. J. Scaddan), who presided, said he found greater pleasure there than in listening to the debate on the Address-in-Reply. "I think it will not be long," said Mr. Scaddan, "before the people will hear by wireless what is being said by their representatives in Parliament, and do so while sitting by their own firesides. I think one of the first developments will be to fit wireless apparatus to Parliament House." The Minister said that wireless had a great future, especially in such a country as Western Australia. He was interested in its commercial side, which, he thought, would help them in the development of their State. The Government, he added, was in touch with the Amalgamated Wireless people with regard to the use of wireless for the control of fires in their forests. He thought that they could use wireless with tremendous benefit, and much cheaper than at present, with ordinary telephones and the sending of men on horseback to put out forest fires. Wireless telephones could also be used in connection with breakdowns on their electricity and tram-way services, enabling the station to communicate direct with the man on the spot, and save a great deal of time. "When they are sending finger prints, as they are doing, from Europe to America by wireless," said Mr. Scaddan, "it is interesting to contemplate what will be the next move." Mr. Scaddan, in conclusion, said that he was getting a wire-less set for his own use. Mr. Coxon said it was about 22 years since wireless signals were sent across the Atlantic from England to Newfound-land. Since then wireless had developed in so many different directions that it was difficult to keep pace with what was being, done, and students had to confine themselves to one branch. Land wireless stations had been limited in num-ber, and to prevent the interference of one with the other the power had been greatly reduced and the sensitiveness of the receiver increased. A great advantage was the power to send in a certain direction, which opened up the field of secret wireless, a feature that had not been developed to any extent, except by companies. There was now the wire-less lighthouse, which sent a letter signal to a certain point of the compass. A ship could pick up the letter which gave the loudest signal and get the direction of the sender and a fair idea of the distance. This arrangement was being practised in the Firth of Forth. Waves could also be sent to a ship without a wireless installation and be reflected to the sender, and thus disclose the position of the former. Discussing the development of wireless "television," Mr. Coxon said that during the war an aeroplane took a photograph and sent it by wire-less to a land station before the aero-plane could reach the earth. The trans-mission of the photograph occupied 13 minutes. If we could cut that time down to four-fifths of a second we would have "television." If such a mechanical apparatus could be perfected we could not only hear the person speaking by wireless, but see him also. One of the great achievements of wire-less was the introduction of the wireless aeroplane, dispensing with the pilot. It opened up the possibility of transmitting mails across continents at a height, and consequently a speed, that a pilot could not attain. Flight at 20,000ft. would mean double the present greatest speed. France had commenced tests with that object, and there was also talk of sending mails across Africa in wireless aeroplanes. It would only be a matter of adapting what was being done elsewhere to have wire-less aeroplanes leaving the top of our new General Post Office with the mails for the Eastern States. Touching on the troubles of wireless receiving, he said that the disturbances known as "atmospherics" which cracked and jarred during the receipt of messages, greatly reduced the distance over which they could receive or send. Their elimination would in-crease a station's power tenfold. At pre-sent there were only indirect methods of cutting out atmospherics, but they also cut out a fair amount of the signal. Mr. Coxon then demonstrated the receiving of gramophone music by wireless from his home in Bulwer-street. It chiefly comprised items on the violin and other stringed instruments, and the result was successful, allowing for occasional "atmospherics." Wireless signals were also heard from the great station at Bordeaux in France, from which press news is despatched daily in various languages, but it was stated that the signals were ac-companied by too much noise through the amplifier used in the hall, and consequently they were unintelligible. Mr. Coxon added that sometimes signals came down one side of the world and were then suddenly turned to the other side. That was due to the fact that the wireless messages travelled where there were most hours of darkness. He also told the audience how two land stations could give direction and location to ships at sea so accurately that wireless was being used side by side with the compass, but some sea captains, he said, complained that Australia was behind the times in regard to the use of direction finding apparatus. The lecturer was loudly applauded when he concluded. The Minister for Mines congratulated Mr. Coxon. He said that a professor's recent statement about what might hap-pen to the world through insects had caused some worry, but he was worrying now about wireless. In regard to the regulations, there were always people who wanted something for nothing, but he thought there should be no objection to paying a reasonable fee for the right to listen in. The time was not far distant when they should be able to hear great singers by wireless from His Majesty's Theatre, and those benefits would be shared by people in distant parts of the State.[11]

At a meeting of WA Wireless Traders, Drummond of Westralian Farmers, Ltd. stands back from a proposal for a co-operative to hold the Perth A Class licence

WIRELESS BROADCASTING. Conference of Traders. A meeting of electrical traders and wireless radio importers of Western Australia was held on Friday afternoon, in the rooms of Home Recreations. Ltd., 935 Hay-street. Mr. C. P. Knapton (Kellogg Wireless Supply Co.) presided, and amongst those present were Messrs. W. E. Coxon (Coxon and Co.), Wishart (Wireless Supplies Co.), White (Charles Atkins and Co.), Unbehaun (Unbehaun and Johnstone), Truman (George Wills and Co.), H. C. Little (Little and Co.), Fontaine (Amalgamated Wireless Co.), Drummond (Westralian Farmers, Ltd.), Scott (Chief Commonwealth Radio Officer of Western Australia), Jackman (Ritchie and Jackman), B. Holt (president of the Wireless Institute of West ern Australia), McGillivray (Muir and Co.), and Hadley (secretary of the Subiaco Wireless Club). The chairman explained that the meeting had been called primarily to bring the wireless traders of Western Australia together to discuss the new Commonwealth regulations controlling broadcasting as affecting Western Australia, and, if necessary, to form an association similar to that of the wireless traders of Victoria, and also to assist generally in the development of wireless, telephony and broadcasting in this State. The great future of wireless in Western Australia was not limited to the mere broadcasting of musical concerts in the metropolitan area, but great benefits would accrue to the settlers in the far north and country centres from a utility service of news items and market reports, etc. Owing to misleading statements which had been made recently it would be essential for those present to assist in propaganda regarding the possibilities of wireless, otherwise there was a great danger of the public being deceived and consequently a setback would occur to the future development of wireless in this State. Mr. Scott (Chief Federal Wireless Officer of Western Australia) said that he was attending the meeting more in a private capacity than in an official one, and, consequently, his remarks were purely unofficial. He sketched the new regulations, and gave a considerable amount of valuable information to the meeting. He laid special stress on the fact that the juvenile experimenters had not been fully protected in the new regulations, and said that the juvenile experimenters of today were the wireless operators of tomorrow. He specially desired that those present when taking future action to develop wireless in Western Australia would make provision for the protection of the juvenile experimenters. Referring to the possibilities of wireless in the North-West and other outlying stations, he mentioned that a considerable amount of misunderstanding had arisen in the minds of many large station owners who were anxious to connect their various outlying stations with the main homestead. Under the regulations, as at present constituted, in many cases it would be necessary for the station owners to either apply for a land station licence, which would mean a considerable outlay in capital, or a broadcasting station to rebroadcast messages received from a broadcasting distributing centre. He had received notice to proceed to Melbourne to further consider the regulations, and would be pleased to address a meeting on his return, when he would most likely have much more information to impart. Mr. Truman spoke strongly in favour of the members forming an association to not only protect the interests of the trade, but also the interests of the public, and the development of wireless generally. He recommended that steps should be taken, if possible, to have the regulations amended to suit the Western Australian conditions. Although the regulations were quite suitable for Victoria and New South Wales, which were densely populated, they were not at all adaptable to this State. If necessary, their Federal representatives should he asked to bring the position before the notice of Parliament. Owing to the small population to work on, it was impossible for broadcasting companies to be formed which would give a return to the investors. There was only room for one broadcasting station, and this must be run by people who must be prepared to be philanthropic and not expect to make profit. As there were a number of firms who had considered broadcasting in Perth, he thought that the traders should amalgamate with them and form one broadcasting company, as losses could be written down under the heading of propaganda and advertising. He moved: — "That this meeting, representing the radio traders of Western Australia, form themselves into an association, called the Wireless Development Association of Western Australia." Mr. McGillivray seconded the motion. Mr. Wishart supported the motion, and referred to the steps which were being taken in Victoria by a similar association, which had been formed by the wireless traders of Melbourne. Mr. Coxon and Mr. White also spoke in support of the motion, which was carried unanimously. Mr. Knapton was elected president, and the following were chosen as a committee:— Messrs. Coxon, Wishart, Truman, McGillivray, and Cohen. The committee were asked to carefully study the regulations, etc., and prepare a report for a full meeting to be called at a later date. Mr. Holt (president of the Wireless Institute) addressed the meeting. He regretted that he could not take an active part in the association, which, he considered, would prove in the future to be one of the corner stones in the development of wireless broadcasting in Western Australia. At the conclusion of the meeting a vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Scott for having attended, and hearty good wishes were extended to him upon his proposed trip to Victoria.[12]

1923 09Edit

Wally's crystal ball in fine form in this article, accepts the failings of the 1923 Regulations but correctly forsees early revision, even to the extent of the two-tier system Class A/ Class B

Broadcasting. Some Opinions of Mr. W. E. Coxon. It is some two years since Australia was astounded with the possibilities of broadcasting by wireless, and it would seem that our part of the Empire is yet again behind the times. We are still very much in the daric on this an important topic, but our small body of wireless men, the Council or the Wireless Institute of Australia, W.A. Division, of which Mr. Coxon is the expert adviser, have not been idle. For some fifteen months they have been experimenting and perfecting their own instruments, and now with the assistance of recent important discoveries have reached a stage where commercial broadcasting in this State is only a step. Interviewed recently Mr. Coxon stated that wireless enthusiasts were at present in the unfortunate position of marking time. Regulations had just been framed by the Commonwealth Government relating to licenses and control but as these were not yet to hand in full, little forward work could be accomplished, and only an outline of the future could be traced. During the term of office of Mr. W. M. Hughes, the firm of Amalgamated Wireless, Ltd., commenced preliminary broadcasting operations, with the Federal Government holding a half controlling interest. In the opinion of Mr. Coxon, the Government took this step partly as a measure to protect the public in what was considered to be a venture that people throughout Australia would be very ready to support. It transpired, however, that when the regulations were being framed, the Government found themselves in an unfortunate dual position. The company had to be protected from likely solid opposition, and as a direct consequence the regulations evidenced strong support for the present controlling interest. Deposits, fees and other essential details were fixed, that were almost prohibitive to any firms considering the advisability of launching forth, it would be an optimistic firm that would pay £1,000 deposit, and £15 per year license for every subscriber to their service. There could be only one outcome, if such a firm did venture; the holders of receiving apparatus would have to pay extremely high fees and licenses, which, combined with a high preliminary outlay, would serve only people with comfortable means. One would begin to think that this condition of affairs rendered the prospect of commercialism broadcasting in this State very dull, but Mr. Coxon, however, did not take this view. He stated that the Government were out to assist the community in this respect, and would eventually modify the regulations until a standard was reached when smooth working, combined with reasonable rates would bring the much-desired pleasure within the reach of all. In order to illustrate just one of the many difficulties that were almost certain to be encountered when the regulations were in operation, Mr. Coxon stated that if several firms commenced business here by distributing apparatus and broadcasting periodically, each apparatus would only receive broadcasts from the particular firm to whom fees were being paid. This would necessitate holders paying fees to each firm, when their instruments would be fitted accordingly, and they would be afforded the privilege of "listening in" to several broadcasts. This position would require very Careful Handling owing to technical difficulties in the operation of the apparatus. "There is one bright spot in particular through which we expect great things," said our expert, "and that is broadcasting as an advertising medium." It was explained that this would not take the form of barefaced advertising — "Use Washo Soap," etc. Once a large number of receivers were installed throughout the State it would be expected that large firms would readily spend a considerable sum per week as a means of keeping their establishments in the public eye. This would be effected by holding concerts, circulating market reports, speeches and other important items in the name of the particular firm, and the advertising possibilities would be both forceful and extensive. It would certainly tend towards the quicker establishment of a system, and fees would be kept within reasonable limits. The demand for instruments would be high, through there being probably no fees payable at all to the firm broadcasting, and should therefore be on sale at reasonable rates. In America, stated Mr. Coxon, broadcasting entered very largely into the life of the populace as an advertising medium, practically a free hand being extended, while the different firms were not lacking in originality or expense in exploiting the novelty to the fullest extent. In England however, a different condition of affairs existed. One large firm operated purely on a commercial basis, retaining almost a complete monopoly of anything worth while, and directing the progress along lines, not always in the best public interest. One is naturally curious as to the cost of receiving instruments. "Will they be within my modest means?" queries the miner of the Yalgarn. "I am very keen on being a subscriber," soliloquises the farmer, "but with a controversy about a wheat glut I must not spend rashly," and so forth. Mr. Coxon was optimistic and expressed the opinion that within a few months receivers would be on sale at reasonable figures. At present they ranged from £5 to £100 according to the elaborations of detail, reception capabilities and simplicity of adjustment. In ironstone country or thickly wooded hills it would require a more sensitive instrument to "listen in" than in plan open country where reception conditions were more favourable. A very cheap instrument would require extra careful adjustment, but if the latter was unskilfully handled it would be impossible to hear anything, whereas with careful adjustment, such would ensure the receipt of broadcasting as clear as on a more expensive plant. Higher class instruments, though in many cases not the least more sensitive, were much more elaborate in detail, easier of adjustment, and so on until a stage was reached where it would be simply necessary To Switch On to place the instrument "in gear" as it were. At the present time instruments to suit the requirements of any W.A. amateur are procurable from £5 to £20, but expert advice should be sought as to the receiver required before a purchase is made. During the course of the interview Mr. Coxon predicted that within 20 years concerts in Covent Garden would be heard in W.A. homes with simple receiving sets. This would be done by automatic retransmission from a station in England to a sensitive receiver in the West, which again would automatically transmit the extra few miles throughout the State, which small receivers would readily pick up. Thus we would "listen in" to opera 8,000 miles away. A striking feature of this prediction is the fact that it would be necessary to "listen in" before breakfast owing to the difference in time between England and Australia. Truly, it would be a remarkable and memorable achievement. In concluding his statements, Mr. Coxon laid particular stress on the necessity for intending investors to secure thoroughly expert advice before purchasing. The oil boom, he stated, by way of illustration, would never have reached such dimensions if expert advice had always been obtained. The cotton boom, thanks to an expert, was nipped in the bud, and the success of this venture already proved on the Continent and in America depended largely upon those who "knew the ropes." "Much can be achieved," said Mr. Coxon, "there is no limit, but if intending "listeners in" act unwisely, then their unmerited criticism of a topic in which they are totally ignorant, can do material harm, and would tend further to delay operations, besides keeping us still further behind the times.[13]

Westralian Farmers Ltd announces further development of its earlier proposals, already clearly committed

Wireless Telephony. BROADCASTING STATION. PROPOSED ESTABLISHMENT IN W.A. We are in receipt of the following particulars regarding the proposed establishment in W.A. by the Westralian Farmers Ltd., of a wireless broadcasting station, which would be a great boon, not only to farmers, but also to squatters and other residents of the remote places of the State:— Circular to Agents and Branches of Primary Producers Association. Perth, 8th July, 1923. Owing to the delay in finalising Commonwealth Regulations in Australia, few people are aware of the wonderful strides which have been made in wireless telephony within the past twelve months. A station sending out wireless messages makes such messages public property, and anyone with a wireless set "tuned" to the same wave length can hear the messages, and only by the use of codes can they be protected. This fact has been turned to advantage and stations have commenced to cater for the public by "broadcasting." Wonderful developments are being made, and today market pews, concerts, educational matters, sermons, dance music, and in fact anything of interest to the public is being delivered into space for the enjoyment of anyone in possession of a cheap receiving set which may cost from two or three shillings to twenty or thirty pounds, depending upon the distance from the broadcasting station. It is customary for companies who carry out broadcasting to publish weekly programs, notifying the date and hour at which each item will be given, so that those who are looking for entertainment or information may know exactly when to "listen in" for the item in which they are particularly interested. The Commonwealth Government has almost completed its regulations, and while these are not yet public sufficient is known to permit preliminary arrangements being made. The Wheat Department of the Westralian Farmers Ltd. has been put to heavy expense in telegraphing general information to country sidings, and it is anticipated that under the warehousing scheme proposed for next season the expense will be still heavier. After some consideration it was decided to establish wireless communication with country agents, and a broadcasting station will be established at the Westralian Farmers Limited Building. The main function of this station will be to broadcast to agents information connected with the business. This can be done, according to arrangement, at stated times of the day, and codes will be drawn up applying to any private information which would damage the company or the local co-operative companies if it became public. Having established this plant it would be available for additional work in the evenings. The custom has grown in America and England for a set program to be drawn up for every evening of the week, giving probably between 6.30 and 7 "Bedtime Talks to Children," which are usually fairy tales, to be followed by items from the newspaper of general interest, then perhaps the prices relating to produce in which country friends would be interested, and from 8 p.m. music or any other form of entertainment which may be available, varied on Sundays with sermons being preached in cathedrals or leading churches of the city. We cannot help feeling that a service of this kind installed in Western Australia would be the means of affording a great deal of pleasure to our friends in the country, and also would be of benefit in providing them with early news regarding the price of their produce, upon the sale of which they depend for their living. We would, therefore, like you to see farmers in your districts with a view to letting us have their views on the subject, and if it is likely to meet with success, we propose to install the plant immediately the Government regulations are known. We have cabled to our representatives in England and America to secure for us the most satisfactory agency for the supply of the requisite plant, and as soon as definite information is received we will advise you of the prices. In the meantime would you be good enough to ascertain from your farmer friends whether they would be prepared to install receiving plants which would cost from £10 to £20, or for an exceptional plant £30. The installation costing £20 would be capable of receiving from a distance of 2000 miles or something over from Perth in a direct air line. The cheaper sets range about 100 miles from Perth direct. These figures are only tentative and may be reduced or increased. Any indication we receive from farmers of their willingness to install these sets will be subject entirely to their reconsideration when we obtain correct prices. It is understood that the Commonwealth Government Regulations will provide for the Broadcasting Company to use one wave length only, and that the receiving sets be limited to that wave length. Subscriptions and licenses will be paid through the broadcasting company. Exactly what this will mean we cannot tell until the regulations have been published but taking it for granted that £1/1/- will be the licensing fee and that 1000 farmers were to install the plant, this company considers that for a fee not exceeding £4 per plan, they could afford excellent entertainment throughout the year. It may be that the concerts could be supplied at a less cost than this, and if so a corresponding reduction would be made. Until definite information is received, however, we are not in a position to give concrete costs. Would you kindly see the farmers at the earliest possible moment so that we may be in a position to cable our London friends advising them of the number of sets we are likely to require as soon as the Commonwealth regulations have been published? For the Westralian Farmers Ltd., John Thomson, Manager, Wheat Department. P.S.— In case there may be any misunderstanding the messages can only be sent from the broadcasting station, and the receiving sets which would be supplied to farmers, would be quite unable to return messages. WESTRALIAN FARMERS LIMITED. Perth, 24th July, 1923. Circular to Agents and Branches of Primary Producers Association, re Wireless Telephony. Country friends are showing interest in the proposals for wireless telephony, and requests have been made for additional information. The point raised is whether only one person can "listen in" with each instrument, or whether a number of people in the same room can hear the concerts and other matter which is being transmitted. A loud talker can be installed. This is somewhat similar to a gramophone horn, and when in use, anyone in the room can listen to it just as in the case of a gramaphone. It is rather more expensive, however, than the other method and is sometimes considered not to give as pleasant a rendering. Some of its faults have been eliminated and it is now being used very largely. In many cases it is installed with the object of receiving and transmitting to the room dance music, and on Saturday nights in some areas the whole evening is given up to dance music. Halls are fitted with loud talkers for this purpose, and the couples dance to the music of a band 50 to 100 miles away. The cheaper method is for a series of telephone ear pieces with head attachments similar to those used by telephone girls. A strap passes across the head bringing a receiver to each ear so that there is no discomfort in holding the receiver to one ear and straining that ear in order to listen to the music. This method can be adopted to a considerable number of people, but of course, the wiring from one to the other is sometimes in the way. Nevertheless, this method is very popular owing to its cheapness and the excellent results it gives. If there is any other information agents require on this subject, kindly let us know and we will supply it immediately. For The Westralian Farmers Ltd., John Thompson, Manager, Wheat Department.[14]

1923 10Edit

At the end of their 1923 annual meeting, Westralian Farmers Ltd quietly announces (Basil Murray, Managing Director) that not only have they been granted the licence for Western Australia's first broadcasting service, but also that contracts had been signed for the installation of the transmitter

WESTRALIAN FARMERS LTD. ANNUAL MEETING. CONTINUED EXPANSION OF COMPANY. YEAR'S TURNOVER NEARLY £1,000,000. The ninth annual meeting of the Westralian Farmers Ltd. was held on Thursday evening at the registered office of the company, Wellington-street; Mr. C. W. Harper (the chairman) presiding. The accounts for the year ended May 31 last showed receipts £186,180 18s. 7d., compared with £164,288 for the 12 months ended May 31, 1922. The profit at £12,016 was nearly double that for the previous year, but was just a little more than half the amount earned during the twelve months ended May 31, 1921. After providing for redemptions and other contingencies the directors recommended that a dividend at the rate of 7 per cent. be paid on the paid-up capital of the company, payable at the registered office, on a date to be fixed by the board. They further recommended that the sum of £5,000 be distributed to members in accordance with the articles, as a bonus on trading, and that the balance, £1,604 18s. 1d. be transferred to general reserve. In the balance-sheet the company's assets were given as £278,660 9s., of which land and buildings represented £37,455 6s. 7d.; office furniture, fixtures and fittings, £7,245 3s. 10d.; plant and equipment, £10,050 17s. 8d.; wheat dunnage and roofing, £10,957 3s.; investments, £3,228 1s. 9d.; stocks on hand, £31,282 19s. 8d.; sundry debtors, £145,781 19s. 7d.; charges against future trading, £1,301 0s. 1d.; bills receivable £15,836 13s. 1d.; cash in bank (trust account), £17,212 18s. 9d.; cash on hand and on deposit with State Government; £7,808 5s. On the liabilities side paid-up capital totalled £77,313 15s. 2d.; bonus debentures £8,366; shareholders bonus account, £893 0s. 11d. Other items were reserve account, £11,428 14s. 9d.; provision for outstanding liabilities, £4,221 11s. 9d.; sundry creditors, and deposits on current account, £140,280 12s, 4d.; loans and fixed deposits, £13,208 10s.; bills payable, £519 9s. 1d.; Western Australian bank, £10,412 19s. 1d.; contingent liabilities: Bills under discount, £5,928 6s. The chairman said that during the year 11,577 ordinary and 10,431 bonus shares were allotted, the total number of shares issued being 90,201, on which, the sum of £77,312 15s. 2d. had been paid. In addition bonus debentures amounting to £4,232 were issued. The directors were particularly pleased with the response given by farmers generally to the new issue of shares, and contended that the numerous applications received indicated the confidence of the farming community in the Company. Their duties as sole acquiring agents for the trustees of the Co-operative Wheat Pool were, in comparison with those imposed by the Government in past seasons, considerably increased. The trustees had expressed their entire satisfaction with the manner in which the very responsible duties of handling the wheat had been carried out by the company. As indicated in the previous report the company entered the wool business last year, and presented catalogues at each of the sales arranged by the National Council of Wool Selling Brokers. Although the business done in this direction was small it was conducted in a manner thoroughly satisfactory to clients. The directors considered that the outlook for the coming wool season was exceptionally good, and they anticipated that the department would handle a greatly increased quantity. An agreement had been completed with the Graziers Limited, whereby the company had purchased its assets and goodwill and taken over its business. The Graziers Limited had a very large business in live stock, hides and skins, and it was felt that by the amalgamation the company's stock department would be greatly strengthened both in turnover and the personnel of its staff. Arrangements had also been made to take over the Williams-Narrogin Farmers' Co-op. Co., Ltd., and for the opening of a branch of the Westralian Farmers Limited at Narrogin. A large store had been secured and was being put in order for the purpose of carrying sufficient bulk stocks to serve the whole of the surrounding territory. It was pleasing to report that legislation dealing with the bonus distribution had now passed both Houses of Parliament, and the company, as well as the local co-operative companies throughout the State were thus enabled to satisfactorily distribute profits as a bonus on trading. He sounded a note of warning regarding the absolute necessity for securing additional capital owing to the continued expansion of the company and its ramifications. Mr. Basil Murray (managing director) analysed the balance sheet and profit and loss account, itemising for the information of the shareholders the respective departmental profits and losses and the method of apportioning administrative and overhead costs. The cash turnover for the year was nearly one million sterling which emphasised the satisfactory position of the company. For every one pound invested, shareholders possessed, on actual figures, 60s. The company was in a sounder position than ever before in its history. Although at one time the company essayed to supply everything from a "needle to an anchor" it subsequently decided to confine its operations owing to its restricted capital, to essentially farmers' lines, and his analysis of the year's operations showed the wisdom of that course. The purchase of the Graziers Limited was, in his opinion, a most effective method of consolidating the live stock and hides and skins business of the company, operating closely in connection with the successfully established wool department. The purchase of the premises known as Eastwoods Limited, adjoining the company's property, in Wellington-street, which would ultimately be required for a machinery show room and workshops, was also a very sound and satisfactory investment on account of the shareholders. Owing to an unfortunate oversight the annual report did not contain any reference to the activities of the fruit department and particularly to its export operations and the satisfactory disposal of fruitgrowers' produce through the London house of the Overseas Farmers' Co-operative Federation, and to the exploiting of the fruit market of the Near East. He announced that the first licence under Commonwealth Government regulations for wireless broadcasting in this State was to be issued to the company and the board had that day signed contracts for the installation on the company's premises of the necessary apparatus. The report and statement of accounts were adopted. Messrs. Warwick, Milne and Tanner were re-elected directors and Mr. Sinclair J. McGibbon was reappointed auditor.[15]

As previous, a less interpretive version of the annual report

FOR THE MAN ON THE LAND, CONTINUED. WESTRALIAN FARMERS LTD. Directors' Report. The full text of the directors' report submitted at the annual general meeting of shareholders of the Westralian Farmers Ltd., held in Perth on the 11th inst., was as follows:— "Your directors have pleasure in submitting this, their ninth annual report, for the financial year ended May 31, 1923. "During the year 11,577 ordinary and 10,431 bonus shares were allotted, the total number of shares issued being 90,201, on which the sum of £77,312 15s. 2d. has been paid. In addition, bonus debentures amounting to £4232 were issued. "Your directors are particularly pleased with the response given by farmers generally to the new issue of shares, and contend that the numerous applications received indicate the confidence of the farming community in the company. The profit as disclosed by the balance sheet is £12,016 15s. 11d. After providing for redemptions and other contingencies your directors recommend that a dividend at the rate of 7 per cent. be paid on the paid-up capital of the company as at May 31, 1923, payable at the registered office, the date of payment to be left to the discretion of the board. They further recommend that the sum of £5000 be distributed to members in accordance with the articles, as a bonus on trading, and that the balance be transferred to general reserve. "Our duties as sole acquiring agents for the trustees of the Co-operative Wheat Pool were, in comparison with those imposed by the Government in past seasons, considerably increased, the entire responsibility for the care and handling of the wheat being borne by us. The trustees have expressed their entire satisfaction with the manner in which these very responsible duties have been carried out. As indicated in our former report, we entered the wool business last year, and presented catalogues at each of the sales arranged by the national council of wool selling brokers. Although the business done in this direction was small in this our opening season, your directors can state with every confidence that it was conducted in a manner thoroughly satisfactory to all those clients who entrusted their clips to us. The directors consider that the outlook for the coming wool season is exceptionally good, and they anticipate that the department will handle a greatly increased quantity. "An agreement has been completed with the Graziers Limited whereby your company has purchased its assets and goodwill and takes over its business. Your board desires to express its appreciation of the extremely friendly manner in which the directors of the Graziers Limited have dealt with this matter. The Graziers Limited has a very large business in livestock, hides, and skins, and it is felt that by the amalgamation our Stock Department will be greatly strengthened both in turnover and the personnel of its staff. Owners of livestock can therefore rest assured that any business entrusted to us will be efficiently handled. "Arrangements have also been made to take over the Willlams-Narrogin Farmers' Co-op. Co. Ltd, and for the opening of a branch of the Westralian Farmers Limited at Narrogin. It was felt that this important centre required more vigorous organisation than could reasonably be expected from a local co-operative company. A large store has been secured, and is being put in order for the purpose of carrying sufficient bulk stocks to serve the whole of the surrounding territory. "It is pleasing to be able to further report that legislation dealing with bonus distribution has now passed both Houses of Parliament, and your company, as well as the local co-operative companies throughout the State, are thus enabled to satisfactorily distribute profits as a bonus on trading. "In conclusion, your directors are convinced that the company has progressed on sound and satisfactory lines during the year under review, and is more firmly established than ever throughout the State. They record with keen pleasure their appreciation of the loyal service rendered by the officers and staff, also the generous hospitality extended to the company's representatives during the year by the local co-operative companies and many other friends in the farming community." During the course of the managing director's (Mr. Murray) remarks he announced that he had been advised that in the opinion of the responsible authorities the Westralian farmers Limited was the most suitable applicant for permission to establish a wireless broadcasting system throughout the State, and announced, amidst applause, that the first license in the State under the Commonwealth Government regulations was to be issued to the company. Further announcements would be made at an early date.[16]

Thomson of Westralian Farmers paints a detailed picture of background and future of their broadcasting station for a reporter from the Perth Daily News

"LISTENING IN" WIRELESS TELEPHONES FOR FARMERS. BROADCASTING SCHEME NEARING COMPLETION. FEBRUARY WILL SEE IT WORKING. Tea had finished on the farm. "Father" stretched himself after his long day's work and walked into the sitting-room, while the remainder of the family, excepting his school-going son, cleared away the table utensils. Filling and lighting his pipe, the farmer reached for a telephone headpiece hidden behind a short curtain. Clipping it over his ears he relapsed into an easy chair, and drew towards him a pad of paper and a pencil in case he wanted to make notes. "The wheat market is rising. An advance of 2d. a bushel is expected within the week," comes a voice over the 200 miles of ether. Other market reports of vital interest was are given to him. Half an hour later the remainder of the family trooped in, and, with the four earpieces, listened to a concert at one of Perth's theatres. On Sunday night the family — probably excepting "Father," who was busy with his books — listened to a sermon by a prominent divine. This, briefly, is the picture painted by Mr. J. Thomson, of the Westralian Farmers Ltd., who this morning explained to a representative of this paper what was being done with their scheme of broadcasting for farmers. "Many years ago, when I was a wheat inspector," he said, "I found it difficult to give farmers up-to-date information concerning markets and other matters. Particularly was this so in the busy part of the year, when the golden grain was pouring in. We all realised that a slight alteration in the wheat market had a tremendous effect on the farmers, because during January and February probably two-thirds of the whole harvest is delivered. If the farmer is out of touch with the markets his income for the year is probably seriously affected. "At that time I had carried out a few experiments in wireless telegraphy, and I could see that in the future the invention would be of considerable value to outback farmers. The discovery of the Armstrong valve, which is in appearance something like an ordinary electric light globe, revolutionised the wireless telephone and made its operation almost as easy as the controlling of a gramophone. "Unfortunately since that discovery Commonwealth regulations prevented any active steps being taken, until the agreement was come to a short time ago. When the regulations came out the Westralian Farmers Ltd. immediately got into touch with the Commonwealth Government and the Amalgamated Wireless Ltd., and a representative of the latter company came to W.A. to investigate the matter. "Mr. Basil Murray, our managing director, has always been enthusiastic over the possibilities of providing farmers who are distant from the centres of civilisation with up-to-date information regarding market fluctuations, and also in providing them with some form of entertainment. He put the matter to many country residents, and found it met with their approval. Backed with this confidence, Mr. Murray placed an order with the Amalgamated Wireless for a 2-3 kilowatt plant. When this became known many pastoralists expressed a desire to join in the scheme, and the consequence is that upon their promise of support a larger plant, a 5-6 kilowatt plant was substituted." "The installation will be in the building of the Westralian Farmers, which is admirably suited for the purpose. The masts of the aerial will stand 180ft. above the top of the roof and the aerial will be 175ft. long. On the top floor the operating room, reception room, and concert room are about to be erected. The concert room is being built in such a manner that there will be no reflection of sound on hard surfaces, and thus the voice will be made distinct. The concert room will be used for broadcasting items when there are no suitable entertainments at theatres in Perth. At the present time consideration is being given to the preparation of a time table allocating to certain hours certain classes of information and amusement. One strong feature of the broadcasting will be the possibility of transmitting to farmers speeches made by notable visitors to the State. "Under Commonwealth regulations dealers in apparatus have to be licensed, and can only supply persons with a licence to "receive." Further, the apparatus must be sealed to a certain wave length, which will correspond to the broadcasting station. Dealers in Western Australia are now anxiously awaiting the declaration of the wave length to enable them to construct plants. In order that farmers may be sure of obtaining suitable receivers, the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., has secured the services of Mr. W. E. Coxon, who for many years has been experimenting in wireless work, and has attained some fame in Australia for his results. The firm is now importing from England the necessary parts for assembling of instruments for the use of farmers in outback districts." "The cost of a receiving set will depend to a large extent on the distance the farmer is from the broadcasting station. Generally speaking, over a 300-mile radius the set, which we propose to assemble ourselves, will cost in the neighborhood of £20. Other fees for licence, royalty and subscription to the broadcasting station will amount to about £4 4s. "Already we have received several hundred applications from farmers, and we anticipate that by February 1, when we hope to have the plant in operation, we will have at least 1,000 farmers "listening in." "The usual receiving set provides for ordinary batteries which require frequent recharging, but the set we propose to provide is made a little more expensive owing to the fact that it will include a primary battery, which will last six months without recharging. The "dull emitter" valves, too, are nearly double the price of ordinary ones. Those who are electrically inclined and have motor cars of course should find little difficulty in recharging the batteries. "Oh, yes," Mr. Thomson said in conclusion, "this scheme should make conditions on the farms much more happy for all concerned, and should provide the farmer with valuable up to the minute information of the markets." A sample of the apparatus was exhibited. It is certainly no larger than an ordinary table gramophone, and is so simple in operation that a school boy could operate it. [17]

Further details of the 6WF service in the West Australian

WIRELESS FOR FARMERS. Western Australian Scheme. The extension of the use of wireless telephony in broadcasting services is expected to brighten the lot of the farming community, by removing some of the disabilities of isolation. Rapid advances made since the introduction of the Armstrong valve now provide comparatively cheap means for men on the land to keep in touch with current affairs. A service of this kind is to be put in operation by Westralian Farmers, Ltd., and a transmitting plant will be erected on the building occupied by that organisation in Wellington-street, Perth. Following upon recommendations by the representative of Amalgamated Wireless, Ltd., Sydney, a contract has been let for the erection of the necessary aerials, and the installation of the transmitter proper. In addition to operating rooms, accommodation will be made available, so that concerts or addresses may be delivered, specially for broadcasting. It is also intended to take advantage of the visits of notable persons, and to broadcast their utterances. Efforts will be made to arrange for connection with the principal theatres and churches to the same purpose. Originally it was planned to instal a 2-3 kilowat transmitter, capable of being received through average receivers up to 300 miles. As a result of overtures by pastoralists, that plan was abandoned, and it was resolved that the transmitter should have a range of 600 miles, and, accordingly, a 5-6 kilowat transmitter — the maximum power permitted by the Commonwealth Government — will be erected. The masts will rise 180 feet above the roof of the building, and the aerials (squirrel cage type) will be 175 feet long. Fortunately, the position of the building is such that the greatest distribution can be obtained. Numerous patent rights for receiving sets are held in Australia, but, after full investigation, it has been decided that the most economical method of supplying farmers with receivers will be to import the necessary parts from Great Britain, and assemble them in Perth. The services of Mr. W. E. Coxon, who has taken a leading part in broadcasting in Western Australia, have been secured by the company. Under Mr. Coxon's supervision a sample set has been manufactured, and it is expected that the cost to the farmers will be reduced by one third. The response of the farmers in connection with the scheme has been gratifying, and the general opinion is that the men on the land will benefit materially. The fact that wireless receivers cost no more than ordinary gramophones, and can be used for different purposes, is said to be fully appreciated.[18]

1923 11Edit

Further background from Murray

LOCAL AND GENERAL. . . . Wireless Broadcasting.— Mr B. L. Murray, in explaining the system, says:— "It had been decided to introduce broadcasting in Australia under certain defined regulations, and the officer appointed to investigate the claims of applicants for licenses to conduct this wireless business had recommended The Westralian Farmers Limited as being the best people to conduct the business in Western Australia. They possessed an ideal building, and a huge mast was to be erected on the roof. Every farmer who purchased a receiver set would be able to enjoy the privileges following this installation of wireless broadcasting. The fact that the board of the Westralian Farmers would settle contracts on the following morning for the establishment of broadcasting in the State would do more to break down the disadvantages and isolation of the farmer than anything else. The advantages of broadcasting were enormous, both for the company and its shareholders."[19]

Further announcements, including that a battery will be available for receivers that will only need recharging every six months!

WIRELESS BROADCASTING. FOR FARMERS. A matter of great interest to farmers is the news that the Westralian Farmers' Ltd., are going to instal a wireless broadcasting transmitter on the roof of their building in Wellington Street, Perth, during the first week of February next. This installation will be capable of transmitting messages over a radius of 600 miles, which is the limit set by the Commonwealth Act. In connection with receiving sets for individual farmers, this enterprising company has decided to import the necessary parts from Great Britain, and to adjust and assemble them in their own building, thus enabling them to sell the instruments at a cost within the reach of the majority of farmers. We understand that the cost of these sets, which will embody the best material and guarantee good results, will cost approximately £20. Furthermore, the ordinary receiving sets have storage batteries which have to be recharged at least once a fortnight; obviously the recharging of these batteries in the remoter country districts would be very difficult, and in many cases impossible. Therefore, the company has acquired a more expensive battery which will last for six months, and, although costing considerably more than the ordinary battery, will adequately compensate for the increased price, by greater convenience, and more efficient service. Farmers and pastoralists in the remoter districts of the State, will now, by means of wireless, be enabled to keep completely in touch with cur-rent affairs, and to hear immediately of news, concerts, and addresses which take place in the capital.[20]

News of 6WF travels to Mullewa

PRIMARY PRODUCERS' ASSOCIATION. MULLEWA BRANCH. A meeting of this branch was held on Saturday, October 27th. In the absence of the president, Mr. H. B. Peet was voted to the chair. . . . Mr. Raven gave a very interesting address on wireless telephony. When in Perth recently, he had listened in to a wireless demonstration, which was held in a large room, and one could hear every word distinctly, sounding very much like a large gramophone. He detailed the various wave lengths, which carry much faster by night than day, and also stated that a paper had been established, named the "Western Wireless," which no doubt, in time, would attain a wide circulation. Wireless broadcasting was a magnificent enterprise by the Westralian Farmers' Ltd., which meant that all agricultural communities could now be linked by wireless. [21]

Further details about 6WF

WIRELESS FOR WESTERN AUSTRALIA. PROGRESS OF THE WESTRALIAN FARMERS' LTD. INSTALLATION. (From "The Primary Producer.") Matters in connection with the establishment of the wireless installation by The Westralian Farmers Ltd. are progressing well. There has been some delay in finalising the matter owing to the difficulty in getting down to bedrock on account of numerous patents and other matters which interfere with free trading in wireless. The firm has, however, at last been able to see daylight, and has definitely ordered a wireless broadcasting transmitter. This will be erected during the first week in February, and will be of sufficient power to transmit messages over a radius of 600 miles. The original intention was to limit this to 300 miles, but at the special request of the pastoralists, who have offered to put up sufficient capital to pay for the additional cost, it has now been decided to erect the strongest permitted to be used under the Commonwealth Act. Farmers are naturally interested in the receiving sets, and the firm is at present engaged upon drawing up the price list, giving full information. We may say that the set standardised by Amalgamated Wireless Ltd. for Australia is called the "Radiola," and is a very high class instrument, the cost of same being £32. As this would be too high priced for many farmers, the firm has secured the services of Mr. W. E. Coxon, who is the leading exponent of wireless transmission in Western Australia, and has gone into the details connected with making his own sets. The Westralian Farmers' Ltd. have decided to import the necessary parts from Great Britain, and to adjust and assemble them in their own building. By this means, after paying all royalties, duty, etc., they will be able to sell to the farmers a broadcasting set at approximately £20. This set will be of such a kind as will guarantee good results to the farmers. It would be possible to cheapen the set by putting other than the best material into it, but it has been decided that this would be wrong policy, as a few pounds difference in the price would not be compensated for by the dissatisfaction which would be caused to the farmers. In other ways the convenience of the farmers outback has been considered. For instance, the ordinary sets sold have storage batteries which have to be recharged at least once a fortnight. The firm is putting in a more expensive primary battery, which will last for six months, but this also entails the use of what are known as dull emitter valves, the cost of which is approximately double that of the ordinary valve. These two items, alone, run into several pounds difference in price, but it is considered that farmers will appreciate the extra convenience, as charging an ordinary storage battery in the country would, in many cases, be impossible, and in most difficult.[22]

Call magazine opines that broadcasting in Australia is coming too slowly and receivers are too expensive (sealed sets)

BROADCASTING BUNGLERS. How Australia Lags Behind. While All the World is "Listening In" :: The Commonwealth is Still Asleep :: What Broadcasting Will Do :: For Our Scattered Population :: The Government Must Help Some months ago we read in the dailies those regulations regarding "wireless" which the Federal authorities deemed it wise to issue. It was the comfortable belief of many that once these regulations were gazetted we would be "broadcasting" in this State. Somehow or other this has not happened. HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS LISTENING IN. We know from a recently returned visitor to Britain that there are hundreds of thousands of "listeners in" there. Great Britain is supposed to be a slow country. Now, if Britain can support "broadcasting," so can we, on a smaller scale. And the audience is here for it. The Westralian Farmers have announced their intention of supplying "broadcast" messages in the New Year. That is good hearing. But it is not enough. Because this pioneering company says that "receiving sets" will cost £20 each. Now, that is not a large sum but it means an expenditure that many cannot afford — many of those who would like to "listen in" and who really are entitled to benefit from this latest advancement of science. It is from this aspect that we look at broadcasting. OUTBACKER'S CHANCE. Those of us who are city dwellers probably will have little trouble in getting into touch with the wonders of the air. But are our friends in the country going to be so fortunately situated? Present indications seem to point to this fact:— Listening in is going to be rather an expensive business in this country. If this should be so, it will be regrettable, because there are few countries where "broadcasting" will be better appreciated. It is going to make a wonderful change in the lives of our outback folk. It will not merely amuse them on those dull nights when there is "nothing doing," but it will bring them intimately into touch with those smaller amenities of civilisation that they miss (to some extent) through being out in "the bush." WHERE THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD HELP. What seems to this paper to be very desirable is that receiving sets should be available at least to outback residents at a very slight cost. Of course this will not happen all at once. But it certainly seems that if ever there was justification for the Federal Parliament to serve the people, here is the time and opportunity. Just think what "broadcasting" is going to mean to Australia! The great problem of our country is to get people settled, really settled, on our vacant spaces. We have many such spaces; we can do with many such settlers. But how are the settlers in the city and the settlers in the country ever to get really into touch? Broadcasting will do this. WEARING WIRELESS TELEPHONES. This paper believes that in the very near future every citizen of major years will be wearing a wireless telephone in his pocket, just as he wears a watch. That is not an extravagant prophecy. But we can only get there by gradual approaches. Broadcasting will help greatly. It is far past the experimental stage. It is in operation throughout Britain and America. France was in it before Britain woke up. And Germany, as usual, stole America's brains. The South Americans on the Atlantic and Pacific sides of their country are awake to the value of broadcasting. In fact, the Esquimaux of Greenland are listening in to concerts at Stockholm. And we in Australia don't know broadcasting yet. A FEW APOSTLES. A few earnest seekers after scientific facts are in our midst as a "wireless club." They know a great deal about the possibilities of this wonderful discovery. But they cannot bring it close to the people because that is outside their scope. Our central Government must subsidise receiving sets. Cut out the duty on them. Cut out landing charges. Cut out all "overhead." Let the people have listening-in apparatus at the lowest rates. Then private enterprise will supply them with their entertainment and commercial requirements. IT MUST COME. Broadcasting must be a big thing in this State. We should all be working together to establish this marvel of science in our midst on the right lines.[23]

1923 12Edit

In West Dukin, the farmers are still waiting on a telephone line, let alone 6WF

WEST DUKIN NOTES. Despite the fact that the Westralian Farmers have nearly finished their arrangements for installing a wireless broadcasting plant, West Dukin farmers take a more practical view of different matters. Whilst admitting that, from a social standpoint, wireless would be an undoubted boon, it cannot be seen how wireless in its present state will benefit the farmer in his occupation. A move was made about two months ago with a view to obtaining a branch telephone installed locally. Arrangements have proceeded satisfactorily and the manager of Telephones, Perth, has given every encouragement to further the scheme. The Telephone Department pointed out that they would be quite prepared to construct a trunk line from Dukin in the direction of West Dukin, at a cost of £1500 providing that the farms were well established and the facility was considered a public necessity. Concerning these two items there is little to be feared as West Dukin is considered to be one of the most progressive districts in the locality. Of eleven farms adjoining, nine are occupied by returned soldiers, this being regarded somewhat as a record. Regarding the question of the telephone being a public necessity there is not a doubt. Every settler in the district has promised to become a subscriber in the event of a line being erected. With a view to discussing the question of telephones, a special meeting of the West Dukin Primary Producers' Association was held at their social club's grounds on the 2nd inst. The meeting was well attended and much enthusiasm was shown over the proposed scheme. After considerable discussion, it was decided to arrange with the Tele phone Department to have an officer visit the locality with a view to inspecting the proposed route, also to discuss the scheme more fully. At the conclusion of the meeting West Dukin Cricket Club held a practice match. What was lacking in form was made up by the spirit displayed. It was decided to issue a challenge to the Booralaming team, the match to eventuate on on the 23rd. inst. Afternoon tea was kindly supplied by the ladies and was much appreciated.[24]

Westralian Farmers building the site of a receiver for a broadcast by Coxon

PEEPS at PEOPLE. . . . One of the first in W.A. to sing and speak into a broadcasting wireless set was Peter Roxby, of the W.A.G. Railways. From the installation of Mr. W. E. Coxon, in North Perth, Mr. Roxby and Gwladys Edwards broadcasted mellifluous numbers to all capable of receiving them per the intervening ether. One of the metropolitan receiving sets was in the Westralian Farmers' building, the other being at Mr. Darling's home in South Perth. At both these and hundreds of others the artists were distinctly heard, answers coming from places as far apart as Albany and Meekatharra, Geraldton, Kalgoorlie, Leonora, and Esperance that every note and word of the wireless was heard and enjoyed. Truly Marconi is making the world small![25]

In WA all broadcasting roads lead to Westralian Farmers

WIRELESS BROADCASTING AND LISTENING-IN. "Ananias" writes:— Let me trespass on your generosity once again. We are greatly struck by the progress of wireless telegraphy and broadcasting. We want to install a listening-in set, and what we want to know is (1) Where are they sold? (2) What does the cheapest one cost? (3) Is there any literature on the subject as it concerns amateurs? (4) Are there any official restrictions to deter the installation of a wireless receiving set, after the registration fee of 10s. per annum is paid? Hoping this catechism does not worry you too much, and thanking you for past advice. My suggestion is that you write to the Westralian Farmers Ltd., Wellington-street Perth, for full information about their broadcasting wireless scheme. I think that it is only through them you will be able to secure facilities for listening-in. It is useless having a wireless installation unless you are in touch with a distributing system. You can procure books on wireless from any bookseller. Messrs. Alberts and Sons, Ltd., 180 Murray-street, have sent me a long list of the prices ranging from 1s. 6d. to 21s. plus postage. The following are a few: — The Wireless Man, by Collins, 5s., Wires and Wireless, 2s., Radio and Everybody, 8s., Telegraphy, Telephony, and Wireless, 4s. 6d. The A.B.C. of Radio, 1s. 6d. It must be remembered that wireless work is complicated and one who wishes to understand it must start at the beginning. The scheme being installed by the Westralian Farmers will be like the telephone system. The subscriber need know little or nothing of the reasons, construction and mechanism. He will pay for the installation and the rent of the apparatus, and will simply have to follow the rules given him.[26]

Another announcement about 6WF

WIRELESS BROADCASTING. The Westralian Farmers, Ltd., have shown their enterprise in the interests of their thousands of country clients, and the community generally, by arranging that the fine building owned and occupied by them in Wellington-street, Perth, shall be known as "Western Australia's First Broadcasting Centre." On the roof of this building will be erected the masts and adjuncts, which will be the only sign of the message flowing from that centre to nearly all parts of Western Australia. The steel masts will rise to a height of 100ft. clear above the building, the span between them being about 170ft. With the transmitting plant of five kilowatts, the maximum allowed under the Commonwealth regulations, messages can reach practically the whole of the population of Western Australia. The distance at which messages can be received is decided not only by the power of the transmitting station, but also by the sensitiveness of the reception plant. With a comparatively simple valve set messages should be received clearly at a distance of 600 miles away, and if conditions are favorable at 800 miles. The limit when cost and difficulty of adjustment make reception prohibitive would be reached at possibly 1500 miles from Perth in a direct air line. The Westralian Farmers, Ltd, have retained the services of that well-known wireless expert, Mr. W. S. Coxon, and are now taking orders for their broadcasting receiver, which will be known as the "Mulgaphone." It is understood that the service will be in operation next February.[27]

As previous

KULIN KOMMENTS. . . . Wireless Telephones. The Westralian Farmers, Limited, expects to be ready in February next to start broadcasting and those interested in "listening in" should at once communicate with Mr. L. Ellson (secretary) Primary Producers' Association (Kulin branch) to obtain full particulars for the installation of the necessary instruments. The ad-vantages to be derived from this system are not yet understood in Australia but by reading what is done elsewhere one may get some idea of the benefit of getting market quotations, weather forecasts, concert items, speeches and sermons as well as the news of the world by simply putting a receiver to the ear in one's own house at various times during the day or night.[28]

A report of the radio scene in Kansas sets high expectations for 6WF in WA

THE RADIO. MARKET REPORTS SHOUTED TO YOU ON THE FARM. Mr H. Griffiths writes as follows: "Sir.— In view of the early initiative of wireless telephony by the Westralian Farmers Ltd., a letter and cutting I have received from a friend of mine in Kansas City, has caused me to compile from them the following article. My friend in writing says: "The cutting I send you makes somewhat startling reading, but it pictures very accurately the effect this wonderful invention is having on town and country life. I know your interest in farming matters, and have sent this as likely to be of interest to your farmer friends." I am sending it along to you (Mr Griffiths continues) for publication. Radio is very near us now, and 'tis time we began to realise what is coming" — (Enclosure) "This is what caught me." When I moved near the town of Oswego, in Southern Kansas, I went one morning, shortly after settling down, into town to mail a letter by the 10 25. In the mail office from a desk against the wall a radio horn was calling off the livestock markets as distinctly as if it were a man standing there and talking. Says I to myself, "This looks good business to have one of these contraptions on my farm, I'll go and hunt around and see what's doing." I found much more than that for Oswego is fairly saturated with radio. There is a free radio programme every weekday and night in 25 business houses and offices and in 56 homes in the town, and from morning until midnight radio horns are singing, lecturing, telling items of news from every part of the country, shouting base ball scores, and rendering all sorts of musical programmes from everywhere. I went from the Post across to Frick's drug store, and a loud speaker back near the prescription case was calling out the grain markets. Passing Woolverson's drug store, I heard the weather reports coming in. I went into Wilkerson's store for a lead pencil, and I heard a voice from a radio horn telling the condition of the roads. For a half hour that noon in Burge's cafe I ate luncheon to radio music. Between 2 and 3 o'clock that afternoon I went to Loper's barber's shop, and while he shaved me I listened to a popular musical concert. Between 3.30 and 4.30 I went into Van Alstines store and saw 20 women listening to the Kansas City Stars matinee of classical music. Between 7 and 10 concerts were in full blast from Dallas, Forth Worth, Detroit, Davenport, Winnipeg, and Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. I went in next day and arranged for a receiving set to go on my farm, and I found the whole town listening to the baseball score from a game between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Chicago Cubs. Oswego is the home of Earl Hamilton, pitcher for the Pirates. I went to his mother's house that day and talked with her, while the radio horn on the piano called off the score and every move of her son in the game. "It's just like I was watching Earl play," said she. Fredonia. "A year ago we installed a radio set to receive market reports for the country farm bureau and for all towns in the country." We here in Fredonia send the radio service out over the telephone system, much the same way as it is sent over the electric light wires in Oswego. This plan was originated by J A Gustafson, manager of the Fredonia Telephone Company, who went on to inform a reporter, "Every evening we received concerts, and such crowds came to hear them, that we connected a line from the receiving set to our switchboard. Then any of our 1,100 subscribers might call in from their homes and have the operator connect them with our radio set, and without extra cost or any kind of extra equipment, they may hear the market reports, concerts, or whatever is going on." We have 300 subscribers out in the country, and they have our schedule and know when markets are coming in. All they have to do is to listen over the telephone. Our big day is Sunday, when everybody wants to hear the religious services. As an experiment we put a loud speaker in one of our drug stores and attached to a special wire in our telephone cable that was connected with our radio set. This attracted such crowds to the drug store that others wanted it, and we extended the service by putting loud speakers in 60 business places, homes and offices, We have applications from 200 more homes that want the service." A Typical Farmer's Opinion of Radio on His Farm. Mr E T Wright, of Labette County is cited because he is typical of thousands of farmers who have installed radio sets, not so much for the market reports as to furnish entertainment and banish lonesomeness and isolation. Wright is 70 years old. He has lived on the same farm 50 years, but it's entirely different since radio came. "I'll tell you how I came to instal it," he said. "You see my wife and I are alone; our children are grown up, married, on their own farms; we are getting along in years, so one night last fall as we sat alone, I was reading about radio. I suggested to my wife that this radio service is just the thing we wanted; here we sit alone through these long evenings and all these concerts and lectures are going through the air, over the roof, and we are not hearing any of it. Let's get a radio set and hear what is going on in the world. Ma didn't think much of it; didn't think it would be possible to hear over it, but I was thinking more about her than myself; you know a woman on a farm gets more lonesome than a man. The very next day I went to town and paid 150 dollars for this receiving set." In answer to a query how far he could hear with it Wright replied, "The farthest I ever heard was Havana Cuba. Last night we listened to a Grand opera sung in a theatre in Chicago and it was as clear and loud as if we had been right there." He said he could tune Detroit, Columbus, Minneapolis, Denver and different stations in Texas when he wanted to." Mrs Wright questioned as to whether she liked it said, "I couldn't do without it. It's great company for me, I'm not lonesome any more." Mr Wright continuing said, "A summary of the markets and a little music to liven it up comes in at noon and I can hear it as I eat my dinner; but the best fun is at night twisting the nobs on it and fishing round in the air for different broadcasting stations, it is like fishing in a grab bag for a prize, you don't know what you are going to get. It may be one of those jazz bands down in Dallas or a tune on a fiddle at Columbus, or a grand opera from Chicago or a minstrel troupe from Kansas City, or a speech from a big bug in St. Louis, but the best of all is on Sunday. That was always a lonesome day for us. Now we have some neighbours in and fish around for good music and sermons. We get some fine organ music on Sundays, big church organs that fill the house with music and church choirs singing. Last Sunday I tuned in on five different church services. I like to hear what all these different preachers have to say. There is the latter day saints up in Independence, they are the old Mormons you know, I had read so much against them that I was prejudiced, but I find that they preach the same gospel as others. We get Roman Catholic sermons and Episcopal, Methodist and Baptist, and all denominations and they are all good Christian Doctrine. It makes a man broad in his religious views, when he hears them all. There are no creed lines in the air and so radio services are making people more tolerant; but the best Church Service comes from Atlanta. It's an old fashioned service with the Preacher lining out the hymns, the same old tunes that I used to sing in Church 40 years ago. We sit in front of the horn and join in singing with that congregation down in Atlanta, and when the Preacher prays we all bow our heads too. I trust readers will enjoy this article and be made alive to the closeness of the big change now near. The imagination falters in measuring the full significance of radio. Forces of no less promise have written strange history. In the grain and produce markets alone wonders will be accomplished. It will not be long before the farmer in the field follows the course of the daily market as closely as the merchant on the trading floor. The magic is his, he merely stretches phantom fingers in the air and pulls it down."[29]

Another report of the imminent commencement of 6WF, ultimately proving inaccurate

RURAL TOPICS. . . . The Westralian Farmers expect to start broadcasting concerts, market reports, news, etc., per wireless about the end of January. About £10,000 is to be spent on the plant, which is being installed by experts, and which will be, according to reports, stronger than the Applecross station. Mr. A. J. Leckie (Mus. Bac.) is arranging a series of concerts for the year.[30]

1924Edit

1924 01Edit

Westralian Farmers now stating that 6WF would commence in February

PRIMARY PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION. BALINGUP BRANCH. . . . The Westralian Farmers wrote that they contemplated starting to broadcast in February next. Sets for listening in, and full information re wireless could be obtained from the branch secretary, or the local co-op.[31]

Mullalyup Primary Producers advises their members to order their (sealed set) receivers through their secretary

MULLALYUP PRIMARY PRODUCERS. . . . Members who intended joining the Westralian Farmers wireless broadcasting service can order sets for listening in, through the branch secretary, Mr. W. S. Brown.[32]

Thompson states that 6WF will commence in February

"LISTENING IN." WESTRALIAN FARMERS SCHEME DENIAL OF HITCH. Rumor yesterday had it that the wireless broadcasting scheme of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., had been temporarily suspended because of some hitch with the makers of the apparatus. This morning Mr. Thompson, who is in charge of the wireless department of this firm, completely denied the rumor. "Everything is going along all right," he said. "Speaking of rumors, we were told yesterday that Farmers, Ltd. of Sydney, had cancelled all their subscriptions and had returned the money, but from Press reports the opening of the scheme was eminently successful." How long do you anticipate it will be before your firm's scheme is in operation? "About another month. It is a very high-powered station, and it will naturally take some adjustment before things are perfect. The station will be more powerful than those operating in England at the present time. In England they are operating on 1,500 watt sets, whereas our set will be between 5,000 and 6,000 watts. I understand the Applecross station is about 2,000 watts. 5,000 watts is the maximum power permitted under the Commonwealth regulations. The remainder of our transmitting apparatus is not expected until February 1. Three consignments of material from England have been received, and we are starting to put things together now."[33]

6WF commencement months away, but debate upon best programming rages

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . What class of matter will the West Australian Farmers most appreciate with regard to broadcasting? With the farmers of U.S.A. the movements of livestock markets comes highest in popular regard. Then weather reports, followed by fruit and vegetable prices, ditto daily products, and other marketable foods, cotton, etc., produced on a farm. These radio reports are being very widely received, and made use of by farmers, and also by consumers of farm products, who can thus regulate supplies according to the state of the markets day by day. Acting upon a consensus of all the replies, the efficiency of the service has been still further developed. Great variation has to be provided for in the choosing of the programmes of a broadcasting station, for as some people like one thing, some like another, and a great many like nothing at all, it will be appreciated what skill is needed in choosing the items. In the programmes of the British Broadcasting Co. for a single week there were to be found included an All-British symphony concert, ballads, chamber music, dance music, humorous entertainments, news, weather forecasts, children's stories, talks to farmers, followers of football and racing, theatregoers, boy scouts and girl guides, readings of Shakespeare's plays, a daily "woman's hour," religious addresses, and short lectures.[34]

18 amateur transmitting licences current in WA in the lead up to 6WF commencement, only 3 transmitting regular programs

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . Some amateurs seem rather shy of the microphone, a sort of "wait-for-the-other-chap-to-start-first" feeling. I give below a list of experimental transmitting license holders in our State:— 6AB, Cecil, C., 75 Dugan-street, Kalgoorlie; 6AC, Spark, J., 23 Mount-street, Perth; 6AF, Sibly, A., 38 Park-street, North Perth; 6AK, University of West Australia, Perth; 6AM, Kennedy, P., 210 Walcott-street, Mt. Lawley; 6AQ, Matthews, V. J., Beechboro-road, Bayswater; 6BG, Technical School, Perth; 6BH, Burrows, F. H., 9 John-street, Claremont; 6BP, Stott's Business College, St. George's-terrace, Perth; 6BR, Wireless Institute (W.A. division), St. George's-terrace, Perth; 6BT and 6BU, McKail, H., Perth Boys' School, Perth; 6CJ, Darley, E. J., Darley-street, South Perth; 6CZ, Law, F. W., corner Bedford and Bunbury roads, Armadale, 6DD, Bishop, C. E., Grey-street, Albany; 6AG, Coxon, W. E., Bulwer-street, North Perth; 6BN, Stevens, 1 Ruth-street, North Perth; 6WP, Phipps, W. R., 97 Rupert-street, Subiaco. Quite an impressive list, and about three undertaking regular transmissions.[35]

Wireless journalist promoting the purchase of receiving sets in the lead up to 6WF commencement

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . These notes, I am confident, will be perused by thousands of amateurs and would-bes who have not yet realised the full pleasures to be derived by the installation of a wireless receiver in the home. Now, I want you to get busy and see about your wireless set at once. This applies more particularly to the farmer. Broadcasting, will be in action in our State inside a month from now, is to be maintained by the Westralian Farmers Ltd., Perth, and will cater especially for the man on the land. Even if you live hundreds of miles distant from this centre, by means of a suitable receiver you will receive weather reports, market quotations, and the very best of entertainment all the year round, at a cost of your receiver and a trivial license fee. Just think of it, you will sit down to your receiver after the day's work is finished, put on your phones, and you are instantly transported to the latest play acted at one of the theatres in Perth, and broadcast far and wide for you and your countrymen's benefit. You will know the weather report for the following day, and so will be enabled to prepare your tomorrow's plans beforehand. You will receive the latest news from the press, even before the majority of persons in the city itself receive it. Truly a marvellous age. Therefore, let the slogan for 1924, "A receiving set in every home," be yours. No home in which it is desired to create the real home atmosphere" should be without a broadcast receiving set. The cost is small, the value great. Investigate the matter right now for yourself, and you will soon follow the lead of thousands of other happy homemakers.[36]

1924 02Edit

Westralian Farmers suggests that Mullewa Branch of the Primary Producers Association appoint an agent to introduce wireless sets to the district

PRIMARY PRODUCERS' ASSOCIATION. MULLEWA BRANCH. A meeting of this branch was held on January 26th, Mr. A. S. Raven occupying the chair. . . . An interesting circular letter on wireless telephony was received from the Westralian Farmers' Ltd., and suggesting that an agent be appointed from the branch to introduce the wireless sets for the district. It was resolved to acknowledge the letter, saying that in the opinion of the branch Mr. A. S. Raven should be their authorised agent for the Mullewa district.[37]

The South Western Times of Bunbury supplements a paid advertisement (not yet located) for the Mulgaphone with a background article

"LISTENING-IN." A BROADCASTING ENTERPRISE. The Westralian Farmers Ltd., have embarked upon a comprehensive broadcasting and "listening-in" radio and wireless scheme, as announced by advertisement appearing elsewhere in this issue, and wish to draw the attention of all South-Westerners interested to the advantages offered to the community in general. They state that as soon as the plant is in operation, messages, reports, prices, advices, and a host of interesting information, and in addition both vocal and instrumental music, will be passing through the atmosphere. Visitors to the State, who, at present speak in the Town Hall to an exclusive Perth audience, will be able in future to speak to the whole country from the sending station at The Westralian Farmers. The company made enquiries regarding the cost of receiving sets, and ultimately came to the conclusion that in order to give users the best possible service at the lowest price, it was essential that the Company should assemble its own sets. The Westralian Farmers, Limited, are therefore putting upon the market a receiving set known as the "Mulgaphone," which is capable of receiving messages from the broadcasting station at a distance of at least 600 miles from Perth in a direct air line. Another point in connection with ordinary receiving sets is the fact that they require a battery of electrical accumulators which require recharging frequently. Obviously for farmers outback it is a matter of expense, and in most cases, impossibility, for batteries to be sent into a charging station to be specially recharged. The "Mulgaphone" has therefore been fitted with two dull Emitter Valves, which while increasing the cost of the set, require very little electric current to work them, and dry cells can be used instead of accumulators. Such dry cells will last for six months without charging. The price of the complete set and the wire for the aerial is £22, free on rail, Perth. For the broadcasting service rendered by the Westralian Farmers, an annual charge will be made of £4 4s., of which 10s. 6d. has to be paid to the Commonwealth Government as license for the farmer's receiving set, £1 1s. for the royalties charged by the Amalgamated Wireless on the set, and the balance for operating expenses, and to pay for concerts and other items transmitted by that wireless apparatus.[38]

Daily News journalist fooled by Government and AWA propaganda and finds supporters of the sealed set scheme (see also a knowledgeable response in letter to editor next day)

"SEALED" RADIO SETS. DO THEY GRANT A MONOPOLY? VIEWS OF EXPERIMENTERS. Complaint was recently made by a man who had made himself a wireless set. After the construction of the apparatus was completed he listened-in to broadcasting with satisfactory results, and when he sought official approval for the use of the plant it was withheld, and the man was called upon to either discard his set or adjust it with the aid of expensive apparatus. This morning a number of experimenters and makers of wireless apparatus were interviewed, and in every case they had no fault to find with the regulations of the Commonwealth. It had been stated by the person making the complaint that no other country but Australia adopted the sealed set system, but one wireless enthusiast said that a somewhat similar system had been in force in Germany for a number of years. There the broadcasting service was under the control of the post office, and the receiving-sets were hired out like telephones. Bank managers, stock brokers, and business men generally had them installed, at their country homes, so that they might continually keep in touch with market fluctuations. "Those people," the experimenter said, "don't mind whether the sets are sealed or not. What they want is the service — and they receive it. I wouldn't mind if the Commonwealth came along and sealed down my telephone. I would still be able to put it to its legitimate use; and it is only the service I want." Another experimenter explained the difference between the two classes of receiving licences. There was the licence granted to the bona fide experimentalist and the one granted to the man who merely wanted the amusement of musical concerts by radio. It was suggested that if the person complaining was capable of building a set, adjusting and working it, he should have little difficulty in securing an experimentalist's licence which would enable him to receive on any wave length, for his set would not be "sealed." Many of the present experimenters were youths upon whom the payment of a broadcasting fee might fall heavily, and this experimenter suggested that the parents or the tenants of the house might club together and pay the several guineas necessary if they wished to take advantage of the boy's set for the purposes of amusement. It was made quite clear, however, that at the present time there was no obligation to do so. "The ordinary wireless experimenter would not be able to make a receiver with a given wave length," another enthusiast said. "Of the total number of licensees holding experimentalists' "tickets" I don't think more than 5 per cent. could make a receiving set which would meet with the approval of the authorities. By this I mean that there is a large number of boys who "potter around" with a plant, but who are unqualified to construct one to given capacity. Of the serious experimenters, however, and there are many who have given many years' study to the business, I think about 75 per cent. in this State could build a plant which would be approved." One trouble which had been experienced was that the authorities would test any plant put before them, but they would not issue drawings and particulars from which a plant of a given wave length could be constructed. The authorities, it was said, were not anxious to know very much about the "internals" of the plant so long as it stood up to the official test. The purpose of this test, it was explained, was to make sure that electricity would not be discharged from it into the ether and thus cause interference, and secondly to ascertain that the plant was capable of being sealed to one wave length, with about a 10 per cent, tuning allowance. A representative of a company interesting itself in broadcasting said he felt sure they would not object to the use of home made plants so long as the broadcasting fee was paid and the plant had been approved by the authorities. Commenting on the complaints generally, he said if inspection was not insisted upon, cheap and nasty materials could be sold; therefore it was in the interests of those who had receiving sets that the regulations operated. It looked to him as if some opposition from the trade was at the bottom of the complaint. It was admitted that a sealed set was more expensive than an unsealed one. There was an extra cost in producing and complying with official requirements. If a mechanic had a free hand he could make a plant much simpler. Possibly an unsealed set could be made for £16, while a "sealed set" might cost £20. Of course sets could be bought cheaper than that, but they would not receive at any great distance. One hundred and fifty guineas could be spent on a set mounted in a cabinet of Queen Anne style, or with Chippendale legs, but the receiving power would be no better than the £20 one. "If we didn't have some restriction," another experimenter said, "our wireless nights would be filled with squeaks and cat-calls caused by oscillations escaping from the aerial and our musical concerts would largely be spoilt. The sealing of the sets is financially necessary to the broadcasting companies. If sets were unsealed and a broadcasting company started, it would be easy for other firms to supply sets by which their customers could listen in to the original broadcasting company without fee. There was nothing so far as he knew to prevent a person building his own receiving set for use in connection with a broadcasting station so long as it was capable of being sealed to the wavelength employed, and it complied with the other departmental restrictions."[39]

Goldfields Radio Society sees significant growth in the lead up to 6WF commencement, looks to acquire a receiving set to hear the opening

GOLDFIELDS RADIO SOCIETY. Mr. Sterling presided over an excellent attendance on Tuesday evening last. Correspondence was received from Mr. Ceci1 advising he would be returning during the next week; and from Messrs. Stokes, Melbourne submitting quote for badge as per design submitted. It was resolved that 50 badges be ordered. Eleven new members were nominated and elected. The president extended a welcome to them, and expressed the hope that there would be more to show them in the near future. A short address was delivered by Mr. Stanton, who explained some of the terms and diagrams commonly used in wireless periodicals. A draft of an appeal for financial assistance to be addressed to prominent citizens was read and approved. It is expected that the powerful broadcasting station of Westralian Farmers, Ltd., will be in operation this month. The wave length is announced as 1050 metres. The society is desirous of having a set of its own ready in time for the opening of this station, and if the appeal for funds is successful, this can easily be accomplished. Notice of motion was handed in "That the motion fixing nights of meeting be rescinded, and that the society meet weekly in future." This will be discussed at the meeting to be held next Tuesday.[40]

Status report on progress with installation of 6WF

NOTES AND COMMENTS ON MATTERS TOPICAL. . . . Work in connection with the Westralian Farmers' broadcasting station is progressing slowly but surely. A few days ago two holes were knocked in the roof to admit of the aerial supports and before long a gang of plumbers will be set to work effecting joins between each sheet of galvanised iron on the roof. Without the whole roof being made a good conductor, there is the possibility that "sparking" might take place between the sheets of iron when the apparatus was working. Substantial progress has been made with the studio from which the concerts will be given. It is said that when the studio is finished a brass band could play therein, and the sound will be so mellowed that it would sound as in the open air, while the speaker will think he has suddenly been struck dumb. This studio should prove a good practising ground for budding politicians.[41]

A reader of the Perth Daily New pens an indictment of sealed sets and use the Wesfarmers radio set as an example

SEALED RADIO SETS. (To the Editor.) Sir,— It is very difficult to believe, as the writer states in your article in last night's "News," that the opinions expressed and the statements set forth therein are from "a number of experimenters and makers of wireless apparatus." It speaks very little for their knowledge of the regulations governing wireless in Australia. There is hardly an accurate statement in the whole thing, and it would be a good idea for those who expressed the ideas quoted to get a copy from the Government Printing Office of the wireless regulations in force at the moment. This costs one shilling, and I would strongly recommend some of those experimenters to hurry up and get a copy and read it. If any person in Australia buys parts and makes himself a wireless receiver, without first getting a licence, he is simply breaking the law, just as one would do in England or anywhere else, and I believe I am safe in saying that the incident mentioned at the beginning of the article in question is inaccurately set forth. As regards sealed sets, the statements are very misleading. Briefly, the state of affairs is that if a person wants to listen to broadcasting merely, he buys a set sealed to one or more waves. The waves are set by the Postmaster-General, the public are informed as to the special wave length applying to any particular station, and any one can buy a set sealed to that wave, provided the set has been passed by the State inspector. This sealing has nothing what ever to do with experimenters or amateurs. It concerns dealers only. A dealer designs a set, and takes one made to his design to the State radio inspector. This official tests it, and it is either rejected or passed. If passed it becomes the master type for that dealer, and he (the dealer) can make as many of them as he likes. For instance, when the Westralian Farmers Station commences, every dealer will be informed of the wave length to be employed. Any dealer can immediately make a set adjusted to this wave and take it to the inspector in the G.P.O. If the inspector passes it that dealer can make as many as be likes, only when he sells a set he gives the customer a form to fill in. This form is the broadcast licence. The dealer collects the fee required by the Westralian Farmers for their service. The Postmaster-General takes 10s of this. The W.F. may, out of the remainder, pay some royalties, and the remainder, whatever it is, is their revenue for their service. The remark about amateurs making sets that will pass the test is somewhat amusing, in view of the fact that many sets made by very well known firms in the Eastern States have so far failed to pass the test, which is quite a severe one. It was not my intention to discuss the merits or demerits of the system, but I would mention that, the system is doomed, as surely as it can be. In the Eastern States there is a definite move against the system. It seems a fairly well established fact that many sets have been returned, on account of the inefficiency of a set working under such limitations. It is required in these sets that they shall not be sensitive to signals coming in on waves 10 per cent. shorter or longer than the prescribed wave. This means that the set has to be either very elaborate or else insensitive. Either of these alternatives work against popularising radio, obviously. To say that a sealed set is more expensive to make than an ordinary set, betokens a lamentable knowledge of the most elementary principles of a radio receiver. Anyone can surely understand that a set which is capable of adjustment to any wave must be more intricate than one fixed to only one wave. Surely a little consideration would have prevented such an extraordinary statement being made. Finally, I would like to say that no experimenter, unless he has been expressly informed that he will be expected to pay a fee, is under any obligation to pay one, and no broadcasting firm can demand it from him. All serious experimenters, however, are of the opinion that a small fee paid by them would be only reasonable, and I believe that if they are called upon to pay a reasonable amount they will pay up to a man.— Yours, etc., JOHN A. WISHAW.[42]

Robert Wilkes, supporting the Wishaw letter above, pens a telling indictment of the Sealed Sets regulations

SEALED RADIO SETS. (To the Editor.) Sir,— To say the least of it, I was astounded at the opinions expressed in the interviews in your issue of Monday on the wireless situation here. The opinions quoted do not in any sense represent those of the big majority of experimenters or amateurs, who are absolutely against the "sealed set," and everything appertaining thereto. Might I suggest, Mr. Editor, that the experimenter who has an experimental licence is not a proper person to consult on such a matter. The experimental licence entitles the holder to use almost any class of instrument and to receive on any wave length. How, then, can you expect him to bother his head very much about the poor "sealed set" owner? The "sealed set" regulations must go. They were doomed from the beginning, and I have no hesitation in prophesying that they will be considerably modified within a few weeks, and will he entirely remodelled within a few months. Our democratic public will not stand such restrictions. The whole regulations are the very limit as far as grandmotherly supervision and restriction of personal liberty are concerned. At pre-sent the Australian radio public and their regulations are the laughing stock of the radio world, and rightly so, too. I have made a close study of the regulations of nearly every country of the world that has published any regulations at all and I can find nothing to equal ours in their absurd restrictions. These regulations are al-ready causing very considerable trouble in the East. The Government, following the dictates of a certain large company, have made stringent regulations that give certain broadcasting companies here not only a monopoly, but give them the right to tell the wireless enthusiast that he must pay any fee that the company demands, seal his set to their wave length only, or forfeit his Government licence. In addition he is forbidden by the regulations to use certain well-understood improvements that have recently been perfected, because the authorities say that if allowed to use these improvements the licensee would very likely interfere with other users. This to me is very much like forbidding a motorist having a car that can exceed the speed limit, for fear that he might interfere with other users of the road. To me it seems that the authorities still think that they are dealing with a lot of boys, and not with grown men. But recent developments in wireless broadcasting have attracted to the field a big section of the public who, I can assure you, Mr. Editor, are not going to put up with for very long the many petty interferences with their liberty which are incorporated in these regulations. Right through the Eastern States the regulations have brought consternation, and it seems that the Government, in their anxiety to support a monopoly, have imposed so many restrictions on radio that the public is not buying — will not touch it. Although a large broadcasting company has been established in Sydney for some months, it has practically no subscribers. Dealers are selling practically no "sealed sets" — and they are not likely to do much business until this "sealed set" farce goes overboard. The authorities are supposed, according to what they tell us, to have learnt a lot from the experiments of the authorities in England. Apparently they have not learnt the big lesson that was given them by the restrictions imposed in England at the beginning of last year. The little trouble that was caused over licences last year created over a quarter of a million so-called "pirates," who paid no licence fees at all. Not until these restrictions were removed did the public come forward, register their sets, and pay their licence fees — and the same thing is going to happen, here — is already happening. Anyone can see — the fact is already appreciated in the East — that in a few months we shall have fifty pirates for one li-censed subscriber to a broadcasting company. With open unsealed sets and un-restricted methods of reception, what do we find in England? Whereas at the be-ginning of last year less than 4,000 licences had been issued, at the end of the year they totalled over 800,000! By the end of last year the Home authorities awoke to the fact that they were dealing with grown men, and not with boys, and then the restrictions on the use of re-action were removed, with an appeal to radio enthusiasts to use it with discretion. That the liberty so far has been appreciated is shown by the fact that our latest Home journals have practically no complaints regarding interference. Experimenters and the Press and the traders are agitating for the removal of these restrictions, and they are being energetically backed by the very few members of the public that have been induced to purchase receivers.— Yours, etc., R. Wilkes City Commercial College, 915-917 Hay-street, Perth, February 13.[43]

Farming umbrella group promotes benefits of broadcasting, closely aligned to Westralian Farmers

WIRELESS AND AGRICULTURE. ITS VALUE TO THE FARMER. A CHEAP AND HANDY SERVICE. (By Fred W. Patten, General Manager, Federated Farms of South Africa.) To those who have not had the privilege of testing the wonders of wireless telephony, it takes a certain amount of imagination to even partially realise what has been accomplished in this wonderful science. It would be quite reasonable to expect that at the present stage a sound technical knowledge would be necessary for those who would wish to take advantage of the broadcasting services which will be available in South Africa early this year, but that is not so. All that will be necessary for a purchaser of a set to do will be to erect an aerial mast about 40 feet from the ground and then follow out simple instructions as to the connecting up of the aerial wires to the machine. The fitting up can be quite easily done by any intelligent lad, and when once coupled up nothing more remains to be done but to fit the head 'phones or loud speaker at such times as it is desired to listen in. Types of Apparatus. The types of machine will vary according to the distance they will require to be used from the broadcasting station. The low-priced machines are the "Crystal" sets, which only have a short range, and would therefore not be suitable for country use. For distances up to 200 miles, what is known as the two-valve set is necessary, and for longer ranges, the equipment is governed by the distance from the ser-vice station. For family use several head 'phones may be connected to the machine, thus enabling several people to listen-in at the same time. Should what is known as a "loud speaker" be required, an amplifying unit will be necessary, and by the addition of this a horn similar to those in use on a gramophone is used. By this system any number of people may listen-in in a room without the use of head 'phones. At the present time the results from a tone point of view are slightly in favor of the head 'phones, as they are more natural than the "loud speaker," but there is no doubt that before long improvements will be made in the latter system. Recent tests with the head 'phones in listening-in to the broadcasting of gramophone records have demonstrated that tones are more natural when received through wireless than they are in a room in which the gramophone is in operation. The Broadcasting System. The success of the broadcasting system is assured, as it is past the experimental stage, and is quite satisfactory. It must, however, be made clear that the service which will soon be available will only embrace listening-in. The machines as constructed are not capable of transmitting messages, but with the rapidity with which wireless wonders are unfolding, it should not be long before residents in the country districts will be able to use the wireless wizard for their local telephone work. This is possible even now by the addition of a transmitter unit, which can be worked in conjunction with the standard listening-in set and only means another wire to come from the aerial to the transmitter. However, there are difficulties in the way of such a service at present, and which are of a highly technical nature, and could not well be explained in this article, but when the time does come when the transmitting of messages can be done by producers, it will not mean that their existing machine is useless. It is only a matter of connecting up with a transmitter. The licence fee to the Government for the use of the machine is very small, and a comprehensive service will be given, but as the transmitting stations are not yet completed, no details are available. Developments in England. The alternations or adjustments which are necessary to pick up the different wave lengths are very simply and quickly done. Wonderful success has been obtained in England and America in regard to broadcasting services. It is estimated that in America at the present time there are 2, 500,000 listening-in sets in use. In England they are not so far advanced, but an announcement was recently made that a few months after the commencement of broadcasting 77,000 receiving licences had been issued. In four months these figures had jumped to 115,000, so the foregoing will give some idea as to the popularity of the wireless services. When it is realised just what it can do, both as regards business and pleasure, there is little wonder that it is so popular. Farmers can look forward to the time when they will have early morning news by wireless, giving details of market operations, to say nothing of the pleasure that evening concerts will provide. Market and Other Reports. The distribution of market reports and the latest information through radio or wireless installation is a well-established fact. In other parts of the world, particularly America, it has become a very valuable asset to the community, and has been extended very widely amongst the agricultural districts, bringing the farmers into line and giving them advantages from which, on account of their distance from centres of population, they have been previously debarred. From a central distribution radio station all the farmers, no matter how great the distance from the city, if they possess a suitable receiving set, can get messages just as clearly as though they were sitting in the same room as the operator. The cost is not great when one considers the advantages to be gained by the installation. There is no large expenditure in connecting up different centres; all one has to do is to make or purchase an instrument sufficiently strong, and tuned to the main broadcasting transmission station, and he can receive all the messages which are distributed. Usually a programme is drawn out, and at certain times one can listen in and receive either information as to certain market quotations, results of football matches, or an evening's concert, entertainment, or lecture, as the case may be. Co-operation Can Help. This is where the farmers' organisations could come in and assist in the distribution of all market rates and general information regarding matters affecting the producers, and this could be easily done by the farmers' organisations associating themselves with one of the broadcasting centres, and at a certain time each day the necessary information could be distributed from their head office. Suppose, for example, that practically the whole of the farmers were associated with and connected up as they will be in the near future with radio installations. The time would be given for the broadcasting of the market reports, and if some special expert was visiting this country and the farmers' organisations desired that certain information he was going to give should be distributed, they could announce through the radio that this expert would give them half an hour's lecture at a certain time by wireless. The whole of the farmers would then have the privilege of listening-in and receiving first-hand information on the subject.[44]

Lack of amateur broadcasting activity supports need for 6WF

WHERE ARE THE AMATEURS? This State's Lethargy. What's wrong with the W.A. amateur transmitters? Apparently they are still very shy, and our State, when compared with Melbourne and Sydney, is dead. Why? Buck up, you transmitting licence holders, give us some more entertainment regularly from that idle set. It's up to you to fill in the time between now and broadcasting. If you want to get the public interested in wireless, then there must be something for them to listen to. Sad is the case at the present time. How many times have you been asked the question: "What can I hear if I get a wireless set?" "Oh," you answer, "So-and-So will be sending Fri-day, or Sunday, etc." But you can't tell them that they will hear entertainments any night of the week. Oh, no, the new set is brought home and tried out, and no-thing is heard but static (one thing that regularly transmits). Now then, amateurs, there are enough of you in the city and suburban areas to arrange for transmissions every night. Why not make a move at once? Get together, draw up a "roster," and let W.A. be included on the map.[45]

1924 03Edit

A Dorothy Dixer in the Perth Sunday Times enables new details about 6WF including first advice of actual wavelength

THE WESTRALIAN FARMERS' SCHEME. Opening About April. A correspondent signing himself S.S. (Perth) asks for information concerning the Westralian Farmers' wireless broadcasting scheme, when it is to commence, the wavelength, times of transmission, etc? Answer. The Westralian Farmers' broadcasting service is to be transmitted on 1250 metres with a power of 5 K.W., and it is expected to commence in April. Amateur transmissions will be as follows:— A. S. Stevens, of 1 Ruth-Street, Perth, every Wednesday, 8 p.m., 430 meters, call signal 6BN; W. E. Coxon, of 306 Bulwer-street, Perth, every Friday and Sunday 8 p.m., 440 meters, call 6AG; C. Cecil, Dugan-street, Kalgoorlie, every Monday and Thursday 8 p.m., call 6AB. In addition, market and weather reports, general news, church services, entertainments, addresses by prominent men, children's bedtime stories, etc., will be broadcasted. Briefly, the service will bring those it serves in direct contact with the outside world. For instance, whereas public men now only address a limited audience in Perth, they will later on speak to thousands of listeners-in throughout the country. With regard to costs. The Farmers will make an annual charge of £4 4s., of which 10s. 6d. will go to the Commonwealth Government for the set license, £1 is for royalties, and the remainder for operating expenses. The "Mulgaphone," a standard listening-in set prepared by the Farmers, will be marketed for £22, and this will serve two persons within a radius of 600 miles, or more if additional head phones are installed at a cost of £1 7s. 6d. each. A loud talker to serve a larger audience is procurable for £23. A more expensive receiving set is procurable for £35 3s. For fuller information application should be made direct to the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., Perth, for their illustrated booklet "Broadcasting."[46]

Coxon demonstrates broadcast reception at the Westralian Farmers' building, no doubt with a view to use by 6WF

"NO BANANAS TODAY" BY WIRELESS. WESTRALIAN FARMERS' EXPERIMENT. It seems impossible to forget it. At first artists on the vaudeville stage drummed the melody into our ears, then the bathroom singer took up the chorus, and this afternoon the wireless receiver took up the refrain of "Yes, We Have No Bananas." The occasion was the testing of one of the wireless instruments built for the Westralian Farmers' broadcasting service shortly to be inaugurated in this State. Assembled on a small table in an obscure corner of the large social room of the building in Wellington-street stood a collection of wireless apparatus, with a horn, not unlike the familiar gramophone model, pointing towards the seats which held about two hundred people. Some were the guests of the company, and the remainder were members of the staff, who had met to watch Mr. W. E. Coxon conduct his experiment. A few black knobs were turned, and dull light glowed in the filament valves. A slight crackling noise was heard, and the apparatus broke into music. The operatic air "Traumerei" was the first piece reproduced, and it was followed by waltzes, two-steps, jazz, humorous songs, and a 'cello solo as a final item. Received on a 440-metre wave length the music was transmitted from Mr. Coxon's private station, "6 A.G.," at North Perth, and it demonstrated what pleasure farmers and station owners living outback may soon enjoy. The visitors expressed their astonishment at the compactness of the machine. Instead of the familiar long wire aerial, usually erected on the top of a building, a square frame aerial, with sides about 4ft long, was used, being stood in one corner of the room. This somewhat resembled a large model of the winding machine used by boys who cultivate silk worms. Using a four-valve receiver and a two-stage amplifier, the sound was applied to a high-power "Magna Vox." As the dance music was played young couples chose their partners and demonstrated that the music was entirely suited for dancing, Mr. Coxon intensifying the volume as required, until at one stage it vibrated through the building. Mr. Coxon commented to a Pressman that the broadcasting scheme was progressing very satisfactorily, much work having been done in the studio from where later actual voice reproductions will be made. Among those present at the gathering to day was Mr. A. J. Leckie, Mus. Bac., who appeared considerably interested in the demonstration.[47]

Report of Malone visit to Qld to encourage the establishment of Qld broadcasting draws parallel with 6WF

Wireless Matters. Arrangements in Queensland. Chief Manager's Visit. Wireless matters affecting Queensland are to receive a stimulus through the visit of Mr. J. J. Malone, chief manager of telegraphs and wireless for the Commonwealth, now in Brisbane. WHAT IS DOING? Asked the reason of his visit, Mr. Malone said it was of an investigatory character. "I want to see what is doing in wireless here," the chief manager proceeded, and to discover how we can assist in clearing away any doubts which may exist as to the Government's attitude towards wireless, and in regard to the administration of its regulations. PRIVATE ENTERPRISE. "As you know, the Commonwealth Government takes no part in wireless services, apart from the duties of regulating and inspecting them. The broadcasting business is mainly of an entertainment character. We are anxious to see some regular broadcasting business established here and in the provincial cities of Queensland. In Sydney there are two stations operating and there is one at Melbourne. There shortly will be three stations in the latter city. There also will be two at Adelaide in the very near future, and there will be one at Perth. FARMERS BROADCASTS. "The Perth station is the only one in Australia set up by farmers for their special benefit. The object is not so much of entertainment as of disseminating market quotations and weather forecasts. No doubt Queensland will not be long in following the western State's example in this respect. Already we have find inquiries from people here who are considering the matter. The expense is considerable, however, and this no doubt accounts for the delay in establishing such a service here. WHY NOT BRISBANE? At present the people of Brisbane are dependent on the Sydney stations, and they are not too successful for interstate work yet. There is no reason why Brisbane should not have its own station, and I am sure it will not be long before she has come into line with the southern metropolises in this way. The two services at Sydney have been operating regularly for three months now, but they have not yet got into their proper stride. No doubt many people are wondering why the Sydney transmissions cannot be picked up satisfactorily here. The principal reason is that there has not been a sufficiency of experimenting yet, and even the big station there is only operating with a 500 watts power, whereas they are entitled to operate to the extent of 5,000 watts. As the power is increased naturally the range is greater, and so it will become easier for listeners to hear the programme. EXPERIMENTERS AND BROADCASTERS. "About 300 licenses have been issued to amateurs in Queensland. The total number in the Commonwealth is about 6,000. None of these Queensland amateurs are paying the broadcasters any subscription for the obvious reason that there are no broadcasters to pay. When broadcasting is established here a different form of license will be issued. The broadcasters will receive a license which will involve payment of a subscription for services rendered, and experimental licenses will be issued only to those who have some definite object of experiment in view. All those amateurs who have been carrying on here and in other places for years, have done so purely for the scientific love of the work. The only kind of license held in Queensland is that of an experimenter. The broadcasting license is for purely commercial purposes, and the broadcaster is obliged to give a regular and otherwise satisfactory service, whereas the experimenter gives demonstrations on a purely voluntary and gratuitous basis. The Government is anxious to encourage the experimenter, but at the same time it must see that the broadcaster's business is not unduly interfered with; otherwise he will not be able to carry out his services satisfactorily. In order to protect the public in obtaining the right class of wireless equipment no person has a right to sell wireless apparatus unless he holds a wireless dealer's license, and displays outside his premises a sign reading, "Licensed radio dealer." "I am looking forward to meeting the commercial and experimental wireless people here," concluded Mr. Malone. "No doubt I shall be able to help them in some way. In addition to this, as chief manager of telegraphs, I am looking into telegraphic conditions here with Mr. McConachie, Deputy Postmaster-General, with a view to the extension of facilities of these services." Mr. Malone will leave here for the south on Wednesday morning.[48]

Westralian Farmers Ltd. promotes their future broadcasting station at their Narrogin sale

LOCAL AND GENERAL. Opening Stock Sale at Nomans.— The Westralian Farmers Ltd. held their opening sale at Noman's on Tuesday last when there was an attendance comprising practically all the farmers within the adjacent districts. The auctioneers yarded 1500 sheep and report having quitted 1200. Quotations:— Aged ewes, from 27/- to 35/-; young ewes, from 38/- to 43/9; weaners, 27/6 to 34/-. The hammer was wielded by Messrs. Yull and De Mamiel and during an interval an interesting address on "Broadcasting" was given by Mr. W. C. Lovell the manager of the Narrogin branch of the Co.[49]

Advertisement for the Mulgaphone in Perth Sunday Times

THE WESTRALIAN FARMERS Limited. BROADCASTING STATION. THE MULGAPHONE. The complete Receiving Apparatus, giving perfectly clear reproduction; made to suit Western Australian conditions; without troublesome accumulators; worked simply by dry cells. THE MULGAPHONE is attractive in appearance and unequalled in performance, or in simplicity of operation. You turn a knob, the MULGAPHONE does the rest. THE MULGAPHONE is a quality production, with high-grade material and workmanship, and is sup-plied complete with aerial wire, insulators, head 'phones, dry cells, valves, and full instructions for installation. PRICE .. .. .. .. .. £22 FREE ON RAILS, PERTH. The AMPLIFIER and LOUD SPEAKER can be added to the MULGA-PHONE at any time to convert it into a Combination Set. MULGAPHONE, with Amplifier and Loud Speaker, £45, Free on Rails, Perth. WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED BOOKLET TO — THE WESTRALIAN FARMERS, LIMITED, BROADCASTING DEPARTMENT, PERTH.[50]

The quality of Coxon's broadcasting ramps up in the lead up to 6WF commencement & Westralian Farmers foster the wireless experimenters whose support will be vital for 6WF success

WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK. Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-In Lyrics — Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge. "Hullo, Australia! This is W.J.A.Z., the Chicago Broadcasting Station." Shall we hear the American broadcasting to-night? Mr. W. E. Coxon's (6AG) transmissions have improved wonderfully of late. The rendering of "Annie Laurie" comes over particularly well, and one can be excused for thinking that real artists are performing. It is the intention of the Westralian Farmers' Co., when their broadcasting scheme is in full swing, to set aside certain periods in the week for experimenters. This action should be greatly appreciated by all genuine experimental-listeners.[51]

Coxon to represent Westralian Farmers at the Conference to review sealed sets scheme

WIRELESS SEALED SETS. RADIO EXPERTS CONFER. A preliminary conference to discuss the question of sealed radio sets was held last week with the Postmaster-General, when delegates from the Wireless Institute and the Wireless Development Association put the case for the open sets. Following upon this meeting, the president of the W.A. branch of the Development Association (Mr. C. F. Knapton) has received a telegram intimating that the Postmaster-General has called a further conference of delegates to be held on or before April 7, this conference to have power to submit definite proposals to the Postmaster-General. Mt. R. Wilkes, a well-known experimenter, will represent the Development Association of this State, and it is understood Mr. W. E. Coxon, the technical adviser to the Westralian Farmers' broadcasting scheme, will represent that organisation at the gathering. [52]

1924 04Edit

Westralian Farmers registers the name Mulgaphone for its broadcast receiver

TRADE MARK APPLICATIONS. OFFICIALLY ACCEPTED LIST. List of Commonwealth Trade Mark Applications officially accepted and Advertised — February 15, 1924:— . . . 37,568. Listening-in sets for broadcasting of wireless receiving. Word "Mulgaphone" — The Westralian Farmers, Ltd., Perth, Western Australia.[53]

First announcement of allocation of callsign 6WF to Westralian Farmers Ltd broadcasting station

WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK. Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-in Lyrics — Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge. RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. Westralian Farmers Ltd. broadcasting station has been allotted the call sign of 6WF.[54]

John Thomson off to Eastern Australia to represent Westralian Farmers at wireless conference

Gone East in order to attend a wireless conference in Melbourne, John Thomson, of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd. While the wheat season is flourishing Thomson is the man in charge of the Wheat Pool of W.A., but now that the last grain has been tucked under a tarpaulin he is the responsible wireless officer of the firm which will shortly introduce broadcasting to W.A.[55]

Westralian Farmers joins the chorus against sealed sets, WA position well represented

BROADCASTING. Sealed Sets Rejected. RADIO CONFERENCE. The conference of representatives of the Radio Associations of Australia, the representatives of the dealers in radio apparatus, and the representatives of the broadcasting companies, sitting in the Post Office, Sydney, came to important decisions yesterday in regard to the future control and development of wireless in Australia. A number of matters were referred to committees to report to the adjourned conference on Monday morning. Mr. Marr, M.P., presided. Mr. H. P. Brown, Director of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones, represented the Postmaster-General. Delegates were present from all the States of Australia excepting Tasmania. The conference definitely disposed of the previous decision in regard to open sets. A recommendation is to be made to the Postmaster-General that the public should be allowed to use open sets, subject to certain restrictions, which are still being discussed in private, with a view of devising adequate means of protecting the income of the companies broadcasting for revenue. It was unanimously agreed that the fee should be 40/- annually for a common license for all owners of receiving sets (the proceeds to be used for the payment of the broadcasting companies), together with a Governmental charge of 5/ per annum, and whatever royalty would have to be paid to the makers of receiving sets. There was a long discussion on whether there should be a reduction in the charges for "experimenters," but the conference decided against the discrimination. It was argued that the abolition of the sealed sets would do away with most of the present grievances of experimenters. The conference unanimously recommended that the present dealers' licenses should be retained, but that it should not be necessary for the future to compel a customer to produce his receiving license before being supplied with radio apparatus. PRESENT POSITION OF BROADCASTING. According to the information available officially, there are at present three licensed companies in New South Wales, and there are other companies which have inquired as to the possibility of securing a license. The same position applies in Victoria, where three companies are licensed under the present system. In Queensland there has not been a license issued under the sealed-set system, but four companies have applied for permission to broadcast under the system, and the matter is still in the negotiation stage. In South Australia there has been one formal application for a license, and an assurance has been given that it will be granted. Two other Adelaide companies are also inquiring as to the conditions under which they may be granted a license. In Western Australia one license has been issued, and other companies have inquired as to the conditions under which they may get a license. There has so far been only tentative inquiries as to a license for Tasmania. The position, therefore, is that New South Wales and Victoria are the only States where there is any broadcasting at present, but arrangements are now being made for early broadcasting from Adelaide, Perth, and Brisbane. The number of licenses at 10s each issued to "experimenters" in December, 1922, was 757, and it had increased to 6573 at the end of last month. When the conference met yesterday morning Mr. Thompson, representing the Westralian Farmers, Limited, which has been licensed to broadcast, said a private conference held with the Western Australian delegates had agreed to a broad outline of a scheme for that State. There was a hope that it would be accepted as the basis of, an agreement by the other States. The conference went into committee to consider how far this scheme could be made applicable to the whole of Australia, and upon resuming Mr. Wilkes (Western Australia Radio Association) said that the delegates had agreed to the following scheme:— "It is desirable that existing licensed broadcasting companies be protected, and as limited competition is also desirable, it is proposed that "A" class (revenue producing) stations in each State shall be New South Wales, 3; Victoria, 3; Queensland, 2; South Australia, 2; Western Australia, 2; and Tasmania, 1; further, that until the subscribers reach 10,000 in Western Australia, the second company is not to participate in the revenue, and when that figure is reached the second company will be allotted the additional revenue until the second company has 10,000 subscribers also, after which the revenue is to be evenly divided. If no application for a further "A" class station is received, then the extra revenue shall be allotted to the existing station. In the event of more than one application for the second Western Australian license being received, the Postmaster-General will decide the issue." A DELEGATE WITHDRAWS. A debate ensued as to whether the agreement should apply to the Eastern States on the basis of 10,000 subscribers to each broadcasting company, according to the priority of their license, and when the debate threatened to cover all the ground afresh, Mr. E. Holloway, representing the New Systems Telephone Company of Sydney and Melbourne, and president of the Wireless Association of Victoria, moved the following resolution:— "In view of this conference now not being fully representative of all the parties interested, it is abortive to proceed further; it is, therefore, proposed that the proposals already dealt with by the conference be submitted to the Postmaster-General, with a request that a committee of five and a chairman, be appointed immediately by the Postmaster-General, to go fully into all of the many proposals submitted to the Postmaster-General by all parties, and such committee shall draft definite recommendations and submit them to a full conference of interested parties to be held in Melbourne within the next ten days. The committee shall consist of the present chairman, a representative of the Postmaster-General, and four representatives of the wireless interests." This resolution lapsed through want of a seconder, and Mr. Holloway then stated that as there was no possibility of an agreement being arrived at in regard to the matters in dispute, as the Conference was not fully representative, and as the final decision would rest with the Postmaster-General, he asked to be excused from further attendance at the conference. After the luncheon adjournment, Mr. John Denham, stated that in the interval he had got into communication with the Wireless Association of Victoria, and had been authorised to state that Mr. Holloway's withdrawal did not meet with the approval of the association, and he (Mr. Denham) was authorised to represent the association for the remainder of the conference. The chairman stated they would take it that the resolution proposed by Mr. Holloway only represented the views of himself as a director of the New Systems Telephone Proprietary. SUGGESTED ONE BIG COMPANY. Mr. Thompson, on behalf of the broadcasting companies, accepted the proposal for the limitation of the number of broadcasting stations in each of the States as given above, but the number of licenses to be permitted to each company before an additional company is allowed to participate in the revenue was left for further discussion in committee. It was understood that the number of licenses to be allocated to any one company before that company was subjected to competition should not be less than 10,000. It was unanimously agreed that the conference should invite a representative each from Messrs. Anthony Hordern and Sons, Ltd., David Jones, Ltd., New Systems Telephone Pty., Mark Foy's, Ltd., Lassetter and Co., Ltd., Marcus Clark and Co., Ltd., and Harringtons, Ltd., to attend before the adjourned conference on Monday morning to state the reasons why they advocated the establishment of one big broadcasting company in Australia, as they had done in the communication addressed to the chairman at the opening of the conference. Mr. Scott, representing the wireless associations of New South Wales, said that the decisions of the conference were developing on the lines of the British regulations, and it was evidently something of this nature that these companies desired. Their views should be heard. The conference adjourned until 9.30 on Monday and the hope was generally expressed that at the reopening of the conference, Messrs. Farmers', Limited, would be represented.[56]

Stevens fills in for Coxon with broadcasting while Coxon in Sydney for Wireless Conference, update on 6WF installation

WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK. Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-in Lyrics — Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge. RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. Congratulations are due to Mr. Stevens (6BN) for his transmissions during the absence of Mr. W. E. Coxon. It makes one think what a dead ether it would be without Mr. Stevens at the present time. . . . Westralian Farmers are as busy as the proverbial beehive these days, and another few days should see the rear mast proudly erect on the roof of the building. The studio itself is completed, and the machinery is expected to be installed at any time. Experimenters and listeners-in are not often entertained with a programme such as 6BN radiated last Wednesday. In order to establish communication with Korbel, he lengthened his concert considerably, and listeners were treated to at least 2½ hours of continuous music. Thank you, 6BN.[57]

Comprehensive overview of 6WF project by Basil Murray interviewed by The West Australian journalist

BROADCASTING. Ambitious Local Project. Westralian Farmers' Service. Within the next month or so probably the greatest development of modern science will, literally, be brought home to the farmers, pastoralists and others who are scattered throughout Western Australia. By that time the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., should have completed their arrangements for broadcasting general news; market and weather reports, concerts, public speeches, and other interesting matter over a very large section of the State, and the order has been placed for a larger set, which, it is hoped, within three months will bring Wyndham within broadcasting touch of Perth. Discussing this ambitious scheme with a representative of the "West Australian" yesterday, Mr. Basil Murray, managing director of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., said that under the present broadcasting regulations his firm had been granted a licence to broadcast in Western Australia, but this did not confer upon them any monopoly except in respect to the wave length for which the licence had been granted. On the vexed question of seated or open sets, the Westralian Farmers had no feeling, nor did they require any monopoly. They felt that they were establishing a broadcasting station and service of a description that must satisfy the public. The licence granted was for a five kilowatt set — the largest that could be erected in Australia. The present set at Sydney was only 500 watts, but he understood that a five kilowatt set was to be installed there shortly. So far, however, there were no sets of that size in operation in Australia. The Westralian Farmers, Ltd., have been somewhat disappointed regarding the date of the commencement of their service. This, said Mr. Murray, had been due to the Amalgamated Wireless, Ltd., not being able to deliver the machinery as soon as they had anticipated. Arrangements had been made for the immediate installation of a 500 watt set and with this they would be able to carry out valuable experiments, and give the same service as was being given in Sydney at the present time. They were very hopeful that within two or three months the five kilowatt set would be in full working order. To ensure efficient distribution the Westralian Farmers were erecting two steel masts, which would project 120ft. from the roof of their building in Wellington-street, and have a total elevation of over 200 ft from the street level. It was expected that this part of the system would be completed in about ten days. Already an up-to-date studio had been fitted up on the top floor of the building and everything had been done to ensure that it would be absolutely sound-proof. There were several different walls, and the spaces between them had been filled with sawdust and other material, while the inside, lining was of loose house canvas arranged in pleats. The idea was not only to prevent outside sounds entering the room, but to avoid reverberation or echoing of the sound inside the studio. A comprehensive programme had been arranged for each day. Subscribers would receive general news of the day from all parts of the world, current market prices of produce, weather and shipping reports, educational lectures and items of amusement. The Education Department was taking an interest in the matter, and it was hoped that a University extension course would be arranged. It was also hoped to broadcast lectures and information from the Department of Agriculture, which would be of educational value to producers. A full programme of amusements had been organised and of this department Mr. A. J. Leckie, F.R.C.O., Mus. Bac., had been appointed director. Continuing, Mr. Murray said that arrangements had been made to import from English makers parts for receiving sets and his company was equipping workshops on the premises in which to assemble the receivers. Mr. W. E. Coxon, whom they believed to be the leading expert in the State, had agreed to join the Westralian Farmers' staff as a permanent officer, and they had every confidence that the technical side of the service would be in most efficient hands. Referring to the purchase price of receiving sets, Mr. Murray said that this would vary according to the distance the purchaser lived from the broadcasting station and the type of instrument he required. For distances of 20 miles and less from Perth a satisfactory set could be purchased for a few pounds, but for rural areas, ranging, say, from 100 to 600 miles, a more elaborate and costly set would be necessary. Again, if the set was required for just a few house holders, the price would be less than in case where "loud talkers" and amplifiers were needed. Farmers, however could obtain a satisfactory set, including aerial wire, for £22. He did not expect that the annual fee charged by the Westralian Farmers would be more than £4 4s. and he was hopeful that it would be even less. Out of this fee a royalty had to be paid to the Amalgamated Wireless and a fee of 10s. 6d. to the Postmaster-General's Department. In conclusion, Mr. Murray said the sole object of the Westralian Farmers in erecting this station was to bring to the farmer in particular what they believed to be a wonderful convenience. The cost of the complete plant would be slightly over £10,000.[58]

This article promoting longwave appeared throughout Australia, claimed longwave was superior as proved by AWA but the driver was really to keep out cheap US receivers which did not cover longwave

WIRELESS. Giant Broadcasting Station. It is claimed that Australian wireless developments are in some respects ahead of those in other countries. Two years ago experiments were made by Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Limited, as to the most effective wave length for broadcasting use. These experiments demonstrated that a long wavelength was likely to be more effective and less subject to fading, and that it gave a better daylight range than a short wavelength. On the erection, of a station for Farmer's Broadcasting Service at Northbridge, Sydney, Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Limited, utilised the result of its experiments and provided for a wavelength of 1,100 metres, and the results have justified this decision. There is now a proposal afoot for the erection, near London, of a giant, high-power broadcasting station, operating on a 25 k.w. power and utilising a wavelength of 1,600 metres. This power unit will be about seventeen times the power of the present station of the British Broadcasting Company, at Marconi House, Strand, and the wavelength will be much longer, the present wavelength being 363 metres. From the experience gained by the British Broadcasting Company during the past twelve months, and also from broadcasting experiments in America, it is considered by many wireless authorities, including Dr. Alfred No. Goldsmith, Director of Research of the American Radio Corporation, that long wavelengths are more effective than short waves for broadcasting purposes. The proposed station will serve areas at the present time inadequately catered for by the British Broadcasting Company's existing stations, and little interference is anticipated from other stations. It is expected that crystal reception up to 100 miles, single valve reception up to 200 miles, and 2-valve reception anywhere in the United Kingdom will be possible with this station. The magnitude of its power unit can be realised when it is stated that the English broadcasting stations at present operate on 2½ k.w. while the big American broadcasting stations utilise the same power, though in the recently opened station at Oaklands, California, a 5 k.w. set will shortly be installed. The wavelength in operation in most American stations is about 312 metres.[59]

Journalist notes that the 6WF masts will provide a landmark for those approaching the city

Wireless Week by Week. Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-in Lyrics — Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge. RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . Westralian Farmers are fortunate indeed to have such a select site for their broadcasting station. Apart from the excellent facilities for broadcasting distribution, it is situated in such a position that it immediately commands the view of all persons travelling to the city from the port, so that visitors to our little homestead will not leave with the impression that Perth is out of date, as they may perhaps have done hitherto. . . . [60]

1924 05Edit

Korbel prepares for commencement of 6WF

KORBEL RADIOGRAMS. (By Our Wireless Correspondent) . . . Mr Jas. Lennen of Korbel and Mr Robt. Pollock have now got splendid aerials erected, and are both ready for the reception of the Westralian Farmers' broadcasting which commences shortly.[61]

A letter to the editor of the Westralian Worker puts a compelling case against sealed sets and monopolistic broadcast groups

WHO SHALL RULE THE WIRELESS WAVES? MONOPOLISTS OR THE PEOPLE? The rapid growth of wireless telephony in the past few years, together with the many absorbing features of broadcasting, has made Radio the King Hobby in England and America. The comparative ease with which a satisfactory set can be constructed from cheap component parts has given the radio a further impulse, and relegated model building, stamp collecting, and fretwork well into the back ground. Here, the creative instinct, strong in the majority of people, finds free play in a useful direction. And the realization that with a satisfactory outfit the radio fan can listen-in, practically at will, to concert items, lectures, etc., of a variety to suit his taste, has popularised wireless immensely in other countries. And the same will happen in Australia if the Australian is given sympathetic treatment. At present the construction of his own set by the mechanic, or persons mechanically inclined, is futile because of the wavering attitude of a Federal Government, which is always ready to take advice from those sections of the community not actuated by any philanthropic, patriotic, or altruistic motives. In Sydney, recently, we had the sealed set war. Farmer's Ltd., a Sydney rag firm, which, with the tenacity of a stickfast flea clinging to a spring chicken, has hung on to the growing enthusiasm for the ether wave for no reasons that are scientific or beneficent — if the remarks of the firm's delegates at the conference on wireless matters are any indication — want the sealed set to continue. Farmer's Ltd. (not to be confused with Westralian Farmers Ltd. — a firm of another colour) are dabbling in broadcasting and want a virtual monopoly of the New South Wales business, even if they must penalise all other States in the process. The sealed set is a set fixed to tune in on only one wave length. This gives the owner of a set absolutely no discrimination in his selection of a programme, but it means exclusive business for the monopolisers of broadcasting, and hence, bigger profits. The feelings of the owner of a receiving set are not considered. The trade of the legitimate dealer in radio goods, one whose interests rely on the popularity of the new science, is endangered. The aims of the experimenter concern Farmer's Ltd. and their kin not at all. The sealed set must go if wireless is to progress in Australia. An open license, covering the whole business, on the lines of the vehicle license, is all that is needed. What would the car owner of, say, Bunbury, think if it were enacted that all automobiles must have sealed wheels, set to a certain prescribed gauge, and operative only on roads of that gauge for which the license was issued. A phenomenal boom in the boot trade would result. The ether must remain as free for the "radio fan" as the roads are for the vehicle owner. The other delegates to the conference are to be commended for the strenuous opposition they made to Farmer's tactics. But they made a mistake when they recommended that the present so-called experimental license take its place, called an expert experimental license; that the total number issued at any time shall not exceed the following: N.S.W. 300, Victoria 300, S.A. 100, W.A 100, Queensland 150, and Tasmania 30; that such licenses be free of charge, and shall be issued yearly by the Postmaster-General on the recommendation of the Wireless Institute of Australia in each State. This, says the "Sunday Times" (20/4/24) is likely to cause a hard knock. True, it hurts. And everyone with a regard for progress and freedom will be justified in knocking out the "980 clause." This extreme limitation is likely to choke the natural development of wireless in the rapidly-growing Commonwealth. No more than 980, presumably, are allowed to practise out new circuits, new methods of reception and transmission, or new designs in components. Inventions appertaining to wireless are to be left severely alone by all except a few favoured experts; and these experts are not selected in an open competitive examination like Bachelors of Arts, Doctors of Medicine, and Steam Engine Drivers, but are the nominees of a Wireless Institute. The adoption of the "980 clause" will not further the advancement of wireless, but will undoubtedly mean an outbreak of wave thieving among otherwise respectable citizens and a spread of "bootleg" experimenting. The way of the department controlling wireless is clear. There must be no more monopolies or interference with the freedom of the ether. (Amalgamated Wireless is enough.) Unlimited experimenting under license and control will not hamper broadcasting or telegraphy, and will do much to develop the growth of Radio. And a healthy growth of radio will be to the mutual interests of the man outback and the bloke in the street. "Faceplate."[62]

Humorous description of John Thomson in the Perth Leader

PERSONALIA. . . . There is a little man named Thomson, chief officer of the W.A. Wheat Pool, and of the Westralian Farmers broadcasting department, who is well known throughout the golden grain areas, where, in former years, he used to travel extensively in a Ford car. Thomson is the slickest thing, outside the electrical appliances in which he is at present engaged, and there isn't an office boy round in the Wellington-street emporium who could or would try to beat Thomson running up stairs, four at a time, or bolting along passages like Postle. Speed and efficiency appear to be his watchwords, and if his efficiency is equal to his speed he must be 100 per cent. One time, in a very boggy winter, Basil Murray had a problem to face — six of the firm's motor ears were bogged in the wheat belt, and the drivers had come back to Perth. "Look here," said Murray to one of them, "I can't make out how you fellows get bogged and can't get out. Now, there's Thomson—." The driver got angry. "Yes," he snarled back, "Thomson!" Thomson is so light that a car wouldn't bog with his weight, and he's so damn fast that he never touches the ground; and if you expect us to drive like Thomson you can just treble our insurance policies, Mr. Murray, that's all. We are god-fearing men with families — Thomson fears nothing, God, man or the devil."[63]

Perth Sunday Times journalist "Long Wave" states the two 6WF mast now erected and suggests likely start date of 3 June

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. Red Indian war-woops are the latest feature of 2LO, London. It makes me wonder whether the West Farmers will induce some of our "abos" to face the microphone. Country readers will be interested to learn that the two masts of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., of Perth, have now been erected, and part of the transmitting apparatus is installed in the studio apartments. The concern will very likely be on the air by June 3.[64]

Geraldton Guardian journalist "The Seer" eloquently professes no love for the new-fangled broadcasting, but perhaps protests too much

SOME REFLECTIONS. ON VARIOUS TOPICS. (By "The Seer.") . . . The lure of broadcasting seems to be taking a firm hold in Geraldton. It is also taking deep root in Western Australia. The Westralian Farmers are spending something like £10,000 in installing a broadcasting apparatus in Perth, and soon, we read, there is no place so remote in West Australia, that it will be unable to link up by sound with the throbbing life of the City. Personally, I can't help saying that broadcasting has no especial appeal for me. When I shut the front door I like to shut out the various voices of the world. I don't want to be pursued at home by music that I wouldn't otherwise listen to, I don't want to hear lectures and speeches that I wouldn't otherwise attend. And I never had a particular fancy for "hearing" news. I like to "read" it for myself in a morning or evening paper, or, better still, in a sane little district publication like the "Guardian." Loneliness, I admit, should be relieved whenever it oppresses the spirit of a man or a woman. But this broadcasting business is all one-sided. Would not it be better for this country, if instead of thrilling Geraldton with the hum of the City, we could entrance Perth with the eloquent silence of Nabawa? I would be in favor of setting up an aerial in the heart of the City, where the town dweller could hear the lowing of the cattle at Newmarracarra, or the bleating of the sheep at Moonyoonooka, or even the gentle ripple of the Chapman in winter. Also, I would cheerfully pay towards broadcasting in Perth some of the genuine applause that greets a winner at Murgoo. It should be an agreeable change to the Perth punter, used to the "cusses" of the "bookie" when a favorite gets home at Belmont. In short, what we want in Western Australia is not so much to tell country people of the gay noises of the City, as to convince City people that there are pleasant sounds in the country of which they never dream. Besides telegraphy, telephony and the rest of the "tels." are alright as far as they go. But until "television" becomes an accomplished fact they will fall far short of all that is required. You may broadcast all the sounds of the Royal Show and all the judges' remarks and all the press comments on the top of them, but unless you can send along a vision of the cattle and sheep and pigs and dogs — to say nothing of the ladies' dresses, and artful feminine glances and smiles — your broadcast is going to be a poor substitute for a visit to Claremont. The same is true of theatrical entertainments. In nine cases out of ten it's the scene that explains the dialogue, and the talk without the setting isn't worth broadcasting. Suppose, too, a pretty girl sings a nice song. What's the good of the song without a vision of the damsel? Not much better indeed than the noise of a ballet dance with out a glimpse of the legs. Still, I suppose we are only just beginning to wake up to this tremendous new lure of life. The very kids now-a-days picture the air as a network of highways and byways and start exploring the ether before they can walk to the back beach. Yet go into a broadcasting station and you seem to be watching the efforts of another order of beings to communicate with the children of men. A poet, Milton, I believe (I hardly think it was "Jingo") wrote of — "Aery tongues that syllable mea's names On sands and shores and desert wildernesses." And today his dream has come to be a sober reality. So apart from its utility, or howsoever it may be misapplied, if you want to come into contact with a modern miracle — just for once "listen-in." You will find that your ear is well and truly at the "keyhole of the invisible world." [65]

Robert Wilkes of Wireless Development Assoc WA expresses grave concern as to directions for new wireless regulations

Wireless Broadcasting. (To the Editor.) Sir,— As a member of the conference recently held in Sydney, I was somewhat disgusted but not altogether surprised by the remarks of the Postmaster-General (Mr. Gibson) appearing in the Press. From the day of publication of the existing regulations, Mr. Gibson showed himself as a keen supporter of the big monopolistic concerns favored by them, and as being blind to the interests of the public and the small traders throughout the Commonwealth. His representative admitted at the conference that he was compelled by the traders and public to call the new conference. For nine months he held out against all persuasions, arguments and attacks. He gave in unwillingly, and is now showing his antagonism by his treatment of the conference recommendations, despite the fact that he called the conference, asked for its recommendations, and, before it was held, led the people concerned to believe that its recommendations would be adopted. When the composition of the conference was being considered, Mr. Gibson said that the problems involved were for technical minds. He invited representatives from all the broadcasting companies and an equal number from the Wireless Development Associations of the Commonwealth. In regard to the latter, it may be mentioned that in each State there is a Wireless Development Association, which all who are interested in wireless and its development may join. The apathy of the public has resulted in 90 per cent. of the membership of these associations being made up of traders, big and little, with a sprinkling of keen enthusiasts. It must be agreed by all unprejudiced minds that the conference represented the public traders generally and the broadcasting companies — in fact, all who were primarily involved in alterations to the regulations. Evidently the Postmaster-General and the big interests who are supporting him, find the recommendations of the conference somewhat unpalatable, for I see that he is trying to throw dust in the eyes of the public by stating that the conference represented only one side, and that he now has to consider many other people. If that is so, Mr. Editor, why did he not invite those other interests to the conference? Let me tell you, Mr. Editor, that with the exception of the Press, he did invite the other interests, but the weaknesses of their pet schemes had already been exposed. They therefore withdrew from the conference with the object of submitting those pet schemes privately to the Postmaster-General. On the first day of the conference, I protested most emphatically against the attitude of these people, and against the inference that the Postmaster-General should listen to the private schemes brought forward by interested parties. If their schemes would not stand open debate in conference, it was evident that they were not good for the public. It must be remembered that the proposals taken to the conference by the various members had been debated from all points of view in the separate States. These various ideas were thrashed out in detail over a period of eight days during which the various members of the conference were in constant consultation. Now Mr. Gibson is trotting forward suggestions which have been put forward by interested parties outside the conference, but which suggestions were definitely taken up by the conference, either in public or private, and rejected only after keen debate from all points of view. I think you will agree, Mr. Editor, that it is humiliating for the members of the conference to find that the Postmaster-General is accepting suggestions at the instigation of outsiders — suggestions that had been definitely debated and rejected by the conference. Had the Postmaster-General been present during the public and private sittings of the conference, he would have heard all the arguments against these objectionable features, and I contend that it is improper that he should stay away from the conference and then accept suggestions submitted privately by others, without hearing the arguments against those proposals. For instance, in the interview quoted in today's paper, the Postmaster-General favors one big broadcasting company. On behalf of W.A., I bitterly opposed such a proposal. West Australians have enough of Eastern States' control. They feel that too much West Australian money is flowing to the Eastern States now, and West Australians do not want to have their broadcasting controlled from Sydney, and to see any profits from the venture going to big concerns in the Eastern States. In addition, the representative of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., which company has committed itself to a large expenditure on broadcasting, definitely refused to be associated with any Eastern States one-big-company scheme. Mr. Gibson is also trotting forward a proposal to vary the subscriptions according to the distance of the receiver from the broadcasting station. This also was debated by the conference and definitely rejected as being impracticable. The originators of such a proposal overlook the fact that the big broadcasting stations are all in the capital cities, where entertainment, music, and news are all plentiful, and can be got at the expense of a few pence. Such people are not likely to pay several pounds as a subscription to a broadcasting company. On the other hand, people hundreds of miles in the country will get the most use out of it, and will use it at every opportunity, and therefore should pay the most for the service. But if we admit that they have to pay more for their instruments, it is but common justice to charge them the same service fee as is charged townspeople. Even the sponsors of this proposal at the conference were thoroughly convinced of its undesirability. In belittling and shelving many of the conference recommendations, Mr. Gibson is showing himself as ignoring the lessons of the last few months. The objectionable features of the existing regulations have stirred up so much feeling that throughout the Commonwealth both the public and traders are ignoring them absolutely. There is not a trader in the Commonwealth today who is not secretly or openly breaking the regulations daily. In fact, in the Eastern States I found the traders and public in open rebellion against the regulations. In these circumstances, for the Postmaster-General to ignore the recommendations of the conference is, in my opinion, calculated to invite further dissatisfaction and defiance of the new regulations, which should by their reasonableness appeal to the sense of right and justice of the whole community.— Yours etc., R. WILKES. Perth, May 13.[66]

As previous

A THREATENED WIRELESS RAMP. Monopoly of the Air Contemplated. THE BROADCASTING BUNGLE: : AND OTHER MYSTERIOUS THINGS. The West To Suffer As Usual. Because of the long delay in establishing broadcasting by wireless in Western Australia people were losing interest in it. In fact, except for the radio dealers and the enthusiastic amateurs the general public had come to regard "broadcasting" as one of those boons and blessings that may be expected to come with the millenium. But the P.M.G.'s statement in the "West Australian," of Tuesday last has awakened fresh interest, and aroused fresh hope. Mr. Gibson was somewhat reticent but we gather from the interview that the department is framing a new set of regulations to govern broadcasting, and that the Federal Cabinet is considering the vexed question of control. Unfortunately the P.M.G. did not tell the whole story of the long, drawn-out negotiations over broadcasting and wireless, the latter particularly. It is a story of intense interest concerning a subject that is of national importance. And without going into technical details, we propose to set forth the salient facts. WHY MR. BRUCE FAILED The Federal Government is enmeshed in a tangle because of its agreement with Amalgamated Wireless (Australia) Ltd., a legacy bequeathed by the Hughes Administration. Under this agreement made in 1922, the Commonwealth put up £500,001 for that number of shares in a 1,000,000 shares company, the balance of the shares being held by the Amalgamated Wireless. Now, this latter concern is mainly the Marconi company. And the reason Australia cannot arrange a regular and combined wireless service with Britain and the other dominions is that the British Post Office will not hear of the Marconi Co. being in the scheme. When Mr. Bruce was in England he endeavoured to come to an amicable arrangement, but the British P.M.G. was adamant. He stood behind what is known as the Donald committee's report, which recommended that all wireless stations in Britain should be under the direct control of the Post Office. This last department has had previous dealings with the Marconi company, whose managing director is an extremely shrewd man of business (he is Godfrey Isaacs, the elder brother of the present Viceroy of India). But apart from this latter fact, the Home Authorities are strenuously opposed to any private company controlling a monopoly of the air. Therefore we had the Gilbertian situation of the Prime Minister of a democratic country like ours urging on the conservative Cabinet of Britain that a monopoly be granted. And in this the British Government is absolutely in the right just as the Australian Government is hopelessly in the wrong. AN UNHOLY ALLIANCE The air belongs to the people, and it is of vast importance that they should retain possession of all rights to its use. For wireless is even now in its infancy and the day is not far distant when broadcasting as a method of disseminating news will be a serious rival with the public press. Consider a monopoly of wireless news by any private concern! It would make that concern a world power, able to direct the public mind to its will. As things are in Australia the position is fraught with danger. Here we have the Federal Government in partnership with moneyed interests in an absolute control of wireless in this country. When broadcasting is widely established what is to prevent an unscrupulous Government from using radio for propaganda purposes? Those in political power practically could dictate all political news and views that would be issued by radio. This is no fantastic picture. News and views have been controlled before now in Australia, as those who remember the press censorship during the war period will agree. It will be seen, therefore, that the control of wireless and broadcasting is of vital import to every citizen. Yet the Federal Cabinet, not content with the existing monopoly of wireless, seriously proposes (according to the P.M.G.) to grant another in broadcasting! SOME SECRET HISTORY Of course, Mr. Gibson piously promises Government control and a Endtation of profits. But this is beside the point. For the inner history of the protracted negotiations over broadcasting suggests a clever attempt to secure a "scoop" by a syndicate of Eastern magnates. If this is permitted then Western Australia will once more be cynically exploited for the benefit of the East. It is impossible to explain the position clearly without dealing with the events of the past 12 months. In May, 1923, a conference was called by the P.M.G. when the only scheme submitted was that of Mr. Fisk, general manager of Amalgamated Wireless, who spoke for over two hours in elaboration of his proposals. Members of the conference, knowing the call of the public for the earliest possible use of wireless, agreed to that scheme. (It should be noted that this State was not officially represented). About three months later the P.M.G.'s department issued a schedule of regulations and it was at once seen that they were entirely too theoretical, and that the practical side had not been sufficiently considered. This was proven six months later when tests made of the receiving sets, which Amalgamated proposed to issue to the public were not wholly satisfactory. IN THE PUBLIC INTEREST By this time other considerations had arisen, so in April last there was a conference in Sydney of all those interested in this matter. Delegates attended from all the States, and all sections were represented — the trade, amateurs and the public. Only two or three Sydney firms already using the Amalgamated service held aloof. A new schedule of regulations was drawn up and submitted to the P.M.G. The two main items insisted on (from the public viewpoint) were that "open" not "sealed" sets be issued, and there should be no monopoly of service, but open competition. The difference between an open and a sealed set is that with the latter the owner is restricted to one service — if he wishes to "listen-in" to the programme of another company he has to buy that company's set. Thus one service company may be working on a 1000 metre wave length, and its receiving sets are sealed to that length. Whereas an open set can be adjusted to a different wave length. it can readily be understood that the open set is much more convenient, and economical to the public. MORE EASTERN EXPLOITATION It is also clear that open competition is in the public benefit. It means that there will be a constant striving to improve programmes and to fit them for different localities and different interests. And it would certainly lead to reduced prices of apparatus. It is just here that the particular interests of the people of this State are engaged. If a monopoly is granted it will be an Eastern monopoly and the West will be restricted to an Eastern service which may be wholly unsuited to our peculiar conditions. All the local folk interested in wireless, including the dealers, the amateurs and Westralian Farmers have combined to insist that Western Australia must have a separate service of its own. Furthermore whatever may be decided on for the Eastern States our local Wireless Development Association is claiming the right to open competition in this State. Dictation by the East will be resisted. And the fight is now on. MUCH "LOBBYING" IN MELBOURNE. Two big theatrical firms are financially interested in broadcasting, and it is believed they were behind a proposal recently put before the Federal Cabinet. This was for the formation of a company with £200,000 capital to control broadcasting, those firms and companies already engaged in the business to be absorbed, being given shares equal to their capital outlay. Owing to a vigorous protest from the State branches of the Wireless Development Association the acceptance of this proposal was checked. But there is so much "facilitating" over in Melbourne it is feared that unless public feeling is aroused the Eastern "lobbyists" will prove successful. This would mean the complete subordination of W.A. to Eastern interest's. For instance, Westralian Farmers who have expended something like £20,000 in erecting a transmitting station and are almost ready to commence a service, will lose all individual control of their own broadcasting organisation if the monopolistic proposal is accepted. With their intimate knowledge of local conditions and requirements Westralian Farmers were preparing a really serviceable programme of news, market prices, music etc., which would bring the most distant settlers into touch with the world's affairs. It was their intention to promote the benefit of the State as a whole rather than look for immediate profits. But if their broadcasting department becomes merely a subsidiary branch of an Eastern firm , then its service necessarily will be largely detailed by the East. Obviously a programme suitable for the centred populations of large cities is not suitable for the lonely pioneers of this large State. It is to be hoped, therefore, that citizens generally will support the determined stand of our local wireless folk for absolute independence of action in W.A. And in such an important matter to the people, the State Government, pledged to oppose any hint of a monopoly, may well be asked to register its protest against another exploitation of this State by Eastern grab-alls, Government or otherwise.[67]

Perth Sunday Times reports that 6WF studios almost complete and that work has commenced on the aerial system

Wireless Week by Week. Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-in Lyrics — Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge. By LONG WAVE. . . . The studio of the Westralian Farmers' broadcasting department is now assuming most elaborate proportions. Artistic drapings are being erected and the whole turnout promises to rival any of the other Australian broadcasting studios. Work has commenced on the aerial system, and everything points to a near "first-night."[68]

Detailed description in the West Australian of the work to date on the 6WF facilities

REAL ESTATE. WIRELESS BROADCASTING. Housing the Plant. An interesting piece of construction has recently been carried out in the city in connection with the installation of the first wireless broadcasting plant in Western Australia. The company undertaking this enterprise is the Westralian Farmers' Ltd., which is hopeful of being able to commence broadcasting within the next week or ten days. The constructional site comprises two units — the apartments for the housing of the plant and the masts for the wireless aerials. The apartments consist of an auditorium capable of holding a fair sized concert party, or band, a main distribution room which houses the wireless apparatus, a machinery room and a battery room. In order to provide against interference with the clearness of broadcasting, the auditorium had to be constructed in such a way as to eliminate entirely any possible sound from external sources, as well as to prevent the electrical waves being interfered with by any external vibrations and electrical currents. So sensitive is the mechanism of the broadcasting plant that a pin dropped near the distribution instruments would create in the receiving instruments scattered throughout the country jarring and harsh noises almost as loud as pistol cracks, so that it is essential that nothing but the pure sound required to be distributed should enter into the receiving machinery. To ensure this the auditorium had to be constructed with several varieties of insulated materials. The main frame, including the floors, walls and ceilings is of wood studding. This is lined internally and externally by a series of wood boarding, cardboard sheeting, felt, galvanised sheet iron and hessian, whilst the cavity space is filled with sawdust and cotton waste. The galvanised sheet iron had to be soldered at every junction, and round the whole four sides, floor and ceiling, to prevent electrical short circuiting, it being then connected to earth. This prevents the intrusion of any electrical disturbances. The hessian is the last internal lining, and has been effectively draped, painted with varied colours to give an artistic effect to the interior of the room. The hessian covers the whole of the ceiling as well; and the flooring is covered with thick matting. Even the system of ventilation had to be devised in such a way as to prevent the intrusion of vibrations or noises, and the air penetrating into the room has to pass through water, which acts as an absorbing medium. Electrically forced methods of induction had to be used to secure a free form of ventilation. The steel masts to carry the main aerials are 120ft. above the main ridge to the roof, and are formed of a series of steel tubes, diminishing in a circumference upward, and secured in position by a series of 12 wrought steel guys. All these guys are effectively insulated against the distributions of electrical currents. The whole mast is resting on a specially constructed Oregon raft, which enables the distribution of the strains and stresses over the main walls and doors of the building. Beneath the aerial is a wire screen which prevents short circuiting of the electrical waves down through the building to earth. The erection of these masts was a specially difficult problem. They were erected section by section vertically on the topmost floor of the building, and then pushed through the roof. The sections were added and guyed into position as the masts rose. They are the largest steel masts erected within the State, with the exception of the Applecross mast which is 400ft. high, and they are the first of their kind made and erected locally. The masts were manufactured by Messrs. Harris, Scarfe and Sandovers, and the erection was carried out by men used to ship mast processes. The work was carried out under the personal supervision of Mr. E. P. Henshaw, from designs of and under the general supervision of Messrs. Oldham, Boas and Ednie-Brown, architects. The wireless installation is being erected by Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Limited, of Sydney, whilst the technical electrical construction was under the control of Mr. W. E. Coxon, who is the technical head of the wireless staff of the Westralian Farmers Ltd.[69]

Work on the roof of the Westralian Farmers building is a sistraction for those at street level

RADIO NEWS AND NOTES. (By "Ether.") . . . Still the question is being asked: "What are they doing up there," and on turning and following the gaze of the speaker you find him deeply engrossed in the work being carried out on the roof of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd. This firm has undertaken the transmission of concerts, weather re-ports, market quotations, etc., which will prove of the greatest value to the man outback. It will experiment with a small set to begin with, using a power of 500 watts. This is really the modulator of the large 5,000-watt transmitter. The first concert will be broadcasted on June 3, and from then on transmissions will be bi-weekly. [70]

The future 6WF actively involved in developing the new wireless regulations of 1924

BRUCE-PAGE GOVT. ASSISTS WIRELESS COMBINE. MR. WILKES GIVES W.A. PUBLIC THE FACTS. (For weeks past the "Worker"' has been directing attention to the "sealed sets" wireless iniquity. An octopus (half Federal Government and half Amalgamated Wireless Co.) has been strangling broadcasting. While the life and death struggle has been going on, what have Federal members Mann, Gregory, and Co. been doing? Can't they see anything but Free Trade? Fortunately Mr. Wilkes (Principal of the City Commercial College) has put up a bonny fight for the people.) Now that wireless broadcasting has come to stay, the public is learning something of the ring-fence which the monopolistic Amalgamated Wireless of Australia, backed up by a monopolistic Nationalist Government, sought to hedge around what is probably the greatest public utility, commercially and socially, of the age. It is common knowledge that under the wireless agreement negotiated about four years ago by Billy Hughes, the Commonwealth Government holds a one-half interest in Amalgamated Wireless of Australia. (Start photo caption) MR. R. WILKES. (End photo caption) Amalgamated Wireless got in early and secured the Australian rights of the wireless patents of all the big systems. By this means it was in a position to dictate terms — and it made the terms pretty stiff — to any concern desiring to enter on the broadcasting business. Regulations That Fleece the Public. Wireless being controlled by the Federal Government, the promulgation of regulations became necessary; these in due course, made their appearance. As was to be expected from a Nationalist Government source, these regulations evidenced greater concern for the companies than for the public. Thus, the companies were to be licensed at a fee of 10/-, with the right to collect, and fix, their own charges to users of their service. It may be here mentioned that in England the licensing fee is 10/- per annum; in America and France no license fee is demanded, though in the latter country a broadcasting fee of a few pounds is charged; New Zealand levies a broadcasting fee of £1/5/-; and in South Africa and the Irish Free State it is £1. West Australia Gets IT in the Neck. Let us now see how it was proposed to treat Australia. To ensure to itself the full return of the monopoly it had established, Amalgamated Wireless issued an edict that what is known as "sealed sets" must be used in connection with receiving sets used for its farmed-out broadcast service. The effect of this was to restrict a receiver to one wavelength, and to thereby provide that anyone desiring to make fuller use of his instrument would be compelled to pay a further license fee for every additional wavelength used. In Western Australia this worked out thus. Three companies proposed to enter the broadcasting business on differing wavelengths, the respective charges for the service being £4/4/-, £3/10/-, and £3. Thus a subscriber desiring to use all three wave lengths would have to pay £11/14/- for the privilege. P.M.G. Takes the Side of Monopoly. How this worked to the enrichment of Amalgamated Wireless is explained in the astounding demand for a further royalty — on top of two other royalties already provided for — of 25 per cent. of the gross receipts from licenses issued by the broadcasting companies. Protests against the regulations under which this extortion was possible were made unavailingly to the Post master-General for months, the substitution of the "open set" (which would permit the use of any wavelength) for the "sealed set" being sought. Political and other pressure eventually forced the calling by the P.M.G. of a conference of broadcasting companies' representatives and representatives of the Wireless Development Association — an association composed mainly of small dealers in wireless outfits, though interested citizens are eligible for membership. Practically a One Man Fight. At that conference Western Australia was represented by Mr. Thompson of the Westralian Farmers Ltd. (which is to begin broadcasting on June 3) and Mr. E. C. (sic, Robert) Wilkes, of the City Commercial College, on behalf of the Wireless Development Association of W.A. Mr. Wilkes has taken a deep interest in wireless for years, and his exposure in the "Daily News" of the misstatements by the P.M.G. of the conference proceedings shed a lot of light on the inner history of this matter. Mr. Wilkes went East to this conference determined to make a big effort to establish a uniform license fee of £1 for all Australia on the "open set" basis, but found that an agreement had been reached unofficially before conference opened to the charge being fixed at £2. This was a long way from satisfying the West Australian, who succeeded to the extent of inducing the Eastern States trade representatives to fix on 25/- as the fee. A Victory for the People. Then began a big fight in conference, which lasted till nearly midnight, the chief objector being Westralian Farmers Ltd., who, quite reasonably, wanted to be shown how it could be reimbursed for its large outlay on such a fee. This having been demonstrated, largely by Mr. Wilkes, the opposition caved in at the next sitting, and the 25/- fee was agreed to — without any overriding royalty of 25 per cent. to Amalgamated Wireless, as first demanded. Thus, instead of being called on to pay a profiteering fee of £14/14/-, a Western Australian subscriber may now use any wavelength service on an open set receiver on payment of 25/-. That's one, at least, on the solar plexus of a monopoly which stood in the way of the wide adoption of wireless in the homes of the people.[71]

Sunday Times radio journalist notes many firms adding radio departments in lead up to 6WF commencement; Coxon still presenting excellent Sunday evening concerts; provides status report on 6WF construction but confuses callsign with that of 2FC Farmers

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. Among those large local emporiums which have recently entered the radio field may be specially mentioned Messrs. Foy and Gibson Ltd. These people have a great variety of goods, all of which are quick sellers. 6AG continues to hold the attention of the radio audiences of W.A. (if not some of the Eastern amateurs, too) with his excellent Sunday night concerts. Now, if you want to show your appreciation of these transmissions, what better could you do than trot along to the radio social on June 14? Eastern wireless papers often publish a list of transmitting licenses issued in Australia during certain months. I scanned one of these lists recently, quite in hopes that I would find some new "sixer" added to the membership of the "Sleeping Transmitters Society," but, alas! little W.A was not even on the map. Westralian Farmers' broadcasting station 2FC (sic, 6WF) is very near completion. The aerial system finished, work has commenced on the counterpoise earth, which will most likely be completed by the time these notes appear. A very small section of the transmitting plant remains to be erected, the studio is complete (with microphones), and I understand that the station will be on the air on June 3.[72]

The West Australian publishes the program for 6WF's opening night

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . Broadcasting.— In connection with the opening of the Westralian Farmers' powerful wireless broadcasting station on Wednesday evening next by the Premier (Mr. P. Collier), Mr. A. J. Leckie will take charge of the entertainment, and the following interesting programme has been arranged for this the first wireless broadcasting programme in Western Australia:— 8.30. Mr. G. C. Haywood, baritone, "A Love Symphony" (Huhn), "Five and Twenty Sailormen" (Coleridge Taylor); 8.39, Miss Lilian Pether in violin solos, "Serenata" (Moszkowski), "Hejre Kati" (Hubay); 8.50, The Wendowie Quartette, "Tar's Song" (Hatton), "Piccaninny," "Mrs. Cosy's Boarding House"; 9, Mr. Herbert Gibson entertainer, "The Egg," "Shakespeare Snapshotted"; 9.10, Mr. Rhys Francis, tenor, "Youth" (Allitson), "I'll Sing thee Songs of Araby" (Clay); 9.20, Mr. G. C. Haywood, "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" (Rogers), "King Duncan's Daughters" (Allitson); 9.30, Miss Lilian Pether, "Schon Rosmarin" (Kreisler), "Tambourin Chinois" (Kreisler); 9.35, the Wendowie Quartette, "Madrigal — What Ho!" (Beale), "Linden Lea" (Williams); "Ye Catte" (Smith); 9.48, Mr. Herbert Gibson, "Pom Pom Parade," "I St-stutter"; 9.56, Mr. Rhys Francis, "The Distant Shore" (Sullivan), "Melanie" (Eric Coates).[73]

The West Australian reports that the 6WF opening night concert is sold out and that a second concert will be given (but substituting the 6WF transmission with a wireless demonstration by Craig and Co, Robert Wilkes' company

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . Broadcasting Initiation.— In view of the overwhelming applications for admission to the opening by the Premier of the Westralian Farmers' wireless broadcasting station on Wednesday evening next, the managing director of the Westralian Farmers has arranged with Mr. A. J. Leckie to present a second concert on the following evening. People who have been unable to obtain tickets for Wednesday's function may be provided for at the second concert, if they make prompt application to Mr. A. C. Kessell at the company's office in Wellington-street. On Wednesday night at 8 o'clock patrons of the Prince of Wales Theatre will be enabled to listen in to the Premier's speech at the opening of the broadcasting station. The demonstration will be given by Messrs. Craig and Co., with their locally manufactured receiving apparatus.[74]

Perth Call magazine publishes the complete opening night program for 6WF

THE BROADCASTING CONCERT. The Honorable the Premier (Mr. P. Collier, M.L.A.), is to open the first broadcasting station in Western Australia, installed by the Directors of the Westralian Farmers Limited, at their building in Wellington-street, at 8 p.m. on Wednesday evening, June 4. The station will be known as 6WF in the wireless world. After the Managing Director has welcomed the Premier, and the latter has delivered the first speech into the broadcasting plant, the following musical programme will be submitted under the direction of Mr. A. J. Leckier (sic, Leckie), Mus. Bac.: 8.30. Mr. G. C. Haywood, baritone, will sing: A Love Symphony, Huhn. Five and Twenty Sailormen, Coleridge Taylor. 8.39. Miss Lillian Pether in violin solos, Serenata Moszkowski, Hejre Kati, Hubay. 8.50. The Wendowie Quartet in a group of popular numbers. Tar's Song Hatton. Piccaninny, Mrs. Cosy's Boarding House. 9. Mr. Herbert Gibson, entertainer, The Egg, Shakespeare Snapshotted. 9.10. Mr. Rhys Francis, tenor. Youth, Allitson, I'll sing thee songs of Araby. Clay. 9.20. Mr. G. C. Haywood. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot. Rogers. King Duncan's Daughters. Allitson. 9.30. Miss Lillian Pether will play Schon Rosmarin, Kreisler. Tambourin Chinois, Kreisler. 9.35. The Wendowie Quartette, Madrigal. What Ho! Beale. Accompanied song, Linden Lee, Williams. Humorous, Ye Catte, Smith. 9.48. Mr. Herbert Gibson in humorous numbers, Pom Pom Parade, I St-Stutter. 9.56. Mr. Rhys Francis will sing The Distant Shore, Sullivan. Melanie, Eric Coates.[75]

The Westralian Worker announces the 6WF commencement program and notes attendees will be able to inspect the studios, plant and demonstration room

WIRELESS BROADCASTING. The directors of the Westralian Farmers Limited have issued invitations for the official opening of the Wireless Broadcasting Station at their buildings, Wellington-street, Perth, on the evening of the 4th June. The Honorable the Premier has consented to deliver the first speech in the Studio, and a varied programme will be submitted under the direction of Mr. A. J. Leckie, Mus. Bac. Recipients of invitations will, upon presentation of their cards, be able to inspect the plant, studio, and demonstration room on the top floor from 7.30 to 7.55 p.m. Arrangements have also been made for a limited number of persons to "listen in" in the company's social hall on the third floor, admission to which will be by ticket only, obtainable from Mr. A. C. Kessell, at the company's offices.[76]

At least one local theatre installs a receiver to provide patrons with the premier's speech opening 6WF

LISTENING-IN. Broadcasting at Prince. The management of the Prince of Wales Theatre announce that by means of a wireless receiving installation manufactured in Perth by Messrs Craig and Co., the Premier's speech at the opening of the Westralian Farmers' Broadcasting Station next Wednesday night, June 4, will be received in the auditorium of the theatre, at 8 o'clock. This will be the first opportunity the general public will have of "listening in" to a broadcasting demonstration. Oh the three nights following, Thursday 5th, Friday 6th, Saturday 7th, further demonstrations will be given at this theatre, and the Princess. Fremantle, between 7 and 8 o'clock. At any time during the course of the entertainment, should there be any item of public interest received, the programme will be suspended so that patrons may "listen in."[77]

1924 06Edit

6WF provides its rooms to the WIA WA for a presentation to Coxon thanking him for last two years of concerts; farmers are besieging 6WF with enquiries prior to opening night; 6WF with demise of sealed sets realises it needs local support also and decides to market a crystal set as well as its Mulgaphone

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . At the radio social and supper, to be held on June 14, at the Westralian Farmers Ltd., there will be — firstly, a presentation from the amateurs of W.A. to Mr. W. E. Coxon, for his most excellent work in transmitting radio concerts for the last two years, thus benefitting the science in W.A. muchly, and also the returns of the radio traders; and secondly the council of the Wireless Institute (W.A. Division) will have pleasure in presenting to Mr. B. Holt, a fitting regard for his past three years as president of that society. . . . A run of excitement is being experienced throughout the amateur movement of W.A. as the opening night of the broadcasting fair draws nearer. As regards the position of the company (the Westralian Farmers, Ltd.), as far as the broadcasting business is concerned, I am informed that they are beseiged daily with letters from farmers, etc. This means that the farmers of our great State realise what unlimited supplies of entertainment and educational help they will receive from the broadcasting station. This broadcasting business can best be appreciated only by these people in the great outback. . . . I understand that the Westralian Farmers intend to cater for the needs of local persons desiring to listen-in to broadcasted matter. The new type of receiver will, of course employ the simple, yet effective, crystal. Owing to the simplicity of this instrument, it will be retailed at a very moderate price. "There's a wireless set to suit all pockets," I recollect saying once before in these columns.[78]

Full opening speech and musical programme for 6WF published in the West Australian the following day

BROADCASTING. PERTH STATION OPENED. Speech by the Premier. No other Premier of the State ever spoke to such a wide audience of the people as did Mr. Collier last night, when he opened the new broadcasting station of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd. The occasion was a unique one in the history of the State, because of the simple rea-son that listeners in towns as far distant from Perth as Geraldton, Sand-stone, Kalgoorlie, Esperence, Albany, and Bunbury were waiting to hear what the Premier had to say. With the advance of the science of wireless telegraphy the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., decided to instal a broadcasting station, and last night it was formally opened by the Premier, Mr. Collier. To celebrate the occasion the company invited a large number of guests to the ceremony. Prior to the actual opening ceremony, the guests, who numbered several hundred, inspected the plant, which was so ex-tensive that it extended over three floors of the building. Mr. Basil Murray, on behalf of the company, welcomed the guests. He explained that later in the evening the Premier would declare the station open by speaking into a receiver on an upper floor, where the studio was situated. From the studio the speech and the subsequent concert would be transmitted to the aerials and reconveyed to the receivers in the main reception room, where the main party of the guests were gathered, also throughout the State. The gathering filled the large room, and when Mr. Collier was introduced to the audience by medium of the loud speaker, by Mr. Murray, his voice was very clear. It was so clear that every word carried distinctly to each part of the large room. The various concert items were also very distinct. Subsequently Mr. J. Thomson, who controlled the operations, was complimented. The Premier, in his address through the wireless receiving apparatus, said he greatly appreciated the privilege of opening the first broadcasting system of wireless telephony and telegraphy in Western Australia. It had been installed at a cost of approximately £12,000, and had a broadcasting capacity of 600 miles. The Westralian Farmers, Ltd., which had installed the service, deserved great credit for its enterprise. It had 6,000 clients to cater for, and its service would also be for the edification of all those who possessed receiving sets in any part of the State. Such an installation would serve to overcome the isolation which was one of the disabilities of present day life in the country. The service would annihilate distance, and bring the people of the outback into touch with the everyday life and enjoyment of the city, and of other countries, whose messages came over the ether. A station of the kind he was opening had a very special significance to Western Australia, because of the great distances of the State and the comparatively few people who lived here. In no other State did the same conditions apply. An innovation of the nature of the broadcasting service would be of immeasurably greater value to the people of the remotest areas of the State than to the people who lived in the metropolitan area. From Esperance to Wyndham the owners of small receiving sets would be able to listen in and enjoy all that could be offered in the city in the way of music, song, lecture, and general vocal entertainment. Broadcasting was a wonderful science. It had made great progress during the past ten years. A cable message in today's paper informed them, of a successful experiment in wireless telephony between Great Britain and Australia. It could be truly said that that day marked an epoch in the history of Western Australia, because it established not only State-wide communication between the ether of the State, but worldwide. To him, as Premier, of the State, it was very gratifying to know the station had been designed and manufactured in Australia, and, being the most powerful of its kind in the Commonwealth, it reflected great credit on those responsible for its installation. Concluding, Mr. Collier said: "While you are compelled to listen to me you cannot talk back or interject, for if you attempt to do so I would be blissfully unconscious." He declared the broadcasting station open. Subsequently a long programme of musical items was rendered, those contributing being Mr. G. C. Haywood, Miss Lilian Pether, the Wendowie Quartette, Mr. H. Gibson, and Mr. R. Francis. Tonight the station will broadcast the following programme:— 7.0, Tune in to Gramophone (Sonora); 7.5, Bedtime Stories; 7.45, Market Reports; 7.55, Weather Reports; 8.0, Time Signal; 8.2, News (Cable); 8.15, Mr. Frank L. Robertson, baritone will sing "Morning" and "How's My Boy." 8.30, Miss C. Pether in flute solos, "Papillon" and "Allegretto"; 8.45, Miss Ida Geddes, contralto will sing "Deep in the Heart of a Rose," "My Ships"; 8.55, Mr. Ned. Taylor, will discourse; 9.7, Mr. Hugh Torrance, tenor, "Angels Guard Thee," and "A Memory"; 9.17, Mr. Frank L. Robertson in songs, "Beauty's Eyes," and "A Sergeant of the line"; 9.27, Miss C. Pether, flautist, "Serenade," and "Andalouse"; 9.37, Miss Ida Geddes will sing, "God's Lullaby," and "Abide With Me"; 9.45, Mr. Ned Taylor in humorous items; 9:55, Mr. Hugh Torrance will sing, "Old Mary," and "I Hear You Calling Me."; 10.2, Close down.[79]

Despite the premier's encouraging words at 6WF opening, experienced Kalgoorlie listeners are only able to hear a few words of the 6WF (temporary 150 watts) opening despite 2FC Sydney (1500 watts, also on longwave) coming in well.

Goldfields Listeners. Kalgoorlie, June 4. Local wireless enthusiasts tonight attempted to pick up the Westralian Farmers' broadcasting concert, but only succeeded in hearing one or two words of Mr. Collier's speech, and a few words of a song. Better results are expected when the power is increased, for tonight a pianoforte solo in Sydney was heard distinctly by goldfields' listeners. They are also able to receive messages from Applecross and from vessels off Fremantle.[80]

6WF opening barely over and the station is calling for amateur performers to make appearances (to reduce expenditure?)

WIRELESS BROADCASTING. In response to many requests that amateur entertainers be given an opportunity of having their performances broadcast, the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., have decided to make available a portion of each Wednesday and Friday evening to approved amateurs. Persons interested should communicate with the musical director, at 569 Wellington street, Perth, giving a list of four or more items from their repertoire. Applicants will be notified regarding the date and time at which they can be afforded an opportunity of appearing, and those requiring an accompanist should arrange for their own pianist.[81]

Perth Daily News states that 6WF will be broadcasting to a daily schedule

SUMMED UP. Epitome of Today's News. . . . "Six W.F." started wireless broadcasting last night on a 1,250 metres wave length. From now on a programme will be sent out from the Westralian Farmers' headquarters, Perth, commencing at 7 o'clock each evening.[82]

Very comprehensive report of 6WF opening by Perth Daily News, both actual details and context

"6.W.F." COMMENCES BROADCASTING. PREMIER OPENS WIRELESS STATION. "KEEP THE BOYS ON THE FARM." "Standby to receive broadcast concert from "6 W.F.," on 1,250 metres wave length." This is the warning which, commencing from last night, will daily go out at 7 p.m. to "listeners-in" throughout the State. Last night the large broadcasting station installed by the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., at their building in Murray-street was officially opened by the Premier (Mr. P. Collier), and was followed by a musical programme which radiated in all directions at the speed of 186,000 miles per second. From Broome to Eucla figures crouched over tables in spare rooms, turning little vulcanite knobs and listened to what the Premier had to say. No wonder the Premier was nervous when speaking to his invisible audience last night. "I would want to be well paid, if that was the way I had to earn my living. It is the most nerve-racking thing to be imagined, to have to make a speech to an empty room," the Premier said as he mopped his brow after the address was broadcast. It was no good the Premier using gesticulation to assist his voice, for no one could see him as he sat in the studio a couple of feet distant from the microphone. The utmost silence had to be observed in the studio, so that sounds other than speeches and music would not be broadcast. Even the Premier, who spoke from a few notes, was not at liberty to turn over the pages, for the slight sound made would have been magnified into a sound like distant thunder. Consequently he had to let sheet after sheet float gracefully to the floor at his feet as it had served its purpose. Many people were under the impression that the plant seen last night is the finished apparatus. It was learned, however, that definite results over 200 miles were not expected last night. At present the station is only a half-kilowatt transmitter unit. This is intended to act as the "drive" for the 5-6 kilowatt set which is to be installed in a few weeks, and which Mr. Murray said would have a capacity two and a half times that of Applecross. During the progress of the concert a telephone message was received from York stating that the items and speech were being received. Other country centres have also reported similar good results. In order to mark the epoch in West Australian history by the inauguration of broadcast wireless, the directors of the Westralian Farmers Ltd. invited a large number of guests to the ceremony, and when the time had arrived for the commencement of the programme, the social room was accommodating about 800 people, while many others were to be found inspecting the apparatus to be found on three floors. OPPOSITION TO MONOPOLY. Mr. Basil L. Murray, managing director of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., addressed the audience from the platform explaining the apparatus and inviting those who had not been able to see the plant to make later appointments. He said the wireless masts which stood 110 feet above the roof of the building weighed something like 3½ tons each, and had been manufactured locally, while the whole construction as far as had been possible was of local manufacture. He wished to stress the point that instead of opening an establishment that night, they were really only laying the foundation stone. The plant when completed would be the biggest in Australia. They were contracting to deliver broadcast matter as far distant as Wyndham, where sets had already been sold. The sets they had made had "picked up" South Africa, while they had also "listened-in" to Farmers Ltd., Sydney. Mr. Murray then welcomed the Premier in the studio, his remarks being broadcast. Downstairs in the social room a load speaker picked up the messages and delivered them in clear, resonant tones which could be heard distinctly throughout the large and crowded hall. After expressing pleasure at having the Premier with them, Mr. Murray said that the venture was more or less a private one, although they felt that broadcasting in a country as vast as West Australia was a matter of more than private interest. Indeed, it was a matter of national importance. He had learned that day for the first time that the Premier was born on the land, and had lived a good many years there engaged in farming pursuits. He therefore took it that the Premier recognised that one of the big disadvantages of living on the land was its isolation. The young Australian felt that isolation keenly, and in some of the cases the city lured him away from the land. Australia required its men on the land, and he had great hopes that the inauguration of an efficient broadcasting plant would do more than anything else to keep the young people on the land. He could assure the Premier that they would do everything in their power to establish an efficient broadcasting plant for the State. He felt he might require some assistance from the Premier in one matter which was disturbing their minds, and which he thought should be made public. Attempt was being made in Melbourne to force their broadcasting venture into a central company, having its headquarters in the Eastern States and giving it the advantages of a huge monopoly. They strenuously objected to being tied up to any Eastern States concern, and looked forward to getting the Premier's support in their hard fight against consolidation. THE PREMIER'S ADDRESS. The Premier said: "I am greatly privileged this evening in being asked to open the first broadcasting system of wireless telephony and telegraphy in Western Australia. This has been installed by the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., at a cost of approximately £12,000, and at the present moment has a broadcasting capacity of 600 miles. The company deserves great credit for its enterprise, for not only will they cater for their own 6,000 clients, but also for the edification and entertainment of numerous other holders of receiving sets throughout the State. An installation of this nature must serve to overcome the isolation which is one of the disabilities of present day life in the country. It will annihilate distances, and bring the people of the outback in touch with everyday life and enjoyment of the city and of other countries. A station of this kind has very special significance to our own State, because of our great distances and comparatively few people, for in no other States do the conditions apply to the same extent. An innovation of this description will be of immeasurably greater benefit to the people of the remotest areas of our own State than to city dwellers. From Esperance and Eucla, in the south, to Wyndham, in the far north, owners of small receiving sets will be able to listen in and enjoy all that can be offered by the great cities in music, singing, or lectures, or any other form of entertainment. This is a wonderful science, and has made enormous progress during the past decade. A cable message in tonight's newspaper informs us of a successful experiment in wireless telephony between Great Britain and Australia. Truly it may be said that this day marks an epoch in the history of Western Australia, and of worldwide communication through the empyrean blue. It is very gratifying to know that this station has been designed and manufactured in Australia, and being the most powerful on our continent reflects great credit upon those responsible for the undertaking and those who have arranged the installation. In conclusion, I would like to mention one feature that strongly appeals to me, and that is this, that while you are compelled to listen to me, you cannot talk back or interject, for if you should do so I would be blissfully unconscious. Notwithstanding this, I do not propose to intervene any longer between you and the excellent programme which I understand is to follow, and I therefore have very great pleasure in declaring open this broadcasting station of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd." The plant was operated last night by Mr. S. Trim, of Amalgamated Wireless of Australasia, Ltd. (Sydney), and Mr. W. E. Coxon, technical adviser to the Westralian Farmer's Ltd. MUSICAL PROGRAMME. During the evening songs, violin soli, quartette items and humorous songs were contributed by Mr. G. C. Haywood, Miss Lilian Pether, the Wendowie Quartette, Mr. Herbert Gibson, and Mr. Rhys Francis. THE PLANT. In giving a brief description of the plant, it might be advisable to start from the studio, where the music is created, and follow it through to the aerials, from where it is discharged into the ether. The Westralian Farmers have provided two studios. One is for concerts, brass band music, etc., while the other, a smaller one, is for the dissemination of news, bedtime stories and market reports. The room is made entirely soundproof, and is draped in brown and blue in order to prevent the possibility of echoes. The room is lined with sheet iron to prevent interference from outside electrical induction. On a pedestal stands a microphone of the push-pull, two-button type. This receives the sounds, magnifies them and passes them through to a three-valve amplifier panel, which converts the sound vibrations into electrical vibrations. A window between this piece of apparatus and the artist enables the operator to direct the singer and speaker, if required to approach or recede from the microphone. The electrical vibrations are then passed to another apparatus known as the modulator panel, which contains four 250 T-Valves and also two more amplifying valves. The modulator panel is connected with an oscillator panel of two 250 T-valves. On the top of the modulator and oscillator panels are mounted tuning inductances for the closed and open circuits. From the open circuit inductance the "lead" goes to the aerial and the other through the hot wire ammeter to the counterpoise system, which stands three feet above the roof for the purpose of creating an artificial "earth." The aerial of the four-wire cage type is 173 feet long, and is suspended between the poles, 195 feet from the pavement. The three panels are enclosed in latticed steel cabinets and look very much like miniature passenger lifts. TONIGHT'S PROGRAMME. The programme to be broadcasted tonight is as follow:— 7 p.m.: Tune in to gramophone (Sonora). 7.5: Bedtime stories. 7.45: Market reports. 7.55: Weather reports. 8.0: Time signal. 8.2: News (cable). 8.15: Mr. Frank L. Robertson, baritone: "Morning," "How's My Boy." 8.30: Miss C. Pether in flute solos: "Papillon," "Allegretto." 8.45: Miss Ida Geddes, contralto: "Deep in the Heart of a Rose," "My Ships." 8.55: Mr. Ned Taylor will discourse. 9.7: Mr. Hugh Torrance, tenor: "Angels Guard Thee," "A Memory." 9.17: Mr. Frank L. Robertson in songs: "Beauty's Eyes," "A Sergeant of the Line." 9.27: Mr. C. Pether, flautist: "Serenade," "Andalouse." 9.37: Miss Ida Geddes will sing: "God's Lullaby," "Abide With Me." 9.45: Mr. Ned Taylor in humorous items. 9.55: Mr. Hugh Torrance will sing: "Old Mary," "I Hear You Calling Me." 10.2: Close down. A DISAPPOINTMENT. The failure of the Prince of Wales Theatre to broadcast the Westralian Farmers' concert last night was due, it is understood, to the fact that the firm which installed the plant had inadvertently omitted to secure a licence to receive broadcast from the Commonwealth authorities, who at the last moment prevented the concert taking place.[83]

Geraldton Guardian publishes Perth report that no reception of 6WF opening at Kalgoorlie

TELEGRAMS. Western Australia. WESTRALIAN FARMERS' BROADCASTING. Perth, June 5. The Westralian Farmers' new broadcasting station was opened last night. Kalgoorlie reports that they were only able to hear a few words.[84]

As previous, for Carnarvon

"BROADCASTING" FROM PERTH. Perth, June 5. The Westralian Farmers' new broadcasting station was opened last night. Reports from Kalgoorlie state that only a few words were heard there.[85]

York at 97km East of Perth seems to have been the most distant reception of the 6WF opening broadcast

WIRELESS WAVES. RADIO NEWS AND NOTIONS. (By "ARIEL") 6 W.F. OFFICIALLY OPENED. The Westralian Farmers' broadcasting plant was officially opened last Wednesday night. After Mr. Basil L. Murray, managing director of the Westralian Farmers Ltd., had welcomed the Premier (Mr. P. Collier, M.L.A.), the latter delivered his opening speech into the microphone of the broadcasting station. A mulgaphone, with frame aerial and loudspeaking attachment, was situated in the social hall, where some hundreds of interested guests were enabled to hear the whole programme as it was broadcasted from the studio on the top floor. The reception of music was excellent, and towards the end of the evening the director received a message from York stating the transmissions were being received exceptionally well. Thursday's programme was as follows:— 7.0: Tune in to gramophone (Sonora); 7.5: Bedtime stories; 7.45: Market reports; 7.55: Weather reports; 8.0: Time signal; 8.2: News (cable); 8.15: Mr. Frank L. Robertson, baritone, "Morning," "How's My Boy"; 8.30: Miss C. Pether in flute solos, "Papillon, "Allegretto"; 8.45: Miss Ida Geddes, contralto, "Deep in the Heart of a Rose," "My Ships"; 8.55: Mr. Ned Taylor; 9.7: Mr. Hugh Torrance, tenor, "Angels Guard Thee," "A Memory"; 9.17: Mr. Frank L. Robertson, "Beauty's Eyes," "A Sergeant of the Line"; 9.27: Miss C. Pether, flautist, "Serenade," "Andalouse"; 9.37: Miss Ida Geddes, "God's Lullaby," "Abide with Me"; 9.45: Mr. Ned Taylor in humorous items; 9.55: Mr. Hugh Torrance, "Old Mary," "I Hear You Calling Me."; 10.2: Close down. [86]

As previous, some further detail

WIRELESS BROADCASTING. THE WESTRALIAN FARMERS' STATION. The Westralian Farmers' "overflow" audience — in other words, the second opening night of the Westralian Farmers' Broadcasting Station (6.W.F.), had a most enjoyable experience last evening. In many respects, profiting by the events of the first evening, as, for instance, the changing of the piano, from an upright to a grand, and in other minor ways, last night's entertainment was an improvement on the "first-night." It is not advisable to draw comparisons regarding the artists' rendition of the various items, but it can be truly said that the whole entertainment was a decided success, and that the 600 people present were not only afforded a novel and rare entertainment, but were initiated into the wonders of wireless transmission. The company and its experts are to be congratulated on the successful installation of wireless broadcasting in Western Australia. Those who were enabled to inspect the plant either before or during the concert, were amazed at the completeness of the equipment and arrangements for the opening ceremony. It is understood, however, that the appointments in this respect will be improved upon as the completion of the apparatus proceeds. The Westralian Farmers Ltd. broadcast programme for tonight (Friday) is as follows:— 7, tune in to gramophone; 7.5, bedtime stories; 7.45, market reports; 7.55, weather reports; 8, time signal; 8.2, news (cables); 8.15, talk on wireless to experimenters by a representative of the committee of the Affiliated Radio Society; 8.46, Mr. Delevante, selected; 8.55, Mrs. Jennings will sing "Romany Rose," "Beneath Thy Window"; 9.5, Master Court, cornet solos, "Blue Bells of Scotland, Because"; 9.15, Mr. Mooney in humorous items, "Little Novels," "Murphy Shall Not Sing Tonight"; 9.25, Miss Marion King will render "My Prayer" (Squire), "Salaam"; 9.35, Mr. Mooney will render "An Old Sweetheart," "The 'Bus Conductor"; 9.45, Mrs. G. MacNamara, selected; 9.55, Mrs. James will sing "Land of Long Ago" (Lillian Ray), "Homing" (Teresa del Riego); 10.2, close down.[87]

Robert Wilkes explains developments towards the Regulations 1924 and flags possible monopolistic developments

THAT WIRELESS COMBINE. ONE BIG COMPANY SCHEME. (In an interview with Mr. R. Wilkes, published last week, it was incorrectly stated that the broadcasting fee ultimately agreed on for Australia was 25/-. This should have been stated as £2. Below, Mr. Wilkes places the matter clearly, and adds a warning against the one big company proposal, which he demonstrates will, if established, constitute another Eastern States Octopus.) When I got to the East I found that the Eastern States representatives had agreed to a broadcasting subscription of £3 and a Government license fee of 10/-. I tried to get them to reduce this to 25/-, and after a long struggle got them to compromise on a £2 broadcasting subscription and a 5/-license fee. The official conference was also eventually induced to agree to these fees and they were recommended to the Postmaster-General for his acceptance. Incidentally I may mention that from latest advices from the East it seems likely that the radial system will be introduced, and the townsman will probably be asked to pay about £2, and this fee will be reduced in favor of people living at a distance from the broadcasting stations, the lowest fee being payable by the person furthest away. The Royalty Puzzle. The matter of royalty is rather confusing. It should be noted that under the "sealed set" regulations the company controlling the Australian rights of practically all the wireless patents was able to compel the broadcasting companies to collect a substantial yearly tax from all persons using a wireless receiving set for the reception of broadcasted matter. Our broadcasting company was compelled to pay to Amalgamated Wireless 25 per cent. of its gross receipts in this manner, and, of course, had to increase the subscription charged to the public to cover this amount. Under the "open set"' recommendations it would be difficult for this tax or royalty to be collected in any other part of the world, and why should we in Australia be compelled to pay it? It should be noted that the firm concerned already collects double royalties — it gets one substantial royalty on the instruments and apparatus sold to the broadcasting company who broadcasts the entertainment, and second royalty from the dealer on every machine he sells to the public. Fees Contrasted. Broadcasting companies had to pay a very much bigger license fee than the 10/- mentioned; but they had the right to charge any fee they chose to users of their services, and the unfortunate public had to pay this fee or dismantle the receiving set being used. Your interviewer has stated that the Frenchman paid a few pounds as a broadcasting fee; this should be a few francs. This means that the Frenchman pays three or four shillings, the American nothing, the Englishman 10/-, and the remaining countries of the world from £1 to 25/-, with the exception of we in Australia. It will be seen that with the £2 fee on which I compromised at the conference, ours will be the dearest radio in the world. The One Big Company. It seems pretty evident from information just received that the authorities are favoring the one big company scheme for the whole of Australia. I am specially concerned about this — all Australians should be made to realise at once what is happening. If this one big company scheme is enforced we in Western Australia will find our radio matters controlled by directors or managers in Sydney or Melbourne. We shall have to put up with what these Eastern States people give us. Each Westralian subscription will go East, and instead of any profits being retained within the State they will be collared by the Eastern States octopus. We have enough — far too much — of Eastern States control now, and we do not want any more of it. Even as it is we cannot get any consideration from the Eastern States authorities. It takes a fortnight or three weeks to get a reply to a letter, and without the personal contact that would be possible when you can see people face to face we get scant consideration. With our own broadcasting company or companies here we can get what we want, to suit ourselves, while the subscription — and the profits also — will be retained within the State. Wireless Autonomy for W.A. t should be noted that the Westralian Farmers Ltd., who are spending £10,000 on a broadcasting station for Westralians, is also bitterly opposed to the one big company scheme. They do not wish to have their broadcasting department absorbed by a big Eastern States company. With the opposition of the West Australian company principally concerned, the opposition of the traders, together with the support of the public and the press, it ought to be possible to squelch this pet scheme of the Postmaster-General's Department. But if anything is to be done it has to be done NOW.[88]

The 6WF opening makes it into Geraldton, barely

CORRESPONDENCE. WESTRALIAN FARMERS' BROADCASTING. (To the Editor.) Sir,— Re the recent broadcasting from the Westralian Farmers' Ltd., Perth. I had the good fortune to be one of a few amateurs in Geraldton who possessed a listening-in set, so on Wednesday night (the official opening night) I decided to twist the knobs and see if I could pick them up. After a few minutes I managed to pick up their carrier wave, and heard the voice of the speaker, who was officially opening the station, which came through very clear. After the speech a song was given by a quartette, which sounded really good, and those who were fortunate enough to hear that song, will agree that the broadcasting station had shown good judgment in selecting their vocal artistes. After the quartette came some solos and recitations. On account of nearby ships and bad atmospherics, I was unable to hear any more, but what I did hear was appreciated to the full. If future broadcasting is going to be as good, I can see Geraldton in the near future with a haze of aerial wires. — Yours, etc., C. LUCAS. Geraldton, June 6th. [Mr. Lucas informed us this morning that he was able to hear last night's program from 7.30 to 10 o'clock.— Ed.][89]

Lovely photos of the roof top antenna, the audience of the opening concert and the transmitter room

WESTRALIAN FARMERS LIMITED. Broadcasting Wireless Station. (Start Photo Caption) THE AERIALS AND OTHER PORTIONS OF THE EXTERNAL GEAR. Which have been installed on top of the Westralian Farmers' Building in Wellington-street, Perth. The steel frames were made and constructed locally. (End Photo Caption) (Start Photo Caption) THE OFFICIAL OPENING CONCERT. This was held on Wednesday evening last, and several hundreds of people attended the function. The Premier (Mr. P. Collier) and other Ministers and Members of Parliament were present. (End Photo Caption) (Start Photo Caption) WHERE THE INSTRUMENTS ARE INSTALLED. A specially equipped room for the delicate instruments has been prepared on the top storey of the building. They are connected with the microphone in the adjoining concert room and through the roof to the aerial. (Photo by McKinlay, Perth.) (End Photo Caption)[90]

As would be expected, it appears 6WF tested for some days prior to the opening night

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . Listeners-in were treated to a feast of music during the test period of the Westralian Farmers' broadcasting station.[91]

VIP causing widespread interference to 6WF

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . The Applecross wireless station proved very troublesome during the recent exhibition of the West Perth-Leederville Radio Society. Much consternation is being experienced at the interference of this station on the broadcasting wave, 1250 metres. Cannot the authorities of V.I.P. do something to rectify this trouble of interference? Amateurs have had to "grin and bear it" for the last couple of years when listening to the amateur music on 440 metres, but it is rather unpleasant for the situation to continue now that broadcasting proper has commenced. . . . It was my pleasure on May 30 to attend the exhibition and demonstration of the West Perth-Leederville Radio Society, in conjunction with the Parents' and Teachers' Association. The affair was held at the Thomas-street school. The exhibition was opened by Mr. Davies, after which, thanks to the kindness of Mr. W. E. Coxon, of experimental station 6AG, a most enjoyable programme was dispensed. The music was stepped up, through the efficient receiving apparatus, and was audible throughout the large room, a loud speaker being placed at the rear of the audience and also two on the demonstration table. During the interval, the society's president, Capt. Carter, took the opportunity of outlining the science of radio, urging all to endeavor to become members of the society. A varied display was given by local traders, while apparatus was exhibited by members of the society. On the whole, with the exception of rather acute jambing of the music by V.I.P., the exhibition was an entire success.[92]

Perth Sunday Times publishes a report of the 6WF opening, with some further detail added

BROADCASTING. WESTRALIAN FARMERS' INITIATIVE. An Historic Evening. Several hundreds of people assembled in the concert hall of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., Perth, last Wednesday evening when the Broadcasting Station 6W.F. was officially opened by the Premier (Mr. Phil. Collier). Prior to this a number of the guests were shown over the instrument rooms and the delicate mechanism explained to them. Later the managing director (Mr. Basil L. Murray) extended an invitation to anyone present to make an appointment to see over the latest addition to the business. In his introductory remarks addressed to the audience he explained that some imperfections might occur, but he asked them to remember they were not opening an establishment that evening but really laying the foundation stone of a new enterprise. So far as possible the whole plant, aerials and instruments had been manufactured in Australia, and where practicable in Western Australia. The cost to date had been £12,000, and the plant was the most powerful in Australasia. Within a very short time they hoped to be able to talk with South Africa whenever they wished. The guests were first presented with the National Anthem and a gramophone solo by Caruso. Then Mr. Murray's request to the Premier to officially open the station was broadcasted in a very clear and distinct manner. In this speech he mentioned that the Amalgamated Wireless Co., Ltd., of Melbourne, were attempting to secure absolute control of all broadcasting, but the local company were fighting, and would continue to do so, against any domination from any one part of Australia. He considered it right that the people should know this, and he felt sure they could rely upon the Premier to support them in their desire to remain unfettered by Eastern States' influence. Mr. Collier then declared the station opened, and congratulated the Westralian Farmers on their initiative in erecting such a very fine and modern plant in West Australia, which he hoped would benefit the country people greatly and be of assistance to the firm in its business. He considered that night was an epoch in the history of the State, and thanked the company for inviting him to perform the opening ceremony. The concert programme was then proceeded with, including vocal, pianoforte and violin items, most of which were very clear and distinct. At one stage Mr. Coxon, the wireless expert, gave a demonstration in amplification which was most successful. Prior to the conclusion of the programme Mr. Walter Harper (chairman of directors of the Westralian Farmers Ltd.) thanked the Premier for opening the station and the people for attending. In acknowledging Mr. Harper's remarks, Mr. Collier said he was very much struck with the evening's demonstration, and felt that there was a wonderful future ahead for the country people through broadcasting. He was so impressed with what was at present a monopoly that he thought, should the Government consider State enterprises, a broadcasting station would be a very valuable asset, and one well worthy of careful consideration. As a great many people were unable to secure tickets for the opening ceremony, a second entertainment was given on the following evening.[93]

Opening night reception confirmed as extending from Geraldton in North, Busselton in the South, also Tammin and Hines Hill, 6WF still operating on extended schedule Monday & Tuesday

WIRELESS BROADCASTING. WESTRALIAN FARMERS' PROGRAMME. Since Westralian Farmers, Ltd., received advice from Geraldton and Busselton on Saturday that their wireless broadcasting programmes were being successfully received at those centres, similar messages have come to hand from Tammin and Hines Hill. Reports have also been received from the Commonwealth liner Hobson's Bay to the effect that items of the programmes have been "picked up" quite satisfactorily, and that the "mulgaphone" receiver aboard has been described by the officers as highly efficient. The programmes for tonight and tomorrow evening are as follows:— 7, Tufne into gramophone. 7.5, Bedtime stories. 7.45, Market reports. 7.55, Weather reports. 8, Time signal. 8.2, News (cables): 8.15 to 8.45, Lecture by Professor Ross on "The Marvels of Electric Rays." 8.46 to 10, Concert of pianola and gramophone. 10.1, Close down. Tuesday. — 7, Tune in to gramophone, 7.5, Bedtime stories. 7.45, Market reports. 7.55, Weather report. 8, Time signal. 8.2, News (cables). 8.15, Mr. Rhys Francis (tenor), "Passing By," "Death of Nelson." 8.30, Miss Lilian Pether (violinist), "Souvenir," "Saltarella." 8.45, The Wendowie Quartette, "Here's Life and Health," "Way Down to Georgia." 8.55, Mr. Herbert Gibson will explain "The Art of Proposing" and tell of "Any Girl from Anywhere." 9.10, Mr. G. C. Haywood, "Youth," "The Lute Player." 9.20, Mr. Rhys Francis, "Fifinella," "A Wandering Minstrel" ("Mikado"). 9.28, The Wendowie Quartette, madrigal, "Come, Let us Join," marching song "On the March," humorous. 9.38, Mr. G. C. Haywood, "Invictus," "Kangaroo and Dingo." 9.48, Mr. Herbert Gibson, "I'm a Daddie," and tell you of "Flannigan's Ball." 10.2, close down.[94]

Tivoli Theatre at Collie installs a wireless receiver to entertain patrons prior to the start of the movie

News in Brief. . . . Following the opening of the broadcasting station by Westralian Farmers Ltd., Perth, comes the installation of receivers at numerous country centres. Collie claims to be the first town to provide listening-in apparatus for the public, Mr. Ernie Walker having a set installed at the Tivoli Theatre, so that his patrons can be entertained, prior to the picture programme, with musical and vocal items, reports and talks on various subjects which comprise the programmes initiated by "6W.F." which is the official designation of the first public broadcasting station in this State. Doubtless many other country towns will emulate Collie in the not distant future, and it is certain that the opening of the broadcasting station will do a great deal to increase the number of experimental wireless sets controlled by amateurs. Wireless provides one of the most fascinating fields for experimental work at the present time. [95]

Further excellent photos from the 6WF opening

(Start Photo Caption) Linking Up the Edge o'Beyond With Civilisation — "6 W.F." — Westralian Farmers' Ltd. Broadcasting Station Opened by the Premier. 1) THE CONCERT SALOON FROM WHERE THE MICROPHONE CONVEYS THE CONCERT TO THE APPARATUS ROOM (LEFT TO RIGHT: MESSRS. WELLS, ANNOUNCER; W. E. COXON, TECHNICAL ADVISER AND EXPERT; G. C. HAYWOOD, AND A. J. LECKIE, MUS. BAC, F.R.C.O.). (2) THE APPARATUS ROOM: (LEFT TO RIGHT) THE HALF KILOWATT MODULATOR PANEL, THE HALF KILOWATT TRANSMISSION PANEL, THE STANDARD TYPE RECEIVER, AND THE THREE -VALVE AMPLIFIER. (3) THE APPARATUS ON WHICH THE CONCERT WAS RECEIVED. (4) GATHERING AT THE OFFICIAL OPENING. INSET: THE PREMIER (MR. P. COLLIER). Photos L. L. Mitchell. (End Photo Caption)[96]

Professor Ross lectures on Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony to a packed hall at the Perth Literary Institute, illustrating lecture with demo using equipment from 6WF

WIRELESS. Professor Ross Explains. The main hall of the Perth Literary Institute was packed to overflowing on Thursday night when Professor Ross delivered the first of this season's series of free winter lectures. Mr. A. E. Morgans presided. The lecturer took as his subject "Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony." By reference to the similar vibrations of a tuning fork and the accompanying radiation of sound, the lecturer showed how electric oscillations could be radiated into space as wireless waves. These wireless waves, he said, might be from a few hundred feet to several miles in length from crest to crest, and but for their vastly greater length were precisely similar to waves of heat, light, and X-rays. The linking of an oscillating sending station and a tuned receiving station was explained by mechanical models, and by light and sound experiments, and the necessity for correct tuning of the receiver was clearly demonstrated. Unless the receiving station was arranged for oscillations of a similar period to the incoming waves no response could be obtained, said the lecturer. Even if oscillations were set up they would not produce audible sounds in the telephone unless some further device was employed, for the frequency of the vibrations would be far greater than those which affected the human ear. Thus the vibrations in the waves from the Westralian Farmers' broadcasting plant were some six octaves above the top notes of a piano. In order to reduce the vibrations from radio to audio frequency appliances could be introduced to respond to groups of incoming oscillations instead of to individual oscillations, or a method of beats might be employed. These methods were explained by diagrams and experiments, and the action of the three electrode valve for detection and amplification received full consideration. After a short reference to the rapid developments in wireless in recent times, and the complete fulfilment of prophecies made thirty years ago, the lecturer gave a very interesting demonstration of wireless telegraphy and telephony. Through the courtesy of the Chief Manager of Telegraphs and Wireless in Melbourne, permission had been obtained to operate the University's wireless licence in the Literary Institute, and an aerial had been stretched across the hall. Apparatus lent by the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., had been set up with the assistance of Mr. W. E. Coxon, and by aid of loud speakers Professor Ross was able to let the large audience hear the Applecross Morse transmission and the concert in progress at the Westralian Farmers' broadcasting station. Despite the fact that only a small aerial was used inside the building, and that the apparatus employed was intended for use in ordinary rooms and not in large halls, the various items were heard with the utmost distinctness.[97]

6WF on a 7 day a week schedule, but already stretching local talent

WESTRALIAN FARMERS LIMITED. Broadcasting Station (6.W.F.) Following is the programme for week ending June 22:— Tonight (Sunday, June 15), at 8.45, Mr. Goff's choir, assisted by Mr. Len Greenberg, secretary Y.M.C.A.:— 1, The Lord's Prayer; 2, anthem, "Be not Afraid" (from "Elijah"); 3, hymn, "Rock of Ages;" 4, solo, "Abide With Me," by Miss Alice Connop; 5, chorus, "The Lost Chord" (Sullivan); 6, hymn, "Eternal Father Strong to Save;" 7. solo and chorus, "Nazareth" (Gounod), by Mr. R. E. Parsons; 8, hymn, "Praise My Soul, the King of Heaven" (this hymn was sung at the commencement of the thanksgiving service in St. Paul's Cathedral on the signing of the Armistice); 9, short address by Mr. Len Greenberg, secretary Y.M.C.A.; 10, solo, "Ave Maria" (Bach-Gounod), by Miss G. Hardwick; 11, solo, quartet and chorus, "Land of Hope and Glory" (Elgar), soloists, Mrs. F. Hudson and Mrs. B. Ellis; 12, hymn, "Abide With Me"; 13, Hallelujah chorus from "The Messiah" (Handel). Monday, June 16:– 7.0, Tune in to pianola; 7.5, bedtime stories; 7.45, market reports; 7.55, weather reports; 8.0, time signal; 8.2, news (cables); 8.15 to 8.45, lecture by Mr. . Sutton, Director of Agriculture on "To Fallow or not to Fallow"; 8.45 to 10.0, concert comprising pianola and Sonora. Tuesday, June 17:— 7.0, Tune in to gramophone; 7.5, bedtime stories; 7.45, market reports; 7.55, weather reports; 8.0, time signal; 8.2, news (cables); 8.15, Mr. Lionel Carter, basso; 8.25, Miss Lilian Crisp, soprano; 8.35, Miss Ada Coultas in xylophone solos; 8.45, Mr. T. Meugens, tenor; 8.55, Mr. Ted Scott, entertainer; 9.10 Mr. Lionel Carter in songs; 9.20, Miss Lilian Crisp will sing; 9.30, Miss Ada Coultas in selections on various instruments; 9.40, Mr. T. Meugens in operatic arias; 9.50, Mr. Ted Scott in humorous vein. Wednesday, June 18:— 7.0, Tune in to Sonora; 7.5, bedtime stories; 7.45, market reports; 7.55, weather reports; 8.0, time signal; 8.2, news (cables); 8.15 to 10, amateur night for ragtime, comedy, etc. Thursday, June 19:— 7.0, Tune in to pianola; 7.5, bedtime stories; 7.45, market reports; 7.55, weather1 reports; 8.0, time signal; 8.2, news (cables); 8.15, Mr. Peter Roxby (tenor) will sing; 8.26, Miss Gwladys Edwards (soprano); 8.35, Miss Bessie Durlacher will tell a story; 8.45, Mr. Eugene Ossipoff, the Russian baritone; 8.55, the Perth bank team in selections; 9.5, Mr. Peter Roxby; 9.15, Miss Gwladys Edwards; 9.25, Miss Bessie Durlacher will tell another story; 9.37, Mr. Eugene Ossipoff; 9.48, The Perth banjo team. Friday, June 20:— 7.0, Tune in to Sonora; 7.5, bedtime stories; 7.45, market reports; 7.55, weather reports; 8.0, time signals; 8.2, news (cables); 8.15 to 8.45, talks on wireless to experimenters by a representative of the Affiliated Radio Society; 8.46 to 10.0, concert or social evening. Saturday, June 21:— 7.0, Tune in to pianola; 7.5, bedtime stories; 7.45, market reports; 7.55, weather reports; 8.0, time signal; 8.2, cables, also sports results; 8.15 to 10, concert of pianola and Sonora. Sunday, June 22:— 8.45, Mr. H. C. Goff's choir.[98]

6GB on the 6WF staff provides advice to listeners on improving their reception of the station, 6WF to focus on dance music on Saturday nights, programs for amateurs

Listening In. (By G. B. Sutherland, formerly of the Wireless Telegraphy Branch of the Royal Navy). Reports from the country as to the distances at which the Westralian Farmers' broadcasted concerts have been heard are highly satisfactory. Inexperienced listeners-in, however, should not be disappointed if they do not obtain such good results as others reported in the Press. A wireless receiving set, no matter how simple in construction, requires delicate adjustment. Better results will be obtained as the listen-in becomes more acquainted with his receiver. It should also be borne in mind that at the present time the broadcasting station is only using a power of 500 watts and that results will be obviously more satisfactory when the power of 5,000 watts is ultimately employed. Arrangements are being made by 6WF to connect up with local orchestras for the purpose of transmitting dance music on Saturday evenings. In so far as talent is available, it is the aim of Westralian Farmers Limited, to make their programmes as attractive and keep their standard of entertainment as high and as varied at possible. Reports from Kalgoorlie state that portions of the Premier's speech at the opening of the broadcasting station were heard. The short address broadcasted by Sir W. Lathlain on the evening of the 12th inst., possibly will have been received at an even greater distance. His voice was extremely clear and distinct. It is hoped that the amateur transmitters will not cease their activities now that the radio broadcasting service is inaugurated in Western Australia. It is due, in no small measure, to the genuine experimenter that such great strides have been made in radio. To date there are 14 experimental transmitting licences issued in Western Australia. On Wednesday evenings the amateur station 6BN may be heard on a wave length of about 440 metres. This station uses very small power and is, therefore, very suitable for testing the sensitiveness of a receiver. Other low power stations may be heard working on wave lengths of from 200 to 250 metres. The latest information regarding the revised regulations governing broadcasting and wireless receiving licences is expected within the week and will be immediately published in the Press. It is sincerely hoped that these regulations will give satisfaction to all interested. For those who propose installing a wireless receiver a few words of advice may be helpful. The first consideration is the aerial. Too much care cannot be taken in its construction and erection. For the present we will deal with outdoor aerials. A good type would be two parallel wires of say 7/22 copper wire, 6ft apart, 100ft. long and 30 to 40ft. high (the higher the better). If possible these two wines should be continued so as to form a "lead in" to the receiver. Care should be taken that the "lead in" and aerial should not touch any object before reaching the aerial terminal on the receiver. Where it is inconvenient for the aerial to continue to the receiver, the "lead in" may be connected to the aerial at the most convenient point. It should have as few angles as possible. The halyard should be secured to the aerial by means of porcelain insulators. These insulators should be used at any point of the "lead in" where it is necessary for it to be stayed to avoid contact with the building or other obstructions. Where the "lead in" enters the room it should be covered with some insulating material such as rubber, or passed through an ebonite, porcelain, or glass tube. The earth and its connections are of no less importance, as they constitute part of the aerial circuit. Where water is laid on, the best earth is the nearest water pipe to where the instrument is situated. For the outback listener-in a sheet of corrugated iron buried as near as possible to where the receiver is being used makes a very good "earth." The soil in which the plate is buried should be kept damp. The lead from the instrument to the earth should be in all cases as short as possible. In the first case the water pipe should be scraped and cleaned, the lead being soldered to it so as to ensure good electrical contact. In the second case short leads should be soldered on to the corrugated iron at different points, these in turn being soldered to the lead which goes to the earth terminal on the receiver. All connections should be kept perfectly clean where they make contact with the instrument. It should also be borne in mind that the lead to earth must be as carefully insulated as the "lead-in" until it actually reaches the earth plate. If, after having assured himself that the aerial and earth are in order, an experimentalist finds that his receiver does not give the expected results, he should not immediately lay the blame on the set. Let him see that all wires are connected correctly and making good contact; many troubles are eventually found to be caused by a loose or dirty connection. Here are a few points which will pay the listener-in to remember. Always insert the valves in their holders before the high tension battery is connected. With some holders it is possible to touch the filament connections across this battery, which is sufficient to burn it out. When purchasing a valve in addition to seeing the filament is correct, look to see if the filament is touching the grid. If this is the case, select another. Disconnect all leads from batteries after use. Leads hanging loose are kept to touch and short circuit the battery, which will ruin it in a very short space of time. When joining up batteries, the leads should first be connected to the receiver and then to the battery. Always aim at reducing filament current. The valve should not be burnt brighter than is necessary. This lengthens the life of both battery and valve. Do not allow a filament battery to run down too far. This is not good for the battery and will prove inconvenient if it gives out during an interesting programme.[99]

Photo of 6WF studio

(Start Photo Caption) One of the studios at the new broadcasting station installed by Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia), Ltd. at Perth for Westralian Farmers, Ltd. The station was recently officially opened by Mr. P. Collier (Premier of West Australia). (End Photo Caption)[100]

Presentation dinner for Wally Coxon as thanks for two years of regular broadcasting to Perth, located 6WF studios, followed by inspection of plant

RADIO SOCIAL AND SUPPER. Presentation to Mr. Coxon. Never, in W.A., has there been such a gathering of wireless experimenters under a common roof as that which eventuated on Saturday night, June 14, when the culmination of the untiring efforts of the presentation committee, formed by Mr. W. E. Phipps, was witnessed, and the amateurs and traders united in an endeavor to show their appreciation of the pioneering work of Mr. W. E. Coxon. That gentleman has transmitted from his experimental station 6AG, no less than 3200 records to the enjoyment of the radio amateurs, and to the success of the birth of radio in this State. Mr. Coxon was indeed a happy man, although his blushes, if he did blush, were effectively hidden by a large tempting cake before him, which proudly flaunted a miniature aerial, the lead-in going to a small cabin which, as was demonstrated, was also good to eat. One, hundred and fifty amateurs were present the musical items provided being much appreciated. The presentation to Mr. Coxon, a handsome cathedral chime clock, an electric radiator, and an electric kettle, was made, on behalf of the amateurs, and traders of Western Australia by Mr. W. E. Phipps, and Mr. Coxon's health was toasted with enthusiasm. In expressing his appreciation of the gift, Mr. Coxon became reminiscent, and described many incidents in the old days when valves were valves, and that was all that was known of them. His early efforts, in transmitting were not without excitement, when one would run a mile to his associate, who would be listening in, to find out how the music came in. In many cases it did not come in at all. Mr. Coxon, on behalf of Mrs. Coxon, also thanked those present warmly. Another event of the evening was a presentation to Mr. B. Holt, past and present President of the Wireless Institute (W.A. division). The presentation took the form of a very pleasing photo of Mr. Holt, surrounded by members of the Institute Council, and was made on behalf of the Council and members of the Institute, by Mr. Nossiter. Mr. Basil W. Murray, in responding to the toast of The Westralian Farmers Ltd., delivered a most interesting address. He realised, he said, that the amateur of today would be the expert wireless operator of tomorrow. The presentation committee, headed by Mr. W. E. Phipps, were toasted most enthusiastically, which repaid them in no small measure for the time and trouble they had spent in organising the social. An opportunity was given those present to inspect the broadcasting plant in full working order.[101]

Crystal receivers being widely utilised in Perth to receive 6WF

Crystal receivers are being used with complete satisfaction in suburbia — ask any amateur who uses one. "Good-oh" is the answer, "clear as a bell." It certainly seems, to be a waste of good "juice" to burn the "amp" when listening in oneself. I know of one amateur who regularly receives 6WF at a distance of 30 miles using a plain crystal circuit.[102]

6WF heard in Adelaide by C. R. Churchward

WIRELESS FROM PERTH. Service Heard in Adelaide. To hear a church service held in Perth, more than 1,000 miles distant, was the privilege of Mr. C. R. Churchward, of First avenue, Joslin, last night, when he listened in with a home-made set to the wireless broadcasting of the Westralian Farmers' Co-operative Company's new station. "At 10.30 last night," said Mr. Churchward, "I was listening to other radio stations working when I accidentally picked up the carrier wave of the Perth station. I tuned in to a wavelength of about 1,200 metres and delightedly listened to "The Glory Chorus" from "Messiah," rendered by a large choir with orchestral accompaniment. This was at 10.35. The sound of the piano was very pronounced. "Twenty minutes later the hymn, 'Jesu, Lover of My Soul,' came in clearly over the 'phones, followed by a short address. Another hymn was heard, but static electricity and rain interfered with the reception. "At 11.18 a short prayer, followed by another magnificent chorus from 'The Messiah' came through clearly and at 11.28 the hymn 'Abide with Me' came rolling out of the ether. Four minutes later the carrier wave ceased and the station closed down. "This Perth station is only a new one," continued Mr. Churchward. "I first heard it working on Thursday evening, at about 9. A friend of mine (Mr. R. V. Cook, of Prospect) picked it up at the same time. When Perth can have an installation of this calibre transmitting entertainment and instruction far and wide it seems that Adelaide is lagging behind in the wireless field, for there is nothing of that description in our city yet." The low power utilised in Mr. Churchward's receiving set makes his reception of the Western Australian station the more remarkable. The first broadcasting was picked up on Sunday night by detector tube only, and with this voices and music were just audible. He then switched in a valve with two stages of audio-frequency amplification. The detector valve used was of 201A type with 114 volts plate potential and 3 volts on the filament.[103]

6WF to add daytime programming from July

Listening In. (By G. B. Sutherland, formerly of the Wireless Telegraphy Branch of the Royal Navy). . . . Next month the broadcasting station "6WF," intends to begin transmitting during the day, as well as at night. The management hope shortly to broadcast the programmes staged at some of the Perth places of entertainment; also sermons and religious addresses on Sundays. Further innovations may be expected by the listener-in.[104]

6WF Saturday night programming to focus on dance music

BROADCASTING. The Westralian Farmers, Ltd., have increased the scope of their wireless broadcasting programme by the engagement of a band on Saturday nights, beginning on June 28. "The Blues" orchestra, under the direction of Mr. Gordon Hack, will be followed by the Cabaret orchestra, Butterfly orchestra, and Cook's jazz band. Those who have loud speakers will be able to enjoy a dance.[105]

Immediately prior to commencement of Wireless Regulations 1924, future of 6WF still uncertain

BROADCASTING. The Proposed Monopoly. Melbourne, June 26. The Prime Minister (Mr. Bruce) stated tonight that he had received a message from the Westralian Farmers Ltd., asking if their broadcasting equipment would be absorbed by the new company. All that he could say was that the interests of all concerned would be safeguarded. Nothing more can be learned about a settlement of the whole question, but it is understood that many difficulties have arisen, and a final settlement may possibly still be a matter of some little time.[106]

6WF heard as far as Melbourne by the staff of VIM

ITEMS ABOUT AMATEURS. . . . Amalgamated Wireless, Ltd., reports that Melbourne Radio has heard the Westralian Farmer' Broadcasting Ser-vice. This is a remarkable performance considering the screening that would intervene.[107]

6WF now broadcasting an accurate time signal at 8pm by connection to the Observatory

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . "Stand by to receive time signal from 6WF." For first time this feature was installed on Thursday night last. The station has at last been connected with the Observatory, and the ring from an electric clock was broadcasted at exactly 8 p.m.[108]

6WF's future remains uncertain, the day before commencement of the new wireless regulations under threat of a monopoly

BROADCASTING AND MONOPOLY. The brief statement made by the Prime Minister (Mr. Bruce) last week end on the subject of broadcasting, as it bears on the vague and conflicting reports from Melbourne, published some days earlier, serves no further purpose than that of making darkness visible, if it does as much. Broadcasters, listeners-in, the public generally are still in ignorance as to where exactly they stand. Regulations for the governance and control of broadcasting were officially promulgated many months ago but these are at present, for a variety of reasons, in the melting pot. How and in what shape they will emerge therefrom nobody seems to know. Meantime, the uncertainty and confusion of counsels which prevail are blocking progress and occasioning no end of vexation and irritation: On Tuesday last news came from Melbourne to the effect that finality had at last been reached by the Federal Cabinet regarding its new proposals for the control of wireless and that these would permit, in connection with broadcasting, of the sale and use of open receiving sets. It also presaged the granting of a monopoly to a company with a capital of £200,000 to take over broadcasting in all the States. These announcements were received with mixed feelings. In view of the opposition that has been offered to the principle embodied in the existing regulations, that of sealed sets — a principle which, if it were to be insisted upon, would confine subscribers to the use of a single wavelength and so greatly limit their sources of information and entertainment — any other decision than that which was said to have been arrived at would advantage nobody. On the contrary, insistence upon sealed sets would operate to retard the multiplication of subscribers and so react prejudicially on the revenue derivable from broadcasting, alike by the manufacturers of receiving sets, the broadcasting companies and the Federal Treasury. No one will seriously complain, if, with the granting of permission for the sale of open sets, the licence fees are raised within reason, and especially if, as was stated to be the intention of the authorities, liberal reductions are made to experimenters, from whose operations and research the nation would not improbably, sooner or later, reap a commensurate reward. But the news of the alleged resolve of the Government to grant to a monopoly, broadcasting rights for the whole of Australia was not so generally acclaimed. Such a concession to a private company, as at first appeared to be intended, is open to so many palpable objections and is so diametrically opposed to public policy that, apart from those interested in securing monopoly control, it would provoke pronounced popular indignation. So flatly is public opinion opposed to private monopolies and so completely cognisant of this fact must Federal Ministers be, that the report of one having obtained, or of being about to obtain, their approval was received with not a little scepticism. It was, as every one knows, largely because of the practical impossibility of drafting regulations, however cunningly conceived, which could be relied upon to protect the public from exploitation by a monopoly that the Federal Government owns a controlling interest in the Amalgamated Wireless Company. And because experience has proved it to be almost beyond the wit of Governments or Parliaments to provide the public with effective armour against any private monopoly, it was not readily to be believed that the formation of a private broadcasting monopoly was about to be created. There did, all the same, appear to be some cause for anxiety. A further report, however, came from Melbourne which on this point was reassuring. While it confirmed the previous statement as touching the contemplated creation of a monopoly, it also indicated that in the projected new company the Federal Government would hold a controlling number of shares, as in Amalgamated Wireless. Supposing this account of affairs to be well founded, the scheme, regarded in a general way, that is to say as it was likely to affect Australia generally, would not be open to quite the same objections as would a private monopoly. But it by no means follows that Western Australia would be better, or as well served, by even a semi-national broadcasting company as by the private company now operating in Perth, which has no monopolistic rights. When, on Thursday last, the Prime Minister was directly interrogated on the subject, he neither confirmed nor denied any of the current reports. Asked whether the broadcasting equipment of Westralian Farmers, Ltd., would be absorbed by the new company, all he would say was that "the interests of all concerned will be safeguarded." How far this statement meets the case depends on what is meant to be understood by "the interests of all concerned." From the persistent efforts which certain interests in the Eastern States have been putting forth to bring off a monopolistic arrangement, it is to be concluded that either a purely private or quasi-public monopoly suits their book. If the Eastern broadcasting stations be purely commercial concerns, the safeguarding of their interests calls merely for financial adjustments. Given shares in the new company to the value of their equipment and cost of installation, plus other capital expenditure incurred, justice may be met. But the local broadcasting company, Westralian Farmers, Limited, is not quite on the same plane. With it, while commercialism does undoubtedly enter into the case, directly and indirectly, it is not the only factor. The company has installed a very costly plant. If its desire had been merely to cater for the metropolis and the larger towns of the State, whence such direct profits as are to be made from broadcasting in this State, are to be soonest looked for, it might, had it embarked on the venture at all, have provided a much less pretentious and less costly installation. That would have been a more immediately profitable enterprise. But the Western Australian company, intimately associated as it is with the primary producer, aimed at rendering a valuable service to farmers and pastoralists which gives no direct return. Compensation in this case cannot well be expressed in terms of £ s. d. Not wishing to be absorbed, the company has a right to expect that, whatever is done, the special broadcasting service to the farmers and pastoralists, unprofitable at least for the present as these are and are likely long to be, will be maintained on the lines they have planned. Are these considerations envisaged by Mr. Bruce when he speaks of all interests being safeguarded? That the local company has been fighting against an Australian-wide monopoly is, in the circumstances, what might have been expected. It obtained its licence under regulations framed by the Postal authorities approved by the Governor-in-Council and duly gazetted. No breach of those regulations appears to have been imputed to it. It has expended a very large sum of money on equipping a modern and comparatively high-power broadcasting station peculiarly adapted to the needs of the State. In the circumstances, much more convincing evidence will be required than is yet forthcoming to justify its displacement by a private or even a semi-public monopoly directed from Melbourne, and designed primarily to meet the requirements of large centres of population.[109]

1924 07Edit

From 1 July 1924 6WF commences 4 sessions daily at 10am, 12.30pm, 3pm and 7pm

WIRELESS WAVES. RADIO NEWS AND NOTIONS. (By "ARIEL") BROADCASTING. Commencing from Tuesday last, July 1, the Westralian Farmers Ltd. (6W.F.) are providing four daily programmes. In the morning at 10.0 and 12.30, and in the afternoon at 3.0 and 7.0 o'clock. Doubtless, all listeners-in will appreciate this new feature of the Westralian Farmers' broadcasting efforts. PROGRAMMES FOR THE WEEK FRIDAY, July 4: 10.0, tune in to sonora; 10.5, Westralian Farmers Ltd., items of interest; 12.25, tune in to pianola; 12.30, time signals; 12:32, time signal; 12.34, market reports of the Westralian Farmers Ltd.; 12.40, news service; 12.55. 3.0, tune in to Sonora; 3.5 to 4.0, special programme of talks, Sonora and pianola; 7.5, tune in to Sonora; 7.10, bedtime stories; 7.40, market reports; 7.55, weather report; 8.0, time signal; 8.2, news (cables); 8.10, a talk to wireless-experimenters by a representative of the Affiliated Radio Society; 8.40 to 10.0, amateur concert. SATURDAY, July 5: 10.0 a.m. to 8.0 p.m., as Friday; 8.10 to 10.0 p.m., dance by the famous Cabaret Orchestra under the direction of Mr. Les Stotter. SUNDAY, July 6 (Sacred Concert): (1) The Lord's Prayer; (2) Hymn, "Our God, our help in ages past;" (3) chorus, "Here by Babylon's Wave" (Gounod) — test item at recent Eisteddfod won by H. C. Goff's choir); (4) Song, "Magdalene at the Gate" (Lehman), Mrs. Elsie Simpson; (5) double quartette, "Sweet and Low" (Barnby); (6) duet, "So Thou Liftest" (Stainer), G. L. and J. Warden; (7) hymn, "In the Cross of Christ I Glory;" (8) song, "I Long to Live" (Marshall), Miss Atkins; (9) chorus, "Moonlight" (Farming) — test item at recent Eisteddfod won by M. C. Goff's choir); (10) quartette, "Cast Thy Burden" (Mendelssohn); ((1), hymn, "Sun of My Soul;" (12) chorus, "Gloria from Mozart's Twelfth Mass;" (13) hymn, "Abide with Me." MONDAY, July 7: 10.0 a.m. to 8.0 p.m., usual features; 8.10, Dr. J. S. Battye will lecture "The Story of Gold Discoveries in "W.A."; 8.45 to 10.0, concert of pianola and Sonora. TUESDAY, July 8: 10.0 a.m. to 8.0 p.m., usual features; 8.10, Miss A. Randell, "Flutes of Arcady;" Mr. G. Webster, banjolin; Miss V. Peet, "I Pitch My Lonely Caravan;" Mr. E. Black, "Meditation;" Mr. Hugh Torrance, "I Hear You Calling Me;" 8.40, Miss A. Randell, "Gloria;" Mr. G. Webster, banjolin; Miss V. Peet, "Morning;" Mr. E. Black, "Menuetto;" Mr. Hugh Torrance, "Beloved, It Is Morn!"; 9.10, Miss A. Randell, "Big Lady Moon;" Mr. G. Webster, banjolin; Miss V. Peet, "Love's a Merchant; Mr. E. Black, "Air on G String;" Mr. Hugh Torrance, "E'en as a Lovely Flower." WEDNESDAY, July 9: 10.0 a.m. to 8.0 p.m., as Friday; 8.10, Madam Bennett-Wilkinson's Concert Party. THURSDAY, July 10: 10.0 a.m. to 8.0 p.m., as Friday; 8.10, Miss A. Smith; Mrs. J. N. Thomson in humorous items; Mr. S. Dangerfield, "Nirvana;" Miss M. Pether, Le Cygne; Mr. R. Buchanan, "How Many a Lonely Caravan;" 8.40, Miss A. Smith; Mrs. J. N. Thomson; Mr. S. Dangerfield, "For Your Dear Sake;" Miss M. Pether, "Ave Maria;" Mr. R. Buchanan, "Irish Folk Song;" 9.10, Miss A. Smith; Mrs. J. N. Thomson; Mr. S. Dangerfield, "Tom Brown"; Miss M. Pether, "Orientale"; Mr. R. Buchanan, "The Little Red Lark."[110]

6WF being heard as far as Kondinin

Wireless at Kondinin.— The Kondinin correspondent of the G S. "Leader" writes: Mr. Adams, of the Westralian Farmers Ltd., has erected a wireless set at Kondinin, and has already met with success in receiving. On Saturday evening he tuned in and received a first class concert from Perth, the violin solo being particularly fine. Then again the latest market reports, football results and other current news, were picked up and boats far out at sea could be heard distinctly sending out their messages. With the development of this wonderful invention the isolation of the country districts is going to be overcome, and it should have a big tendency to make life in the far back districts altogether different. Kondinin is 250 miles by rail from Perth.[111]

Brisbane Courier journalist prophetically suggest Brisbane follow the lead of 6WF, as it did with 4QG

WIRELESS NOTES AND NEWS. By "ANODE." This column will be conducted weekly for the benefit of wireless amateurs and experimenters. Notes of any exceptional reception or transmission, in fact anything pertaining to the progress of the fascinating subject of wireless, will be published, with any descriptions thought suitable. Notes, reports of meetings, and demonstrations, &c., should be addressed to "Anode," care of the "Brisbane Courier," Brisbane. WHY NOT BRISBANE? The Broadcasting Station 6WF (Westralian Farmers Ltd.), which was installed by Amalgamated Wireless (A/sia), Ltd., comprises a ½K.W. broadcasting transmitter manufactured in the company's radioelectric works in Sydney. This set will be replaced at an early date by a large 6.K.W. transmitting set, giving a far greater volume and transmitting range. The masts, weighing 3½ tons, are erected on top of the company's building, and rise 110ft. above the roof. Two studios are provided — one for concerts and orchestral music, and the other, a smaller one, for the dissemination of news, bedtime stories, and market reports. They are entirely soundproof, and in order to eliminate echoes are heavily draped. Why cannot Brisbane make a start upon similar lines?[112]

6WF's 5kW plant has been despatched from Sydney

Listening In. (By G. B. Sutherland, formerly of the Wireless Telegraphy Branch of the Royal Navy. Mr. Sutherland writes chiefly for those to whom "radio" was but a vague term until the institution of broadcasting in this State.) I understand that the 5 kilowatt plant for the Westralian Farmers broadcasting station, "6W.F.," has been despatched and is expected to arrive per the s.s. Katoomba. It is hoped that its installation will be accomplished within the next six weeks, when the outback listener-in, who at present is only able to receive by means of head 'phones will be able to get sufficient volume to operate a "loud talker." The apparatus for the broadcasting of distant programmes — that is to say, programmes from halls, theatres, etc., actually conducted at those places, apart from the programmes conducted at the studio on the premises of the broadcasting station — is also due to arrive shortly. It is expected that Queen's Hall, Perth, and Wesley Church, Perth, will be connected with 6W.F. as soon as the apparatus is available. Dr. J. S. Battye's lecture, dealing with the discoveries of gold in Western Australia, which was broadcasted on July 7 from "6 W.F." in addition to being extremely interesting, was very clear. He possesses a voice most suitable for broadcasting requirements. Dr. Battye, it is hoped, will give another lecture, dealing further with the hardships endured by those early pioneers in the search for gold.[113]

Detailed account of a country listener's efforts to receive 6WF

EXPERIMENTER'S RECEPTION. What is Possible in the Country. I have received a very interesting letter from a reader at Mill Vale, Greenough, from which I beg leave to quote:— "On the evening of the opening of 6WF my set (a two-valve "Mulga-phone") was installed temporarily by myself to try and pick up the opening concert. This being the first set I had seen, let alone operated, I had not much hope of success. I had secured all the reading matter I could to help me to tune in. One mast was fixed (45ft. lead in end), but the other was only a rail stuck in stuck in 10ft high. My leading being too short I attached a piece of ordinary insulated electric light wire about 10ft. long for the balance. My earth wire consisted of the same material to a piece of 1¼in. galvanised piping driven into the ground. Having no time to solder, the wires were just twisted together, and I cut a hacksaw cut in the earth pipe and hammered the wire into it. "It being about 30 minutes to go for 6WF to start, I thought I would try and tune in Morse for practice. I immediately picked up Geraldton. After a while I picked up music (orchestral), but being inexperienced in tuning I could not hold it very well. All of a sudden I received the announcer quite clear, but in the excitement of the moment lost the call sign and heard him announce a song by a Miss Mitchell, which I heard quite clear. Shortly after that I picked up 6WF. I received a few items from the first station, but had no idea where it was coming from. I heard the announcer several times, but he never gave the call sign. "On June 9 I tuned them in from 6.10 and held them quite clear with no distortion till they closed up at 8.5. A lecture on "Wireless Waves" was given, and I received every word. (This programme I forwarded to be verified.) It was then I found I was picking up 2FC. Mr. F. G. Clinch assures me that he receives 2FC regularly now, and says that the announcer gives the call sign much more frequently than he did when he first tuned him in." Another very interesting extract from the letter reads:— "Referring to 2BL (Broadcasters Ltd.), unfortunately I have not yet received an item to have same verified. I did not try for any short wave length, being under the impression that a long aerial was not suitable for same (mine being 370ft. without lead in), but about a week ago I thought I would try, and starting from the bottom I soon picked up a carrier wave. I succeeded in getting the announcer last Thursday night, but lost the words in static. It being an orchestral piece I did not recognise it. This I received quite clear for about two minutes. "Last night (Saturday) I received from them a song by a lady which I did not know (the song, not the lady), and having a visitor (I have a lot of these, mine being the only set in the district) anxious to hear Sydney I had to leave 2BL, and of course they both close down pretty well together, about 8 o'clock. Last week I heard a concert (or part of it) relayed from a theatre, I think the announcer said "Melba Hall." I could hear the audience laugh and applaud quite plainly. On June 9 2FC was that clear that having only one set of head phones, the items could be heard quite clearly with myself using one earpiece and my wife the other. "I am getting 6WF very clear, but find them fading away badly at times, especially as it gets towards 10 o'clock. Once I get 2FC in, I might mention, I rarely have trouble from fading." The above letter contains some very interesting matter, and I am sure that all experimenters will be unanimous in voicing their congratulations on this farmer's excellent reception.[114]

Broadcast listener licence applications should be available at post offices from August 1924; Much of the 5kw equipment for 6WF has arrive and is expected to be installed over the next 6-8 weeks

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . The following item clipped from the new regulations should meet with the approval of all amateurs:— "All classes of application forms and licenses for broadcast reception, likewise dealers' licenses, will be available at the counter of all metropolitan and suburban post offices in approximately one week from July 25." The obtaining of licenses in the past has been a very inconvenient process, but now one can merely go to the post office of one's suburb or town and without any delay obtain his license and start straight on with the business. . . . Much of the Westralian Farmers' extra equipment for the full 5 kwt installation has arrived, and it is expected that the extra power will be available in about five or six weeks.[115]

As previous

Listening In. (By G. B. Sutherland, formerly of the Wireless Telegraphy Branch of the Royal Navy. Mr. Sutherland writes chiefly for those to whom "radio" was but a vague term until the institution of broadcasting in this State.) A portion of the full power (5 kilo watt) broadcasting plant has arrived on the premises of Westralian Farmers, Ltd., the remainder is at Fremantle and will be delivered this week. It is hoped that the plant will be installed and in operation about the end of August or, at the latest, early in September. The new regulations seem to be favourably received in the West. For the young enthusiast, who was desirous of carrying out experiments, but did not have sufficient knowledge to convince the authorities that he was capable of conducting experiments scientifically they are a great boon. He can now obtain simply a broadcasting licence from the nearest Post Office. As there are no restrictions upon the type of receiver he may use, he may try out any circuit he desires without any fear of the authorities calling to inspect his licence or receiver.[116]

1924 08Edit

Notes new restrictions in experimental licences, 6WF 5kW very soon

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. . . . C.J.W. (Lomos): As regards experimental transmitting licenses, especially spark, it is required that you have some fixed experiment in view, and upon which you concentrate, to obtain an experimental transmitting license at the present time. You will not be allowed to use spark transmission. Experimental licenses are normally issued to experimental receiving stations only. Suggest that you apply at G.P.O. for book of regulations; cost, 1s. . . . C.B. (47 Group, Serpentine): A crystal receiver would be satisfactory, more so when 6WF attains 5kwt, which will be very soon. A single valve receiver would be O.K. The wavelength of the Westralian Farmers Broadcasting Station, call sign 6WF, of Perth, is 1250 metres. An aerial of about 150ft. long, and as high as you can possibly attain, would be satisfactory. Height is more important than length. [117]

Reports of opening night reception of 6WF on the Hobsons Bay revealed to be from John Thomson of Westralian Farmers enroute to London

WIRELESS AT SEA. THE MULGAPHONE A GREAT SUCCESS. It will be recollected (reports the "Primary Producer,") that Mr. J. Thomson, of the Westralian Farmers' Ltd. left for England on the Hobsons Bay shortly after the official opening of the broadcasting station. He took with him a mulgaphone. In an interesting letter from Port Said to Mr. Basil Murray, chairman of Directors of the Westralian Farmers' Ltd., Mr Thompson says:— "The mulgaphone is a great success. On Friday, June 5th, 300 miles northwest of Fremantle, Farmers, Sydney, was picked up easily, music and speech being clear for almost continuous atmospherics. Our own programme was louder, but atmospherics had become so bad that it was impossible to distinguish words." Saturday, 600 miles northwest of Fremantle.— Both stations clearly heard, but slightly fainter than on Friday, Westralian Farmers being louder than Sydney." "Sunday, 970 miles north west of Fremantle.— Got Sydney broadcasters and heard voice and music faintly through the carrier wave. Also at 8.15 Westralian time, heard a voice on short wave length, say "Hullo hullo, hullo," and could get no more, not even beat note." "Monday and onwards to June 11, when 1800 miles north west Fremantle, continued to hear voice and music, but through the carrier wave Sydney was lost the day before our own." The three wireless operators on the ship state unanimously that a better receiver than the megaphone (sic, Mulgaphone) could not be desired. They have been using the mulgaphone in preference to their ship's receiver, and they say they are getting messages from stations never heard before." "We expect to pick up 2 LO (London) in the Mediterranean when statics should not be so bad as in the Indian Ocean."[118]

1924 09Edit

Murray promotes WA manufacture in a speech from 6WF to an exhibition of Arts and Industries at Fremantle

LOCAL. ATTRACTIVE EXHIBITION. Although hurriedly arranged, the exhibition of Arts and Industries held on Thursday and Friday in the Town Hall under the auspices of the Wo-men's Branch of the National Federation was most attractive, and in spite of the most unpleasant weather conditions, very well patronised. Messrs. C. H. Locke arranged an excellent exhibit of artistic bedroom furniture; Messrs Wunderlich and Co., had a fine display of their special products . . . During the afternoon music was supplied from the Wireless Broadcasting station of the Westralian Farmers Ltd., Perth and a most interesting speech from Mr. Basil Murray, Manager of that firm. Mr. Murray, who could be clearly heard, said the man who encouraged local industry was the truest patriot, and we should think nothing to much trouble which stimulated our own production. To many of us thought that thing furthest away were the best, and we were wrong, for our own people were quite as clever as those in other countries, and we cast a slur upon them by doubting their abilities. He himself, said Mr. Murray, was manager of a company purely West Australian, and he was addressing the Fremantle gathering by means of a broadcasting plant, mainly manufactured in West Australia. He wished the exhibition every success, and hoped that all who attended would give preference to West Australian goods. . . .[119]

6WF being heard in Sydney; 6WF soon to be on 5kW

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . The work of relaying concerts and broadcasting the one over the whole of England at one and the same time continues vigorously. Any programme of merit from any of the eight stations in the counties of England is singled out, the station connected up with the remaining, and the items simultaneously broadcasted. All stations on a crystal is, therefore not a vain boast to make for our friend "Choom." One wonders if 6WF will attempt the re-broadcasting, for local benefit, of the South Australian efforts, Sydney, or Melbourne, too, when they (6WF) have fairly settled down on their 5 kwt, which I can assure readers will be heard very shortly. . . . The Westralian Farmers' station is being received n New South Wales by a Mr. G. R. Martin, of Greenwich. He held 6WF from 11.30 p.m. to 12.5 p.m. (Sydney time) on August 15. Mr. Martin says that he tuned in our station on four valves, but the static was bad and drowned the music, which appeared to be very strong. He cut out the two audios andworked 6WF on two valves (one R.F.) with good re-suits: Very little fading was experienced, and he says that much less hum was heard than on previous occasion.[120]

Professor Ross interviewed after trip to Eastern States is very complimentary of 6WF performance

SCIENCE CONGRESS. Professor Ross Interviewed. Professor A. D. Ross, of the University of Western Australia, who returned yesterday from a visit to the Eastern States, informed a representative of the "West Australian" that the recent Science Congress in Adelaide had been highly successful. Several discussions were arranged between sections on subjects which did not belong exclusively to one of the so-called individual sciences, and these proved most useful. In recent years there had been, for example, marked advance in physical chemistry, and the discussion on the nature of the atom and chemical valency was very helpful to chemists and physicists. The physicists found how far their theories were useful to the chemists, while the chemists were able to offer valuable suggestions as to the relative merits of alternative hypotheses. Even in the separate sectional meetings, general discussions were introduced, in preference to the reading of individual research papers. The proposal to hold the next meeting of the Australasian Association in Perth in August, 1926, had been received with enthusiasm by the General Council of the Association, and steps were already being taken to ensure the success of that meeting. Mr. Gibb Maitland and Professor Wilsmore (the local secretaries) would have the main task of organising the congress, but Mr. E. C. Andrews, of Sydney (the permanent secretary of the association) and Mr. L. K. Ward (who organised the Adelaide meeting) would both visit Perth in the next fortnight, and assist in formulating schemes for 1926. Several leading scientists in Melbourne and Sydney had already planned to be present at the congress in Perth. We should be fortunate in having as president for the Perth meeting. Sir Thomas Lyle, F.R.S., one of the most distinguished scientists in Australia. Sir Thomas had held the chair of Natural Philosophy (or Physics) in Melbourne University for many years, and had retired in 1914. His retirement from his professorial duties had only marked the development of his wider activities in the application of science for the benefit of the general community. During the war he acted as scientific adviser for the Australian Navy Board, and also took an active part in the work of the Advisory Council of Science and Industry. At present his activities ranged from the industrial development of cheaper power in Victoria to the academic work of turning out in the Melbourne University laboratories the finest diffraction gratings yet made. Questioned with regard to broadcasting, Professor Ross expressed the opinion that wireless in Western Australia was making as good progress as in any of the States. The Westralian Farmers' plant ranked with that of Farmer's, of Sydney, far ahead of any others in Australia. He had listened in to these two plants in the other States, and was impressed by the fine modulation of the Perth station. The Sydney station was naturally able to submit a more varied programme, but, considering the comparatively smaller number of subscribers, the Westralian Farmers had accomplished wonders. No other broadcasting plant was as yet including the same amount of educational matter in its programme, although he thought it probable that Adelaide and Melbourne Universities would soon assist in this work in the same way as our own University had been doing during the past few months.[121]

1924 10Edit

Westralian Farmers displays its full range of wireless equipment at the Perth agricultural exhibition

THE WESTRALIAN FARMERS' LIMITED. Every farmer interested in agricultural machinery should inspect the display of Case kerosene tractors and power farming implements at the pavilion of the Westralian Farmers' Limited. This pavilion is situated in the machinery section and its most prominent exhibit is a 15-27 h.p. Case kerosene tractor. which is stripped and driven at slow motion, so that all the working parts may be examined. . . . The wireless broadcasting department has a magnificent display of wireless broadcast receiving sets and loud speakers. Included in this is their standard two-valve "Mulgaphone," while other sets made by them range from a crystal to 5-valve sets. A loud speaker has been installed, which will be working during broadcasting hours, and will doubtless create wide interest amongst visitors. Another item of interest to all radio enthusiasts is the simple single wire aerial, some 300ft. in length, supported at one end by one of the Westralian Farmers', Ltd., steel lattice masts 45ft. high, whilst the other end is made fast to a tree. A number of head 'phones have been connected up to receiving sets, and the public will have the pleasure of listening to either the loud speaker or on the 'phones.[122]

Annual report of the Westralian Farmers notes establishment of 6WF and that proceeding with commissioning of full power (see 13 Oct article for greater detail and more accurate figures)

WESTRALIAN FARMERS, LTD. ANNUAL MEETING. The annual meeting of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., was held at the registered office of the company last evening. Mr. C. W. Harper (the chairman) presiding. The directors report stated that during the year ended May 31 last 36, 340 ordinary and 3,283 bonus shares were allotted making the total issue 129,724, on which £115,345 had been paid. In addition, bonus debentures amounting to £1,054 were issued during the term. The large increase in the number of shares issued was due primarily to capital diverted from Graziers, Ltd., and through the liquidation of the W.A. Grain Growers' Co-operative Elevators, Ltd. The profit disclosed by the balance sheet was £20,204, and after providing for redemptions and other contingencies the directors recommended a dividend of 7 per cent. and the distribution of £8,500 as a bonus, leaving a balance, the amount of which is not stated, to be transferred to the general reserve. During the year a powerful wireless broadcasting station had been installed on the company's premises. For some time this station had not been working full power, but it was now being increased to its full strength, which should permit of the educational and other programmes broadcasted being clearly received in any part of the State. Principal balance sheet items were — Liabilities: Paid-up capital, £155,345 9s. 11d.; bonus debentures, 5 per cent., £9,420; shareholders' bonus account, £1,1044? 5s. 3d.; sundry creditors, £150,503 16s. 6d.; loans and fixed deposits, £8,216 5s.; bills payable, £710 11s. 3d.; Western Australian Bank, £52,192 2s. 1d.; English, Scottish and Australian Bank, £29,840 0s. 6d.; contingent liabilities, bills under discount, £40,218 6s. 9d. Assets: Freehold land and office premises, stores and railway sidings, £69,314 11s. 9d.; office furniture, fixtures and fittings, £6,840 5s. 4d.; general and wheat plant tools and equipment, £28,135 7s. 8d.; wheat dunnage and roofing, £7,002 6s. 2d.; investments, £3,790 11s. 5d.; stocks on hand, £64,861 2s.; sundry debtors, £179,463 9s. 2d.; charges against future trading, £7,077 8s. 9d.; bills receivable, £34,805 8s. 4d.; Western Australian Bank trust account, £10,140 9s. 2d.; cash on hand and on deposit with Western Australian Government, £8,320 15s.; remittances in transitu £1,500. An interesting table illustrating the progress made by the company since its inception accompanied the directors' report. It showed that in 1913 the paid-up capital was £7,288 - against £125,870 in 1924. The total sales have increased from £63,902 to £1,408,525, and the profits for the 10 years have aggregated £101,722. From this amount £28,279 has been distributed in dividends £42,828 paid in bonuses, and £42,863 placed to reserve account. The report was adopted. The retiring directors (Messrs. C. W. Harper, J. J. Mather, and Dr. Boyd) were re-elected directors, and the auditors, Messrs. S. J. McGibbon and Co., were reappointed. Two alterations to the articles of association were also ratified by the meeting.[123]

6WF heard near Hobart; Watty promotes Medhurst's receivers by distributing received audio around properties by telephone

IN THE MIDLANDS. Success at Antill Ponds. Relayed Over Telephones. Land holders connected by telephone with the Antill Ponds Railway station received something in the nature of a surprise recently, when broadcast music from Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth was relayed over the telephone from Mr. A. W. Burbury's residence, Woodbury, where a big wireless set had been installed. The set, which was a Federal DX4, with an Amplion loud talker, was operated by Mr. T. Watkins, and the results which followed the first adjustment were remarkable, showing as they did the immense possibilities of wireless for the man on the land. The programme was as follows, in the order in which the various tuning adjustments were made:— At 3.15 p.m. Farmer's was picked up and kept for half an hour, clearly and distinctly. At 7 p.m., Dalgety's market report was heard. At 7.45 Farmer's was again heard, this time on a test, and at 8 o'clock the chimes of the Sydney town clock were received. The usual programme from 2FC was then picked up, and at 10 o'clock 2BL was tuned in. Four items from 2BL were picked up before the station closed down for the night. South Australia and Sydney Press were then listened to, and later Westralian Farmer's Ltd. from their studio in Perth.[124]

Annual report of the Westralian Farmers notes establishment of 6WF and that proceeding with commissioning of full power

WESTRALIAN FARMERS, LIMITED. A SUCCESSFUL YEAR. £20,204 PROFIT; 7 PER CENT. DIVIDEND. The 10th annual general meeting of shareholders of the Westralian Farmers Ltd. was held at the registered office of the company, Wellington-street, Perth, on Thursday evening last, when there was a very representative attendance of shareholders from various parts of the State. The chairman of directors (Mr. C. W. Harper) presided, and was supported on the platform by Dr. Boyd and Messrs. W. Marwick, D. Milne, C. P. Wansbrough, M.L.A., and A. P. Sharp. The managing director (Mr. Basil Murray) was absent owing to illness. Mr. J. J. Mather was also absent, he having been granted extended leave of absence, and is still in England. The directors' report, which was read to the meeting by the chairman, was as follow:— "During the year 36,240 ordinary and 3,283 bonus shares were allotted. The total number now issued is 129,724, on which the sum of £115,345 9s 11d has been paid. In addition, bonus debentures amounting to £1,054 were issued for the year. Your directors appreciate the response given by farmers to the new issue of shares, but at the same time would point out that the large increase in the number issued is due primarily to capital diverted to us from Graziers Limited and through the liquidation of the W.A. Grain Growers' Co-operative Elevators Limited. "The profit, as disclosed by the balance sheet, is £20,204 3s. After providing for redemptions and other contingencies your directors recommend that a dividend at the rate of 7 per cent. be paid on the paid-up capital of the company as at May 31, 1924, payable at the registered office, the date of payment being left to the discretion of the board. The directors further recommend that the sum of £8,500 be distributed to members (in accordance with the articles of association) as a bonus on trading, and that the balance be transferred to general reserve. "That our duties as sole acquiring agents for the trustees of the Co-operative Wheat Pool of Western Australia were satisfactorily performed is evidenced by the fact that the chairman of the trustees, at the annual general meeting of those participating in the pool, stated that the trustees had every confidence in the acquiring agents, whose work was done in a most efficient manner." "During the last season we inaugurated what is known as the warehousing scheme, whereby farmers are enabled to sell or store a portion of their wheat. This departure was an immediate and pronounced success. It has received commendation from many quarters, and particularly from the trustees of the Co-operative Wheat Pool, the Growers' Advisory Council, certain banking institutions, and Eastern States' farmers' organisations. The scheme worked in complete harmony with and to the advantage of the pool. "The confidence expressed by the directors in their last report regarding the outlook in the last season's wool trade was fully realised, both as to prices received and quantity handled. "The department dealt with a considerably increased number of bales compared with the previous season to the entire satisfaction of clients, as indicated by the numerous appreciative letters received. The promises for the present season will enable us to show a still further increase in the number of bales handled. Complete and up-to-date facilities have been provided at North Fremantle in preparation for the increased business expected during the coming season. "The Woolbrokers' Association decided that sales should be held at Albany, and your directors have in consequence arranged to provide an up-to-date show floor and general facilities for handling the wool of our many clients in that area. "Since our last report a wireless broadcasting station has been installed on the company's premises. It is in fact the most powerful permitted under the regulations of the Commonwealth Government — this being advisable in order to meet the long-distance requirements of Western Australia. For some time the station has been working on a portion only of its power, but is now being increased to full strength, which should permit of the educational and other programmes provided by the station being clearly received in any part of the State. Very favorable reports are constantly being received from subscribers, and the directors hope that this latest achievement of the company will be of incalculable benefit to subscribers, and will prove a permanent factor in not only relieving the comparative isolation of those engaged in rural occupation, but in providing their households with educational and entertainment facilities hitherto only enjoyed by city residents. "The skin and hide department has more than held its own since amalgamating with Graziers Limited, having disposed of a very large proportion of the business offering in the State, in addition to which considerable quantities of tallow and marsupial skins have been dealt with. "The company's general trading departments, represented by such items as superphosphate, cornsacks, wire, etc., are constantly increasing. During the year under review a large number of "Case" tractors have been sold, nearly 160 being now at work on the farms of the State. "Owing to the continued growth of the company's business your directors purchased, at a satisfactory figure, the adjoining buildings known as "Eastwoods," together with two cottages at the rear. It is intended to convert these premises into a large and commodious garage and show room, where "Case" tractors and other machinery will be assembled and displayed to advantage. "Three new branches have been established in important centres, viz., Bridgetown, Narrogin, and Katanning. At Bridgetown a modern and commodious cool store has been erected, which will greatly benefit the fruitgrowers of that district. It is also very gratifying to be able to report considerably increased business in all departments at the centres named, as a direct result of our endeavors to give the farmers of the respective areas the most efficient service possible. "Consequent upon representations made by the Co-operative Federation of West-ern Australia, an amendment of the Stamp Act has been passed by Parliament, and Co-operative Companies' shares can now be transferred at the rate of 6d for every £5, instead of at the old rate of 5s for every £25 or part thereof. "Your directors are pleased to report that the company has made solid progress during the past 12 months. Although a considerable increase is shown in the capital of the company, the advance made in our general activities and trading calls for still further capital, and the directors consider that it will be advisable to make a further appeal for capital almost immediately in order to keep pace with the growth of the company. They sincerely trust, therefore, that the very encouraging nature of this 10th annual report will induce shareholders, and those farmers who are not yet shareholders, to make a prompt and generous response when the appeal is made." "The profit and loss account for the year ended May 31 last showed:— Commission to local co-operative companies and agents, £65,976 3s 10d; salaries, wages, and directors' fees, £61,474 0s 3d; general and administration expenses, insurance losses, bad debts, exchange, advertising, and audit fees, £30,459 19s 10d; municipal rates and taxes, £726 13s 9d. Mr. Harper, Dr. Boyd, and Mr. J. J. Mather were re-elected as directors, and the firm of Messrs. S. J. McGibbon and Co. were appointed the company's auditors for the ensuing year. Dr. Boyd, on behalf of the chairman, Mr. Mather, and himself, briefly thanked the shareholders for having re-elected them to office. A shareholder having called attention to the fact that some of the directors were put to great expense in connection with attending meetings of directors throughout the year, a resolution was carried providing for additional travelling allowance where necessary. On the motion of the Hon. J. A. Greig, M.L.C., seconded by Mr. Leake, a motion of sympathy with Mr. Basil Murray in his illness was unanimously adopted. A very enthusiastic vote of confidence in the board of directors, and thanks to the staff for their loyal service throughout the year, was then adopted, and in replying to this Mr. Harper expressed his thanks for such a resolution, adding that the year had been a very successful one, and the company had perhaps, never been in a better position than it was that day, although they required additional funds to carry on the good work and to place them in a still better position than the company had ever enjoyed. Two proposed alterations to the articles of association were also ratified by the meeting.[125]

1924 11Edit

The Melbourne Age in reviewing status of broadcasting in Australia is scathing of the 6WF broadcasting coverage and the programming quality

WIRELESS. There is no doubt that almost all of the striking advances in the wireless science in Australasia have been achieved by amateur experimenters, and from the recent amazing developments in amateur international communication it would appear that this state of affairs is to continue. From the very inception of commercial wireless in Australia progress has been hampered by continual mismanagement and bungling from all sides, whereas experimental work, during the last three or four years at any rate, has been clearly one steady march forward. In the realm of international communication, for instance, which is still non-existent in commercial working, Australasian amateurs have, through long-sustained effort and consistent experimental work, succeeded in maintaining quite reliable communication across half the globe, quite without the assistance of the much boomed "beam" system, with comparatively tiny aerials, with homemade apparatus, and using a power which is insignificant when compared to that of our local broadcasting stations. Not that it is desired to imply that the commercial organisations, with their unlimited facilities, funds, men and "beams," could not do the same, but merely that they have not yet done so. In the transmission of music much the same condition has been in evidence, and it is well known that almost two years ago amateur stations such as 2CM conducted frequent test transmissions of music and entertainment with a power of one thousandth part of that employed by our present broadcasting stations, and yet were heard in all Australian States and New Zealand with wonderful clarity. In fact, the present wireless industry owes quite a debt to these experimenters, whose transmissions were so successful in developing and fostering public interest during the long period prior to the advent of commercial broadcasting. In reviewing the present broadcasting efforts it is at least enlightening to find the expression of dissatisfaction in all States, and after reflecting upon the conditions in other countries one is rather tempted to hope that these murmurings will develop into protest. In Western Australia, for instance, the service is supplied from 6WF, the 6-kilowatt station of Westralian Farmers, which has the greatest difficulty in making itself heard through atmospherics in our eastern States. Reports from the West indicate that, with the exception of atmospheric trouble, the predominance of gramophone records and pianola music, and faulty modulation, the transmissions are "all that can be expected," which is at least indicative of the delightful ease with which Western Australians can be satisfied. Then in South Australia it would appear that broadcasting is in much the same condition as it was eighteen months ago, the outstanding efforts being supplied by a small experimental transmitter privately operated by Mr. E. J. Hume. The South Australian Broadcasting Co., which holds the "A" grade licence, is reported to be in further trouble, and the whole situation has been complicated by the registration of a new company, The Central Broadcasters Limited. No comment is necessary concerning our Victorian broadcasting, the state of affairs being quite sufficiently audible on any night of the week! In New South Wales, notwithstanding the fact that their stations have been in operation for at least six months, dissatisfaction is also expressed both on account of the quality of the transmissions from a technical and musical standpoint, and also in view of the short operating hours, which do not evidently constitute sufficient service. In Queensland, to complete our review, broadcasting is still unknown, and except for an occasional gramophone record played at one of the few experimental stations, or occasional snatches of music from other States, heard through the atmospherics, the Queenslanders might just as well be living in the 16th century as far as broadcasting is concerned. It is well known that Australia was initiated into commercial broadcasting at least three years after successful service had been established in England and America, but our present condition serves to emphasise the fact, evidently not yet appreciated, that we cannot hope to cover the three years of lost time in one stride, and that it is clearly no use anyone expecting immediate perfection. Full realisation of this point on the part of the broadcast listener would render the present wholesale disappointment unnecessary, and its appreciation on the part of the broadcasting companies would at least cause them to better their service, for such stations as 2FC, whose transmissions today hardly equal those of six months ago, evidently imagine that they have reached the standard of the better English and American stations. Better broadcasting is what is required, and until that is achieved no real boom can ever be expected. An achievement which is typical of the amazing work of the amateur experimenters on the newly-developed short wave lengths was accomplished on Sunday evening by 3BQ, Mr. Maxwell Howden, who was in communication with American amateurs during four evenings last week, and who is, of course, the first Australian to exchange messages with America. At 8.30 p.m. on Sunday, Mr. Howden transmitted a general call, which was almost immediately answered by American amateur station 1SF, operated by S. Frizzell, of Durham-street, Boston, Mass., which is at least 10,000 miles away. Communication was established right away, the American station reporting 3BQ's signals as being quite clear. The signals from the American station were rather badly interfered with by atmospherics, and some difficulty was experienced in following portions of the conversation. Several long messages were exchanged, however, and, in addition, a long list of American calls heard, was sent to the head quarters of the American Radio Relay League. 1SF reported the reception of everything transmitted from 3BQ, and after making complete arrangements for further tests, closed down at 9.45 p.m. Melbourne time, which corresponds roughly with breakfast time in Boston, after having been in communication for over an hour. It is now just a year since the first organised attempt was made by Australian amateurs to transmit messages to America, and though several of our stations have been heard in America at various times since, two-way communication was not established until last week. The consistency with which communication has been maintained since then is striking proof of the superiority of the short waves over the longer ones for long distance work, and the possibilities brought about by their development would appear almost unlimited.[126]

1924 12Edit

University of WA reports that numerous lectures in the University's extension lecture program have been broadcast over 6WF

THE UNIVERSITY. MEETING OF SENATE. SUCCESS OF EXTENSION LECTURES. A meeting of the Senate of the University of Western Australia was held last night, Dr. J. S. Battye presiding in the absence of the Chancellor (Dr. A. J. H. Saw) through indisposition. Country Bursaries.— A letter from the Carnamah District Road Board stated that the board, at a meeting held on November 18, had agreed to make provision for a bursary of the value of £50. In his reply the Vice-Chancellor intimated that this decision would be greatly appreciated by the Senate, and suggested that, while the administration of the fund should remain with the road board, the regulations governing the bursary should be similar to those imposed on holders of Government University exhibitions, with the additional provision that candidates for the bursary must be bona fide residents of the district. University Prizes.— The acting Vice-Chancellor (Professor Shann) stated in his report that prizes had been awarded as follows:— Sanderson Prize in Philosophy, Mr. Duncan Howie; Lady Hackett Prize in Classics, Miss Olive Webster; Lady James' Prize in Science, Mr. Karl R. Allen. Music Examinations.— The results of the recent examinations in music were summarised as follows:— Theory: Entered, 480; passed, 389. Practical: Entered, 720; passed, 462. Professor Adams' Lectures.— The course of six lectures on "Modern Developments in Education," presented by Professor Adams, was shown to have resulted in a profit of £11 7s, which was handed to the lecturer as an addition to his fee of £50. Vice-Chancellor.— On the recommendation of the general purposes committee and the professorial board, Professor H. E. Whitfeld was appointed Vice-Chancellor for 1925. Appointments Board.— The report of the general purposes committee submitted the question of establishing an appointments board for the purpose of enabling University students to obtain employment. It was decided that a board be constituted, its personnel to be as follows:— Two members representative of the Senate who were not members of the teaching staff; two members representative of the teaching staff; one member representative of the Guild of Undergraduates. Messrs. C. R. P. Andrews and A. Sandover and Professors Whitfeld and Ross were appointed. The appointment of the undergraduates' representative was referred to the Guild of Undergraduates. Memorial to Sir Winthrop Hackett.— The general purposes committee recommended that the Senate establish a memorial to the late Sir Winthrop Hackett. After a brief discussion a subcommittee, comprising the Chancellor, Sir Walter James, Dr. J. S. Battye, and Mr. J. W. Kirwan, M.L.C., was appointed to consider the matter. A Visiting Scientist.— It was decided that the University should concur with the Sydney University Extension Board that the distinguished physicist, Sir Ernest Rutherford, be invited to visit Australia in the latter half of 1925. Extension Lectures.— The report of the University Extension Lecture Board was as follows:— For the 1924 session, 21 lecturers offered 114 subjects for University extension lectures, and a syllabus was issued early in the year. Lectures were delivered in Perth and in Albany, Claremont, Dangin, Darlington, Denmark, Fremantle, Katanning, King River, Latham, Narrogin and Pinjarra. In all 50 lectures were so given — 10 in Perth and suburbs, nine in other parts of the metropolitan area, and 31 in country centres. In addition a series of 17 broadcast lectures has been given on alternate Monday evenings since the opening the Westralian Farmers' wireless station at the beginning of the winter. These lectures have been heard at distances of 300 to 400 miles. The 67 extension lectures in 1924 have been given by 19 individual lecturers, many of whom have given up no small portion of their leisure to this voluntary work. Apart from the regular extension lectures, the University, in conjunction with the Education Department, arranged in Perth a series of six lectures on "Modern Developments in Education," by Professor John Adams. Those lectures drew a large attendance to the hall, and were also broadcast to a much larger audience. In March a course on rural household science was conducted under the auspices of the University and the State Department of Agriculture, while the Music Teachers' Conference in May was a new extension of University activities. Owing to the heavy demands which these lectures are making upon members of the University staff, it will probably be necessary in the coming year to limit the number of lectures which may be delivered in any one centre. It is also becoming increasingly desirable that centres, which in the past have had a number of unrelated lectures, should be encouraged to apply for a co-ordinated course of lectures on a particular branch of study. Music Awards.— The following recommendations for scholarships, exhibitions, and prizes made by the Music Advisory Board were approved:— Scholarship of £60 per annum for three years, Miss E. Parnell (Girls' High School, Claremont); Exhibition in Grade I. of the value of £12, Muriel Slattery (Loretto Convent, Swanbourne); Exhibitions in Grade II. of £6 each, Lionel B. H. Chase (Mr. J. R. Nowotny) and Sheila Dooley (Presentation Convent, Northampton); Singing Prize, value £6, Roma Driver (St. Brigid's Convent, West Perth); Prize in Grade V., violin, value £3 3s, Zepah Feldman (St. Brigid's Convent, West Perth); Prize in Grade VI., pianoforte, value £3 3s, Stanley King (Miss A. Johnson, Kalgoorlie).[127]

The report from Bunbury of improved transmissions seems to support 6WF now running at 5 kW

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . A Bunbury radio enthusiast writes, complimenting 6WF on their improved transmissions, and also suggests that the coming band contest test selections be broadcasted. He finishes with a "cheerio" to Mr. Wells, 6WF's popular announcer, and hopes that he will not "get on the scoot" for the holidays.[128]

Report of first prosecution of an unlicensed broadcast listener in WA

UNLICENSED BROADCAST LISTENERS. The First Prosecution. In the City Court on December 24 the Postmaster-General's Department commenced their initial proceedings against persons maintaining broadcast listening-in plants without having taken licenses. Although the Wireless Telegraphy Act provides for a very severe penalty, only a nominal penalty was sought. The magistrate imposed a fine of £1, with £1 4s. costs, adding a rider to the effect that future cases appearing on a similar charge will be more severely dealt with. We have been asked to state that the Postmaster-General's Department regard the matter of prosecution as a distasteful but unavoidable duty as every reasonable precaution has been taken to bring under the notice of all concerned the necessity and reasonableness of obtaining licenses.[129]

1925Edit

1925 01Edit

Perth Daily News commentator, looking back on 1924 considers the establishment of 6WF the most significant development in WA in 1924

NOTES AND COMMENTS. ON MATTERS TOPICAL. A Happy New Year. May everybody thrive in 1925. . . . Looking back over the past 12 months, one finds many things to ponder over. No local happenings, however, can be of much more arresting significance than the remarkable progress made with wireless development in this State. A little over two years ago the writer attended a trial demonstration of transmission of music by wireless conducted by Mr. W. E. Coxon, now technical director of the Westralian Farmers' broadcasting station. Mr. Coxon was assisted in his experiments by Mr. A. E. Stevens, who received gramaphone records transmitted by Mr. Coxon from his home in Bulwer-street, North Perth, a distance of approximately half a mile. The results achieved on that occasion seemed truly remarkable, but, looking back over the comparatively brief period that has since elapsed they appear primitive and almost crude in the light of the high standard of efficiency that has been attained today. Listening-in last night to a widely varied broadcast programme, embracing a play, an address, a musical concert and several other features, the writer marvelled at the astonishing advancement in the wonderful new science made during the year just ended and speculated as to what fresh triumphs the next 12 months might witness. One of the concluding songs of last night's wireless programme, by the way, struck a happily optimistic note:— "Look for the silver lining and try to find the sunny side of life!"[130]

A poem glorifying wireless evoked by a Coxon lecture on music

MUSIC BY WIRELESS. Recently Mr. Coxon, of the Westralian Farmers Ltd., broadcasted a reading on "The Evolution of Music," which gave great pleasure to listeners-in. Next issue we hope to print a resume of the reading. In the meantime we submit the following lines, which the subject suggested to our poet:— We drop a stone in the ocean To ripple to furthest shore; We cast a word to the ether, Where it sounds for evermore. When shall we measure the circles That each little action makes; Or gather the golden memories That the heaven of sound awakes? Of old the seers had the vision, And ears that heard from afar; There was nothing hid from mystics Ere peace was banished by war. Long since the sun saw the secrets That today we proudly acclaim, Hail as the birth of new wisdom. And herald with wondrous fame. Science today makes substantial The "myths and fancies" of old; And ears dull to Nature's music Are filled with wave lengths of gold. Perchance modern science will tell us The history the air holds in store; And show in the tiniest pebble A palace with beauteous door.[131]

Perth Call journalist has to defend criticism of 6WF programming but can only come up with "better than nothing"

STATION 6W.F. I suppose it is only natural that in broadcasting, as in many other phases of entertainment one comes in contact with during a lifetime, there is always someone who is ready to pick holes. It is a good thing everybody is not of the same nature. If our local broadcasting station 6W.F. (which has the reputation of being the best broadcasting station in Australia as far as selection of programmes is concerned) was to think of each individual critic, where would our broadcasting be? Critics of 6W.F.'s programmes seem to be a little forgetful. If they would only stop and think for a moment, perhaps such criticisms as are made would not be quite so harsh. Where would our critics stand if there was no broadcasting station at all. Do you remember the great welcome given by enthusiasts when it was first announced that the W.A. Farmers were to be the pioneers of broadcasting in W.A.? Think for a second of the expenditure and pains taken by the Farmers' station to help and satisfy radio enthusiasts. Fair-mindedness seems to be lacking by most critics. 6W.F. is sure to welcome suggestions from those who know such a lot, if their suggestions are made in a fair-minded manner. There is an old saying that "Familiarity breeds contempt," and, there seems to be no such fitting words to discriminate some who unduly criticise our local station. I would suggest to those who switch off and wait for MUSIC to go to a theatre and expend a few shillings on an evening's entertainment, rather than sit criticising a good programme which is costing less than a penny farthing. What do you think? A well-known local experimenter advises me that he has been getting excellent results on low wave lengths lately. In fact, he picked up an American amateur on the air the other evening, and was only using two valves at the time. The wave length was between 90 and 170 metres. Eastern States experimental transmitters, he says, nearly blow his head off. The latest radio novelty is the radio boot black. While a customer is having his shoes cleaned by the bootblack, he is treated to radio broadcasting by means of telephones. The set is fitted into the box on which the footrest is placed. I note by an Eastern paper that a lady member was initiated into a wireless club. Now then, W.A. clubs, what about some of the fairer sex, if the menfolk are not too enthusiastic? The most prominent radio society in the Great Big West is the Subiaco Radio Society. Pick up practically any Australian radio journal, and there you will find something of the doings of this popular body. I notice the Adelaide press comment on the Subiaco Radio Society's last river picnic, and suggest that it is a good idea that could be very well copied in South Australia. The Subiaco Radio Club now have another picnic of a similar character on foot, and on a large scale. Well done, Subiaco! Of course we must not forget that "Live-wire Congdon" is the secretary. And W. R. Phipps is the energetic president! Another river picnic. "Yes, that is so." "My word, that's good — we had a ripping good time at the last one." Such remarks are being passed about the fact that Subiaco Radio Society has announced that another river picnic is to be held on the 1st of February. The Dauntless is commissioned for this trip, and a piano, and full band will be aboard. All that is left to be done is to have a good attendance. At an international conference of wireless operators held in Paris, a proposal was made that a five-minute radio silence should take place annually in commemoration of opera-tors lost at sea. The anniversary of the Titanic disaster was considered as a suitable date for the carrying out of this proposal. For the benefit of beginners who perhaps do not know the call signs of the various broadcasting stations operating throughout Australia, we give a list as follows:—

  • Call signs Wave lengths
  • 5CL Central Broadcasters, S.A. 480
  • 2BL Broadcasters Ltd., Sydney 360
  • 3AR Associated Radio, Melbourne 440
  • 2FC Farmers Ltd., Sydney 1100
  • 6WF W.A. Farmers 1250
  • 3LO Melbourne Broadcasting Co. 1720
  • 7ZL The New Tasmanian station, under the direction of the Associated Radio, of Melbourne.[132]
1925 02Edit

6WF heard in Brisbane

RADIO TOPICS. By "LISTENER" . . . 6WF HEARD IN BRISBANE. Mr. R. Burton, Russell street, South Brisbane, last Saturday night tuned in 6WF station, Perth, which is owned by Westralian Farmers, Limited. He had been trying to pick up this station every Saturday night for weeks past, but had previously been unsuccessful. The station's call letters 6WF were heard on four occasions, and three orchestral items were listened to. The station's carrier wave was picked up at 12 o'clock midnight (10 o'clock Perth time), and it was some time before Mr. Burton got down to the music. The tuning was very "fussy" at first, but it came in stronger towards 12.30 o'clock. The set used was of the Superdyne type, which includes a low loss tuner and one stage of tuned Radio frequency, detector, and one of Audio frequency, amplification. The set was made by Mr. Burton.[133]

Wally Coxon, 6WF chief engineer writes to WIA WA thanking for having made him a life member

WIRELESS INSTITUTE OF AUSTRALASIA (W.A. DIVISION). FORTNIGHTLY MEETING. Mr. B. Holt presided over the fortnightly general meeting of the W.A. division of the Wireless Institute of Australasia held on Friday night at the Central Fire Station. A licence granting the institute permission to transmit was received. Applications for membership from E. A. Makeham, Yilliminning, and Robert W. Coxan, Northam, were considered and approved. Mr. W. E. Coxan, technical adviser to 6WF, wrote thanking the institute for having made him a life member of the institute. He said that although a great deal of his time was taken up with broadcasting, he still found a little time to devote to the hobby of experimental work.[134]

6WF programming criticism

THE TECHNICALITIES OF BROADCASTING. . . . Tuning-in to the "Old Comrades March" and the New York Military Band at 12.30 and 3.30 respectively last week was some glorious relief from dance music which 6WF seemed to favor. The value of the whole session can be ruined by a poor opening piece. Rousing music by a military band comes first in order of an opening selection.[135]

Comprehensive description of a day in the worklife of Harold Wells beloved announcer of 6WF

"6 W.F. SPEAKING." STAGING THE UNSEEN. A DAY IN A WIRELESS STUDIO. INTERVIEW WITH MR. H. R. WELLS. A vast audience sits before a curtain that is never raised. The artists who come forward do not deign to bow, but perform to their invisible audience, which neither applauds nor condemns. No wonder that the broadcasting artists feel the uncanniness of the position when they first stand before an instrument, not unlike an old-fashioned circular mousetrap, but which they know is carrying their voices — well, who can say where? What sort of a person is the announcer? What does he do all day? Has he special qualifications for the position? These and a dozen other questions quickly come to mind when of an evening the humble crystal-set owner goes searching with his cats-whisker and hears a ringing, clear voice announce "Station 6WF calling. We will now commence our evening session. Standby to tune in." Further abroad the owner of a pretentious multivalve set twirls a few knobs, makes a few adjustments, and exclaims with pleasure, "Here it is; it's the announcer." The announcer has a position of great responsibility, for the transmitting apparatus is merciless in the accuracy with which it spreads abroad every syllable and note uttered and makes evident tonal defects which outside of a studio would be overlooked. This is the position then that Mr. Harold R. Wells holds with the local broadcasting station. This official was sought out the other day by the writer to tell something of his work. Hammersmith, London, was his birthplace, his elocution training was obtained at Friern Manor House School, and his age is — well, he is still young enough to feel he has only started on his life's work. Classing broadcasting as an entertainment he is not new to the business, for when he was 16 years of age he formed a concert company in London named the "High-fliers," and made a short and successful tour of the suburbs. In that company he was producer, business manager, and a number of other personages compressed in one. Urged to take on light comedy work by a well-known comedian, he travelled under the name of Frank Romaine, and after touring for two years he went in for duo work under the names of Mack and Romaine. Just over two years ago he decided to try his fortune in Australia, and came to this State. Since then his brother, who was on the business side of the "Sphere" and "Tatler," and his sister, came to the State, and more recently his parents joined to complete the family group. Mr. Wells, sen., it is learned, has just retired from the service of the Orient Line, with whom he was assistant medical man on board one of their big liners. The grandfather of "6WF.'s" announcer was Benjamin Wells, who on several occasions was commanded to play before the late King Edward. What comprises a day's work? Arriving about 10 a.m. the first job is to carefully select news items from the newspapers to be broadcast during the first session. Cables have to be carefully condensed, as only 100 words are permitted at each session. Subscribers can under-stand, therefore, why they cannot receive the full benefit of the original cable. Three times a week the gramophone records and pianola rolls must be changed. This work entails both time and an exercise of selective powers. Once a week the programmes for the succeeding week must be drafted, and typed ready to send to the daily, weekly, and country papers. Not only do programmes circulate within the State, but are sent to the Eastern States, and even as far distant as Batavia. The weather report, stock exchange lists, and market reports are prepared for the session which commences at 12.30 and continues until 1.30. After dinner — for even announcers must eat — preparation is made for the afternoon session. If it is an entertainment outside the studio — such as at Boans roof garden — special apparatus must be taken there, and the land line connected up with the station before the concert begins. This completed, then comes the big task of preparing for the long evening sessions. More news items, probably a later weather forecast, and the choosing of some gramophone selections for "the children's hour," are got ready, and just after 7 p.m. the session commences. This normally closes down at 10.2 p.m. Nor is that all the work of the day. Correspondence for request items must be attended to. And there is other correspondence of a more personal nature. One kindly old soul, evidently of a motherly nature, has written the announcer urging him to take great care of his throat, and advocated the use of a woollen scarf when he went home of a night. Others in the country like to comment on how a certain programme "came over" — and so all the correspondence must be taken in its stride. Only recently advice was received that programmes were being well received in New South Wales and Victoria, while listeners in as far away as Christchurch, New Zealand, have reported successful receptions. Then there is the work in the studio itself. The nervousness of new performers must be forestalled as much as possible. Here is the singer, an instrument as big as a man's fist, and half a continent ready to listen. Little wonder that performers' hearts, no matter how stout, beat a little quicker when faced with the bizarre situation. It has been found that a quiet, unruffled demeanor and a studied lack of interest in the performer serve best to reassure the nervous. Nevertheless, they are ever under the watchful eye of the announcer, who must adjust the microphone to best carry the individual voice. Some must have the microphone brought nearer, while one well-known Perth singer of robust type is called upon to turn his back on the mechanism. It is learned that several local singers overcome with nervousness have at the completion of their item bowed to the microphone. Occasionally one hears a sound suggestive of vibration soon after a singer has started. This in nearly every instance is due to the movement of the microphone. In future when the announcer calls "Good night everyone: we are now closing down," it will be in the knowledge that his task will be taken in hand on the morrow, when all the detail work and all the preparation will be gone through once more for the benefit of subscribers.[136]

1925 03Edit

Essie Pickering revealed as the reader of the children's bedtime stories

PEOPLE IN PASSING. . . . (Start Photo Caption) MISS ESSIE PICKERING. The first lady announcer on the Westralian Farmers' Wireless Broadcasting Station. Many children and others have heard her read the bed-time stories.(End Photo Caption)[137]

Amid public disquiet about the cost of the receiving licence, the Perth Sunday Times wireless journalist explains where the payment goes

RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . Twice within a week some anonymous person has been airing his views on the license question in general in the evening paper. A glance through the matter under discussion will convince anyone conversant with the real position that the text has been complied by some individual who is entirely ignorant of wireless matters, and that the writer of same appears to have some particular grouch against the authorities. It is the object of this paragraph to explain why you pay your license and where it goes. First of all, why should you pay 35s. per year? Is not the air free? Exactly, just that particular part is as free as the air you breathe; but, put yourself in the place of the proprietors of a broadcasting station. Would you go to the terrific expense of erecting costly plant, engaging artists, and maintaining a regular five-hour per day service and receive no return for the outlay? Each, night you are receiving a hive of entertainment. Two hours per day you may amuse yourself at the radio set. For these things is 35s. too much to expend? Where does the money go? Not to the Government at least nothing to speak of; to wit, 5s for which the department attends to the organising, printing, and distributing of license forms and takes the additional worry and fiddling of court cases where pirates are dealt with. Does it not earn the 5s.? The other 30s. goes to the Westralian Farmers, for which they attend to your individual tastes for one year. Is it worth being a pirate, under such circumstances? We should say not.[138]

The Melbourne Punch is very complimentary of 6WF programmes

WEST AUSTRALIAN TRANSMISSIONS. The Melbourne "Punch" writes:— "Transmission from the Perth station, 6WF, is being received nightly by listeners in the Eastern States, and the programmes put on by this station are of a good varied type, the right proportion of music and "talks" having been discovered. As Western Australian time is two hours behind that of the Eastern States, and one and a half behind that of South Australia, about two extra hours entertainment may be had from 6WF after the other stations have closed down. Perth amateur transmitters also come in well, especially those operating on low wave lengths, and are nightly logged by listeners on "low loss" sets in the Eastern States." It is noted from the most recent advance programme of 6WF that several innovations are to be introduced into the programmes. For instance, on Monday next a short sketch is to be played before the microphone at the studio. This item, entitled "Such is Life," has been worked by Mr. Harold R. Wells, who, as everyone knows, is the announcer. Because sketches for presentation over the ether have to be specially written with a view of appeal to the aural sense it will be interesting to learn how the item "comes over." Then on April 3 — the night before the battle — Rev. Geo. Tulloch and Mr. Wallace Nelson will debate the pros and cons of prohibition. Perhaps some eleventh hour converts may be made by use of the wireless. Those of us who swear by our clocks have at times been inclined to challenge on the matter of minutes or seconds, the time broadcast from the studio. Saturday, April 4, however, should occasion no such comment, for it is learned the signal is being relayed from the Observatory at 1 p.m. Whether it will be the familiar "1 o'clock" gun or some other mechanism has yet to be disclosed to the public. Generally speaking, the programmes from this station have maintained a high level. McMahon's Band on Tuesday night was an unblemished delight, while the monthly book talk by Mr. Bathgate is to the "bookish" person an item of never failing interest.[139]

6WF demonstrates the live working of their studio at Queen's Hall

BROADCASTING DEMONSTRATION. Much interest is being taken in the broadcasting demonstration concert to be given in Queen's Hall this evening. The stage is being fitted up as a replica of the studio at 6WF, and the concert will be conducted exactly in the manner of a studio concert. This will give wireless enthusiasts an opportunity of seeing the working of a studio. A programme of outstanding interest has been arranged by the musical director, Mr. A. J. Leckie, Mus. Bac. It includes numbers by the popular Wendowie Quartette, songs by Miss Veronica Mansfield and Mr. Rhys Francis, instrumental items by Mr. Hugh McMahon, and the Two Dunstalls, a talk by Dr. J. S. Battye, and the first performance of a short one-act play, "Lucifer and an Angel," by Miss Doris Gilham and Mr. Herbert Millard. Seats may be reserved at Musgrove's.[140]

1925 04Edit

As previous, comprehensive report on the 6WF demonstration

WIRELESS DEMONSTRATION. BY WESTRALIAN FARMERS. Many followers of the new source of amusement — wireless entertainment — have regularly night after night without break, heard the voice of the announcer, and of other artists who have become familiar over the airline. Last night the opportunity of seeing the announcer and many of the well-known artists in the flesh, for the first demonstration concert by 6WF was given in Queen's Hall before a moderate attendance. The stage had been prepared as a replica of a studio, the exception being that one side — that facing the audience — was removed. The heavy drapings to deaden the sound and prevent vibrations and the furnishings closely followed those in use at 6W.F. Another apparent difference was that the performers, no doubt as a compliment to the visible audience, appeared in evening dress. It was hoped that opportunity would be taken during the evening to explain to those in the hall, the purpose of the various pieces of mechanism which were to be seen in operation, but it was not so. The overture was broadcast from the Prince of Wales and it was interesting to observe the manner in which it reached the Queen's Hall. From the Prince of Wales Theatre the music was relayed by landline to the broadcasting station, where it was sent out into the ether. A small receiving set using a frame aerial was secreted in such a position that it was unnoticed except to a practiced eye, and by this means it was delivered to those in the hall by means of a loud speaker. The eight o'clock time signal was also received on this instrument. The programme given from Queen's Hall included vocal items by The Wendowie Quartette, Mr. Rhys Francis and Miss Veronica Mansfield, recitation by Miss Doris Gilham, banjo duet by the Two Dunstalls, cornet solos by Mr. Hugh McMahon, gramaphone records and a one-act play, "Lucifer and an Angel," by Miss Gilham and Mr. Herbert Millard. Dr. J. S. Battye gave a short talk on West Australia and Federation, and supported the view that the Secessionists would win the day if a vote were now taken.[141]

1925 05Edit

John Thomson appointed general manager of Westralian Farmers, brief biography reveals he initiated the idea of 6WF within Westralian Farmers

WESTRALIAN FARMERS, LTD. New General Manager. Mr. John Thomson was appointed yesterday by the board of the company to the position of general manager of Westralian Farmers, Ltd., in succession to the late Mr. Basil Murray. His new duties commence today. Mr. Thomson came to Western Australia from England about 10 years ago, and settled in the Denmark district, but about three years later he joined the wheat department of Westralian Farmers, Ltd., and on the departure of Mr. L. R. Macgregor, to become director of the Queensland Council of Agriculture, he was made manager of his department and secretary of the Co-operative Wheat Pool when that was inaugurated. In his early days with the company, Mr. Thomson was a wheat inspector, and in that capacity travelled throughout the State and became familiar with farming conditions. He initiated the idea of the present wireless broadcasting station, and persisted until it was accepted by Mr. Basil Murray, who placed him in charge of its administration. Soon after his appointment as manager of the Co-operative Wheat Pool last year Mr. Thomson went to England, and while there he opened up negotiations which resulted in the financing of the pool by the Co-operative Wholesale Society of Great Britain.[142]

Perth Mirror journalist notes forthcoming first anniversary of 6WF, correctly attributes 6WF with the growth of broadcasting in WA

WHAT THE WIRELESS WAVES SAY. DOTS AND DASHES. (By "SPARK.") BROADCASTING . . . 6W.F.'S ANNIVERSARY On Wednesday next, June 3, the W.A. Farmers' broadcasting station will have been in operation for one year, and, I might state right here, have not been off the ether on one single evening — a record in itself. When we look back to the pre-broadcast days of W.A., we can surely see to what a successful issue this station has been brought. We must not forget the pioneers of radio in the West, and my mind is directed to the time when just a few interested experimenters would scratch away at the old crystal, in the endeavor to bring in either VIP or some ship at Fremantle a little louder. Now we look on the wireless world today, and we can see the great strides that have been made in such a short time. We can surely say that our Western broadcasting station is the factor that has brought about such a result. Who can predict what will be the results at the end of the coming year, with the new inventions and achievements being put up every day? Next week in connection with the Anniversary of 6WF special programmes will be broadcast. "The Bing Boys Are Here." This play is to be relayed to and broadcast from 6W.F. tonight, and should prove very popular with radio fans. Mr. H. Wells has been with the W.A. Farmers' broadcasting station, 6W.F., as announcer ever since their commencement. Imagine the huge number of people he has spoken to during this term! We wish Mr. Wells every success during the next year of his duties at 6W.F.[143]

1925 06Edit

Speech by WA Minister for Works on occasion of 6WF first anniversary pays tribute to the foresight of late Basil Murray of Westralian Farmers

6WF. THE FIRST ANNIVERSARY. On Wednesday evening the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., broadcasting station, 6WF, celebrated its first anniversary. The Minister for Works (Hon. A. McCallum, M.L.A.) delivered a short address, in the course of which he referred to the great strides which wireless had made of late, and predicted that in the near future it would be largely utilised in connection with educational matters. So far as this State was concerned, he was of opinion that it would go a long way towards solving the difficulty of extending educational facilities to children in scattered districts. Mr. McCallum further said that he well remembered how at the inception of the broadcasting station, he had listened with great interest to the speech of the Premier (Mr. Collier), which was delivered from that studio. He also remembered, with regret, which he believed was shared throughout the community, that the face and voice of the one man who had stoutly stood behind the establishing of Western Australia's powerful broadcasting station were missing. Mr. Basil Murray's keen foresight and determination had given to the people of the community 6WF, and many thousands of farmers and others were today blessing his name for the good he had done in connection with breaking down the isolation which had hitherto been their lot. "Mr. Murray has gone," continued Mr. McCallum, "but his works follow him in many ways, and perhaps the most outstanding monument to his ability and foresightedness was the company of which he was the head, viz., the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., and the broadcasting station which they had established at great cost in the interests of the whole community, and not for any particular section."[144]

Further report on 6WF first anniversary by The West Australian

WIRELESS NEWS AND NOTES. (By 'Electron.') . . . 6 WF'S FIRST ANNIVERSARY. On Wednesday evening last the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., broadcasting station, 6WF, celebrated its first anniversary. In the course of an interesting programme, the Minister for Works (Mr. A. McCallum) delivered a short address in which he referred to the large amount of work involved in compiling the programme comprising educational, musical and elocutionary numbers. Wireless had made great strikes in breaking down isolation, and he predicted that it would be greatly utilised in providing educational facilities for children in scattered districts. He paid a tribute to the late Mr. Basil Murray's keen foresight and determination in establishing the station at great cost in the interests of the whole community and not for any particular section.[145]

Subiaco Radio Society notes that commencement of 6WF has impacted local radio clubs; record of 6WF on its first anniversary

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . Subiaco society held their annual meeting on Tuesday, the 2nd inst. There was quite a good muster, and the president (Mr. W. R. Phipps) was in good oratorical fettle. His speeches were very interesting, and, as usual, lightly interspersed with humor. They were attentively listened to. In the annual report the president stressed the point that Subiaco had made a point of developing the social side. Two launch picnics and two socials were held, and each had been an unqualified success, both socially and financially. Mr. Phipps offered himself for re-election as hon. president, and was elected without opposition. The club's enthusiastic secretary, Mr. R. Congdon, was re-elected for a further term of office. Speakers remarked on the valuable asset to the club they had in Mr. Congdon, who was always brimful of enthusiasm and the society's present virile position was due in great measure to this officer's energetic efforts. Lively discussion centred around a suggestion of a member that there was something lacking to promote interest, and it was generally agreed that owing to the advent of broadcasting most clubs were in a more or less stagnant state. However it is proposed to institute a vigorous campaign to stimulate interest by the giving of lectures on present day short wave work and other items of interest. Mr. Botterill will lecture before the next meeting on short wave reception. . . . Wednesday was 6WF's first birthday. Some excellent records and singing were given on the birthday evening. Mr. Hugh Torrance was amongst the broadcasting artists, and his selections were very enjoyable. "Sweet Violets," by one of the lady artists, was reproduced with extreme fidelity, and was one of the most pleasing items we have yet listened to. The dialogue in the sketches was a little too rapid for reproduction on the loudspeaker. During Mr. McCallum's talk, which, by the way, was very interesting, he gave us some idea of what 6WF has done in the past year. Some 900 transmissions, 2000 records and over 200 lectures were broadcasted. And we cannot recall one evening on which 6WF failed to broadcast, which is indeed excellent management, and the station controller is certainly deserving of congratulation for a very successful first year.[146]

At the time of the 6WF second anniversary, chief announcer commences his journalist career with the column "Studio Jottings" in the Perth Daily News

STUDIO JOTTINGS. (By Harold B. Wells.) The broadcasting station 6WF commences its second year of programmes this week. Those who have watched the development of the station must feel an inward joy that during each month of last year the programmes were bettered either by variety or quality. The children's bedtime stories this week will be told by Miss Cammalleri, who has an abundance of new stories. Tonight 6WF's station orchestra will entertain subscribers with musical numbers. One item to be given is a trumpet solo by Mr. Val. Smith, assisted by the orchestra, entitled "Farewell to Summer." A performer under the pseudonym of "Araunah" will, during the session, read two short stories written by himself. This is a novelty introduced for the first time at the station. "Music and Song" is the title given to Tuesday's programme. It will resolve itself into a collection of instrumental and vocal efforts. The first artist appearing in the studio is Miss Kitty Gieve, a soprano who is no stranger to the microphone. Some elocution items will be the offering of Mr. E. W. Piper, and Miss Kenny, violinist, will draw upon such composers as Gounod, Drdla, and Bazzini for her items. Mr. Kenneth Talbot is the next artist; his role is usually that of a light entertainer, but his appearance this time will be with items by Weatherley, Purcell, Taylor, and Little. During the session Prof. J. W. Paterson, B.Sc., Ph.D., will give a lecturette on "Agriculture in W.A." This should have a particular interest to the farming community. Wednesday night's programme is one which should appeal to listeners of the most varied tastes. The first part of the evening is devoted to the relaying of vaudeville items from the Luxor Theatre, where new artistes are appearing. At 8.50 p.m. Mr. A. C. Fox, M.A., will talk on "Memorising." Following the lecturette, a new addition to the entertainment will be a theme programme depicting "The Open Road." This type of programme has scored a decided success in the London studios and appears to be welcome in this State. The Prince of Wales Orchestra will contribute some items on Thursday, and Misses Bailey and Job (from the studio) will follow with some musical items. Mr. Eugene Ossipoff, the well-known baritone, and Miss Dolores King, a soprano, will offer soli and duets. The lighter side of the programme will be handled by Mr. Rupert Solomon. "The Right and Wrong Immigrant" will be the subject of a lecture by Mr. F. R. Lee, who previously spoke on "The Gold Bonus." "Everybody's Night" is on Friday, when items from the Luxor Theatre will be given and followed by a talk by Mr. A. E. Stevens (Technical Adviser to the W.A. Division of the Wireless Institute) on matters concerning wireless. On Saturday night next a concert organised by Messrs. Musgrove, Ltd., will be relayed from their concert hall, and at 8 p.m. the "Dance Night" will commence, when 6WF's jazz orchestra will play the latest numbers from London. One catchy and tuneful piece among the items to be given is entitled "Eat More Fruit." Orchardists are particularly requested to listen in. The Church of Christ service will be relayed on Sunday morning, and 15 minutes before and after the service, testing will be conducted. The evening session will commence at 7 p.m., the children's bedtime stories being told by Mr. John Tucker. In the evening the service from the Seventh Day Adventist Conference will be broadcast. Intending competitors in the radio voice competition are asked to note that nominations close on June 20. Those passing a preliminary test will subsequently be broadcast when judgment will be passed by subscribers. The prizes offered in each class are: first £5 5s, second £3 3s.[147]

Coxon experimenting on the 40 metre amateur band

EXPERIMENTERS' WAVELENGTHS. BAND TRANSMITTERS ARE WORKING. A correspondent writes: "I have recently been measuring the wave lengths used by some of the local transmitters with a new, shortwave meter I have secured, and the result may interest your readers. Here are my readings: 6BN, A. E. Stevens, 90 metres; 6AG, W. Coxan, 39 metres; 6AM, P. Kennedy, 84 metres; 6WP, W. Phipps, 70 metres; 6CJ, E. J. Darley, 75 metres; 6BO, A. E. Gray, 60 metres; 6AB, C. Cecil (Kalg.), 80 metres; 6HJ, H. Johnson, 78 metres.[148]

Coxon tests a shortwave parallel for 6WF on 100 metres experimental band

WIRELESS TESTS. 6W.F. ON 100 METRES. LAST NIGHT'S EXPERIMENT. Shortwave wireless experimenters who listened-in last night were surprised at shortly after 10 p.m. to hear a powerful local station working on a wavelength of approximately 100 metres. As the wavelength of 6WF is 1,250 metres, there was some wonder as to what station it could be, as no callsign was heard. Today, however, doubts were set at rest when Mr. W. E. Coxon, radio engineer to 6WF, stated that the station last night made an experiment on shortwave working between 10 and 10.45 p.m., using very small power. Further experiments will be conducted in future, but there will be no fixed time for them, nor are other States or countries being advised of the tests. Mr. Coxon replied definitely that the experiment does not indicate that 6WF is contemplating altering its wavelength, as 3LO (Melbourne) and other stations have done. If any variation be made, it certainly will not be to 100 metres.[149]

Further report of the 6WF shortwave test indicates power between 10 and 40 watts

MERELY ATOMS. 6WF, experimenting on 100 metres, came as a surprise to all the shortwave experimenters of the city. Reports indicate that although the power used varied between 10 and 40 watts the transmission was clear. It has been stated by Mr. Coxon that such test does not at all suggest that 6WF is contemplating a change of wave length.[150]

1925 07Edit

Coxon cannibalises his own transmitter to keep 6WF on air

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . A very creditable piece of work has been carried out by the engineering staff of 6WF. Owing to the 2000-volt D.C. generator which supplies anode current to the drive panel burning out, it became necessary to provide a substitute. Needless to say, there was no loss of time, and 6AG's high-tension transformer was put into service. It is very necessary that the high-tension to the drive be only pure D.C., otherwise modulation would be imperfect. How perfect the improvisation is can be judged when we say that it has been impossible to detect the slightest difference in the quality of the transmissions. Messrs. Coxen, Sutherland and Phipps are hereby congratulated on their meritorious piece of work.[151]

(As previous) 6AG loans a high voltage generator to 6WF to keep the station on air; 6AG/6WF 100 metre tests heard as far as Adelaide

MERELY ATOMS. FROM HERE AND THERE. 6AG (Mr. W. Coxon) is at present "off the air," the reason being that the business end of his transmitting set is in use at 6WF. Just at the end of the session on Saturday evening, July 18, trouble occurred with the generator, due to a breakdown of a small but important part. Station 6WF holds the proud performance that it has never yet been off the air for a session, and in order to live up to this reputation the staff set to work immediately after the breakdown with the result that the station was ready for work again with temporary repairs at 6.30 a.m. on Sunday, or approximately eight hours after the breakdown. The trouble, it is learned, was the burning out of a 2,000-volt generator. The repairing of the generator is still in hand and it is expected that it will be another week or so before 6AG, who is also the manager of the station, will take his apparatus home again. . . . Mr. R. J. Whyte, of 42 Myall-avenue, Kensington Gardens, Adelaide, has written 6WF stating that he heard satisfactorily the 100-metre tests which were recently carried out at that station.[152]

1925 08Edit

Brief bio of Coxon in leadup to WIA conference

BRIEF PEN SKETCHES. Of Our Two Delegates. Mr. W. E. Coxon (6WF and 6AG) has been a wireless fan since the days of crashing sparks from the rotary and crystals that only worked when you held your breath. He was well versed in the higher science of wireless when most of us carried our satchels to school. During the war he was on research wireless work in England, and prior to broadcasting entertained us for many a pleasant evening through his experimental station 6AG. For some years he was in business as a consulting engineer, and many an amateur is indebted to his unfailing courtesy in explaining how a valve functions. When 6WF was projected, and the directors looked around for the most capable engineer, both here and abroad, selection finally fell on Mr. Coxon. How wise this choice was is best substantiated by subsequent events. 6WF is, without question, re-cognised as the most efficient broadcasting station in the Commonwealth. It has, since its initial transmission, never been off the air for one night. Unique transmission has been carried out on 100 metres, and when a serious breakdown occurred which threatened to seriously dislocate the transmission, 6AG worked all night, and by substituting portion of his own experimental station enabled broadcasting to be carried on without a single minute's interruption. Though Mr. Coxon is a professional wireless man, he is an amateur first and foremost.[153]

Bill Phipps, 6WP, erects a new mast for amateur transmission

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . The assistant engineer at 6WF is an enthusiastic amateur, and his recently erected mast, which towers to a height of 80ft., is to be used for the support of a real navy type transmitting aerial. The height is necessary to allow for possible inefficiencies in the electrolytic rectifiers, and is in accordance with measurements worked out by 6WP, who has had extensive experience in this direction.[154]

6WF receives a report of its reception from Willis Island, Coral Sea

6WF has received QSL cards from all over Australia, and reception has been reported from as far afield as Willis Island in the Pacific.[155]

Numerous references to 6WF throughout the WIA WA annual dinner

ANNUAL RADIO DINNER. A REUNION GATHERING. INTERESTING SPEECHES. A complimentary dinner to the visiting delegates to the convention was tendered on Monday evening last at Keogh's Hall, when there was a good attendance. After the chairman (Mr. B. M. Holt) had proposed the loyal toast, Mr. C. P. Knapton proposed the health of "Parliament." He said that the institute, standing as it did for the brains of the wireless movement, took Parliament seriously, and not with cheap wit. Members in this State particularly owed a debt to Mr. E. A. Mann, M.H.R., who had proved himself a loyal friend, and also to Mr. Alex. McCallum, who was also an enthusiast. The Minister for Works (Mr. A. McCallum), responding, counselled members to keep wireless away from Government control as far as was possible. Control meant fees, taxes and restrictions which might prevent the full development of the science. Already in this young country he felt that the mere registration and insistence on licensing had done a great deal to hamper the development of wireless. For his part he would sooner see the whole thing go free. He had to confess that he did not know very much about wireless, but his son could talk as enthusiastically on wireless as he could on politics. (Laughter). He was convinced that wireless was going to play a big part in the future of this country. He remembered a recent conversation he had had with Professor Woolnough, one time of the W.A. University. The professor told him how he had been stricken down with illness in Central Australia, and how wireless messages to the city seeking advice and messages in return giving instructions for treatment had practically saved his life. During this time the doctor had told him he had an aeroplane in readiness to fly to him should this be necessary. They could appreciate, therefore, what it meant to the country dweller to have the news given him as soon as the city man received it. If he could say anything on behalf of the State Parliament, he thought he would be expressing the wish of Cabinet when he said that the experimenters should be allowed to develop the wireless science uninterruptedly and that every assistance should be given to those concerned to develop it to its highest extent without any suggestion of taxation. (Applause.) Mr. J. Thomson, general manager Westralian Farmers, Ltd., proposed the toast of "The Institute and Allied Societies and Associations." He said he had done some experimenting, although he did not call himself an experimenter. His experiment had cost him two valves (Laugh). Then it was he learned the true experimenter worked out the circuit and tested it theoretically before applying it to practice. He congratulated the institute on the work it was doing, for undoubtedly it was informing some very valuable spade work. Much work lay ahead, and he could foresee the day when the light from the planets would be employed, in some way. Mr. B. Holt briefly responded. Mr. P. Kennedy proposed the toast of "Our Guests." He said there had in the past been some criticism regarding W.A. transmitters, but nevertheless the criticism had been helpful and constructive. The work of experimenters in short waves had drawn the attention of the leading scientists of the world. This was not because the behavior of short waves was unknown to the scientists, but because of what had been accomplished with their use. On exceedingly small power they could now speak from one end of the world to another. One horsepower was equal to about 746 watts, and yet his friend Mr. Fysh was speaking to him from Tasmania a few weeks previous, employing only 6 watts. Wireless ingrained a desire to improve transmissions and receptions, and he knew that Mr. Coxon would ever strive to improve 6WF, even though it had now reached a high standard. Many present probably did not realise the enjoyment which wireless gave in the country. Because of his position in the Telegraph Department he had to travel over the whole of the State, and it was not stretching the truth to say that radio sets were found from Broome to Bremer Bay. Even though wireless was making huge strides, there was still a strong demand for the telegraph. As proof of this, during the last 12 months the department had constructed lines at the rate of 750 miles a month. This was a reasonably good average, and did not include subscribers' lines. It represented an expenditure of £500,000 a year. Mr. H. A. Stowe (N.S.W.) in responding related some humorous reminiscences of how a few years ago he and a friend had commenced experimenting with a spark coil from an old motor car, and eventually got results which were considered satisfactory at the time. The Wireless Institute was formed in 1910, and was the first radio society in the British Empire, if not in the world. Lieutenant Schnell had told them that it certainly had been started before the A.R.R.L. Mr. Stowe on behalf of visiting delegates presented to Mr. B. H. Holt the pennant of the Wireless Institute. This is a royal blue pennant with the letters W.I.A. picked out in white, and was, Mr. Stowe said, flown at the masthead by members of the institute in the Eastern States. Mr. Ames (S.A.) supported the response. Mr. B. Jermyn Masters (Vic.) in responding said that Mr. Schnell had held that radio was the greatest brotherhood in the world today, and he endorsed the remark. Mr. Schnell said he had come with the fleet to Australia, practically a foreigner, and within five minutes was claimed as a brother. Mr. P. Oakley-Fysh (Tasmania) fittingly returned thanks. "6WF" was proposed by Mr. R. H. Narroway and responded to by Mr. W. E. Coxon, who said that he was willing to assist genuine experimenters at any time with the loan of apparatus he might have. The health of "Professor Ross" was toasted at the instance of Mr. Truman, who pointed to the good work the professor had accomplished in realms of wireless and of the assistance he was at all times willing to give to experimenters. The professor in responding said that when the new University building was complete he hoped that experimenters would avail themselves of the use of apparatus to be provided. "The Artists" and "The Press" were also toasted. During the evening a musical programme was given, which was contributed to by Messrs. Ted Scott, William Savage, E. A. Hughes, Cyril Dudley, L. V. de Levante, G. Sheard and E. Black.[156]

6WF receives only £4,220 as its proportion of broadcast licence fees to 30 May 1925

Does Broadcasting Pay? Few of the A class broadcasting stations have been made to pay dividends for the past year. In addition to the usual expenses connected with the operations of a company, expenses have been increased with concerns which have undertaken costly experiments. Interstate stations have also expended a large amount of money in paying artists, or for the use of copyright music which costs approximately 3/ a number. The total amount of licence fees collected throughout the Commonwealth on May 30 was £113,658. The amounts paid to the various broad-casting companies were:— Farmer and Co., Limited (2FC, Sydney), £34,628; Broadcasters, Limited (2BL, Sydney), £12,018; Broadcasting Co. of Australia (3LO, Melbourne), £14,444; Associated Radio Co. (3AR, Melbourne), £4,098; Westralian Farmers, Limited (6WF, Perth), £4,220.[157]

6WF's high voltage generator finally repaired

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . Repairs to 6WF's burnt-out 2000 volt D.C. generator have been almost completed and it is anticipated the machine will be in operation again at an early date, though there will be no difference in the power of the transmission, as 6AG's improvised transformer supply has been found to be equally as effective as the generator. Not one report has been received indicating that any listener was able to detect the change from pure D.C. to rectified A.C.[158]

1925 09Edit

6GB keeps 6WF running beyond its scheduled 10pm closing, with his own selection of gramophone records

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . 6WF was heard "testing only" well after 11 p.m. on Wednesday evening. Keep it up Jock, there is always an audience, and you sure do select the best records.[159]

A new Sydney publication "International Radio News" criticises 6WF and 2FC for not dropping longwave to enable production of cheaper sets covering only longwave

MERELY ATOMS. FROM HERE AND THERE. . . . "International Radio News," a Sydney publication, has some pointed remarks to make in its September issue respecting 2FC and 6WF. The paper wants to know why these two stations have not come down to the lower wave lengths which have been found so suitable by other broadcasting stations throughout the world. The concluding paragraph of the article suggests that the present depression in radio is caused by stations continuing on a high wave length, which prevents the production of a set with two or three controls, which will bring in all Australian stations, being sold at a reasonable price. The article, however, failed to state that with the adoption of a wave length between 250 and 400 metres, the way would be clear for the importation of cheap American made sets.[160]

6WF assists WIA WA in preliminary efforts to quantify static levels and geographic distribution

The Broadcast Listener. OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE WIRELESS INSTITUTE (W.A. DIV.) AND THE AFFILIATED RADIO SOCIETIES. (By "Chris, T.L.") EXPERIMENT WITH "STATIC." RESEARCH BUREAU'S FIRST MOVE. STATE-WIDE CO-OPERATION SOUGHT. TEST ON FRIDAY NIGHT. The Research Bureau of the W.A. Division of the Wireless Institute which was formed a week or so ago, for the purpose of investigating radio phenomena has already got into action. A meeting of the committee was held last week and a number of matters to which attention might well be directed by the Bureau was discussed. Some have not yet advanced to the stage when anything definite can be announced, but it was decided for a double reason to conduct A Simple Investigation towards the end of this week. Everyone from the owner of a simple crystal set to the operator of a multivalve or superhet. knows what a bugbear to wireless "static" or "atmospherics" is. The experimenting world, however, does not appear to know how these disturbances move across the face of the country, and whether they are conditions which accompany certain atmospheric changes. That they are caused by electrical discharges in the air or ether does not appear to be disputed. But when static is bad in the metropolitan area, is it to be assumed that similar conditions will be found at, say, Northam, Bunbury, Kalgoorlie or Geraldton? Does static increase with the advent of certain seasons — say the period between winter and summer? Does the geological nature of the country above which the aerial is erected have any effect on the volume of "static" heard? These are but a few of the more prominent questions which experimenters are asking themselves, and one another. Every broadcast listener would give much to be able to Eliminate Static disturbances from the broadcast programmes, but before the scientific experimenters in this country or elsewhere in the world can attempt to seek for a solution of the problem, they must collect all the available data in respect to the phenomena. The test which is proposed will be but a preliminary to many others which will be required before any reliable information is obtained respecting the occurrences. The Bureau therefore requests the co-operation of both experimenters and broadcast listeners from all over the State in this initial step. Particularly in the country districts is it urged that reports should be submitted, as it is only by gaining knowledge of conditions at a given time over a large area of country can any reliable information be secured. This First Test is to be conducted at closing time of 6WF on Friday night next, September 25. During the week, and especially on Friday night will the test be explained over the wireless, by courtesy of the Westralian Farmers broadcasting station. What listeners-in are asked to do is this. When 6WF closes down between 10.15 and 10.30 p.m., they are requested to continue listening for a period of five minutes and take particular notice of any atmospheric discharges. If none at all are observed, the figure "0" should be given as the reading, and if they are continuous and as loud as the observer has ever heard before, the maximum number of 10 points should be registered. Because of the difficulty of employing any fixed standard, the committee decided that the observer should use his own judgement in recording the amount of static present, the figures "0" and "10" being given as the minimum and maximum. Where static is detected, it is requested that an indication should also be made as to whether the disturbance appears distant or near. Observers are then asked to Put The Information On Paper and post to "The Hon. Secretary, Research Bureau, Wireless Institute, care of Westralian Farmers, Perth." It has been suggested that reports should be sent in, in something like the following manner:— "From John Smith, Harvest Farm, Kellerberrin. Static reading seven points. The disturbance appeared to be near." Of course, any other information respecting unusual conditions would also be welcomed. If this test is a good one, and all depends on the Co-operation of Listeners-in, the results will be tabulated by the committee and publicity given, probably in the form of a map showing the registration of the occurrences. Those sending in reports, are asked to do so promptly, as it is realised that some from the country may take some days before they come into the hands of the Research Bureau.[161]

1925 10Edit

Westralian Farmers annual meeting notes the successful establishment of 6WF; passing of Basil Murray; appointment of John Thomson

WESTRALIAN FARMERS, LTD. Annual Meeting. The eleventh annual general meeting of the Westralian Farmers, Ltd., was held last night at the office of the company, in Wellington-street. The chairman of directors (Mr. C. W. Harper) presided over a good attendance of shareholders. The annual report submitted by the board of directors stated that the total number of shares issued was 142,604, on which £130, 254 9s. 5d. had been paid, and of this number 6,617 ordinary and 6,353 bonus shares were allotted during the year, with bonus debentures to the extent of £2,176. The total bonuses issued to shareholders since the inception of the company to May 31, 1924, amounted to £4,938, and with the suggested addition of £10,000, would represent considerably more than one-third of the paidup capital of the company. To assist the company to give extended terms on Case tractors a debenture issue of £30,000 was offered to shareholders, and was well supported. Of the past season's wheat harvest, the company handled 70 per cent. of the marketable surplus, and during the year Mr. John Thomson (general manager) and Mr. S. J. McGibbon (auditor) had completed arrangement with the Co-operative Wholesale Society of Great Britain for the company to finance the Co-operative Wheat Pool of Western Australia. In the wool department, 10,760 bales were handled in the past season, showing a considerable increase, while increases were also shown in the general trading, insurance, and income tax departments. In the income tax department farmers were saved £8,000 in rebates of taxes and reduction of penalties. The company shipped 197,500 cases of green fruit to the United Kingdom, during the year, the wireless broadcasting station was established to the satisfaction of the subscribers, and generally, the year under review was the most successful since the inception of the company. It was with deepest regret that the directors recorded the death of the late managing director (Mr. Basil L. Murray), after a long and painful illness. They had lost one at all times untiring in his efforts to advance the interests of co-operation, and any movement for the betterment of the farming community. To fill his place Mr. John Thomson, of the wheat department, was appointed general manager. The balance sheet for the year ended May 31, last, showed a net profit of £35,835. The proposals of the board of directors respecting the declaration of a 7 per cent. dividend, the payment of £10,000 in bonuses, and the carrying forward to reserve of the sum of £12,816 were adopted by the meeting. Messrs. David Milne, W. Marwick, and Maitland Leake were re-elected directors, and Messrs. S. J. McGibbon and Co. were reappointed auditors to the company. In submitting the report and balance sheet, Mr. Harper congratulated the shareholders upon the success of the year's operations. He paid a sterling tribute to the late Basil Murray, adding that the farming community were under a deep debt of gratitude to his memory. In referring to the establishment of the co-operative buying and selling floor in London, Mr. Harper stated that nearly £14,000,000 worth of farmers' produce had been sold through the medium of the London establishment. The introduction of the Rural Credits Bill in the Federal Parliament was a step in the right direction, and would be the means of assisting producers to receive assistance in connection with the disposal of their produce, apart from the present financial sources and institutions, during the period that their crops were growing. The establishment of a Commonwealth Board of Trade would also render great service to the producers. He was glad to be able to report, also, that The Westralian Farmers, Limited, had taken a hand in organising the milk producers. To date 210 subscribers had taken up 6,045 shares and the dairying companies operating in the State would also become shareholders. The extension of facilities by the company to assist farmers in disposing of their wheat either by the warehousing scheme or through the Co-operative Pool, were being greatly appreciated and availed of. He was glad that the directors had decided to assist agriculture by endowing a research chair at the Agricultural College, and felt sure that the shareholders would confirm their action. He concluded with a reference to the arduous labours of the secretary of the company (Mr. Arnott) during the illness of Mr. Murray, in addition to his own work as the legal secretary. The new general manager (Mr. John Thomson) briefly thanked the directors for their kindly references to himself, and also alluded to the great loss sustained in the death of Mr. Murray. He was determined that the company should reader the best of service with regard to all lines handled by them, and every attention would be given to improving and securing the best means of disposing of the farmers' products. Special attention would be given towards providing finance for the co-operative movement, and if they could secure advances at a less rate of interest it would be a great help. He was hopeful to be of material assistance to farmers in this direction at an early date. There was to be an important conference in Canada in December in connection with the disposal of wheat in London, and Mr. Gough, the London manager, would, if possible attend the gathering on behalf of the co-operative movement. The wireless installation had been of incalculable value to the farmers of the State in that they were able to receive regular and reliable market reports by this modern method. Mr. Thomson concluded by instancing several new features of administration which he considered would be of great value to the farming community and co-operators generally. At the instance of Mr. Hayward, of Shackleton, the company stood in silence while a motion relative to the great work performed by the late Mr. Basil Murray was adopted.[162]

Brief biography of Wally Coxon as Wireless Manager, 6WF

6WF'S WIRELESS MANAGER. MR. W. E. COXON. Mr. W. E. Coxon is one of our leading W.A. radio experimenters, and he has become very widely known throughout wireless circles in Australia. He has been delving into wireless for quite a long time, and was an enthusiastic experimenter away back in coherer days and crashing rotary gaps. During the war this amateur was abroad on Admiralty research wireless work, and on his return to W.A. he became our first broadcaster and operated under the call sign of 6AG. Transmissions from this station were of exceptional clarity and excellent volume. Much experimental work has also been carried out, and short wave signals from 6AG have been heard in South Africa and New Zealand. (Start Photo Caption) MR. W. E. COXON Manager Wireless Department Westralian Farmers Limited.(End Photo Caption) Mr. Coxon is still a comparatively young man, and bids well to progress far into the science of wireless. He is at present in charge of 6WF, and his handling of the plant during installation and subsequently leaves nothing to be desired. Some years ago he was the recipient of a unique testimonial by the Westralian amateurs, a tribute to the universal esteem in which he was held by amateur and trader alike. Mr. Coxon's hobby is home-life first, and then possibly short wave wireless experimenting.[163]

6WF staff build a portable 500 watt shortwave transmitter for outside broadcasts

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . A surprise is promised us shortly by 6WF. We viewed the other day a 500 watt short wave portable transmitting set which is being built by the station staff. It is contemplated using this for relayed transmission right from the scene of action. 6WF and its versatile staff is keeping well abreast of things all right.[164]

As previous, much more detail

SHORT WAVE TRANSMITTER. FOR USE AS RELAY. NEW DEPARTURE OF 6WF. In preparation for the out-of-doors entertainments to be given during the coming summer, broadcasting station 6WF has made a new departure. Instead of running landlines to the regular places of entertainment, such as gardens, etc., they have fitted a short wave transmitter on to a motor car and where they have not already a landline in existence, the transmitter will broadcast on a short wave. This will be picked up and (because of regulations preventing the reception at 6WF) be relayed to 6WF, where the entertainment will be rebroadcast on the 1,250 metre wavelength. Interviewed on the subject, the station director, Mr. W. E. Coxon, said that with this development it will be possible in the near future to broadcast football, cricket, and other sporting events as they are being conducted, without the necessity of having a landline. At the present time, when a landline was put in, a three years' agreement had to be entered into with the Post Master General's department. In some cases it had been found that this landline was but seldom used, and was from an economic standpoint unsatisfactory. With the short wave transmitter, it would be possible to go from place to place at will. Thus the listeners-in throughout West Australia would be provided with even more varied programmes than had been given them in the past. What the actual shortwave length will be is not yet fixed, as it will be necessary to miss the various "harmonics" which emanate from 6WF on the higher wavelength. It is expected, however, that the wavelength of the transmitter will be in the vicinity of 100 metres and that the apparatus will be ready for use before Christmas.[165]

1925 11Edit

Inquiry to The West Australian results in full details of the 6WF antenna

ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES. . . . "L.O.M.," North Perth, would like to know particulars, if available, of the aerial system of station 6WF. Answer: The aerial is a 4-wire cage inverted "L" type, erected on two steel tube masts 90ft. high, and 160ft. apart. The masts are 6in. in diameter at the bottom, tapering to 4in. at the top. The hoops in the aerial are of copper and approximately 70in. in diameter. The lead-in is also of the cage type on one foot ring spreaders. The counterpoise of this station is of 8 wires, spaced about 6ft. apart and running the full length of the building, about 200ft. The counterpoise is placed some feet above the iron roof of the building, while both the aerial and counterpoise are connected to 2 copper rods which lead through two large cone-shaped insulators and then to the aerial coil in the transmitting room. The aerial-earth connection is made by a large switch installed in the transmitting room.[166]

1925 12Edit

Coxon preparing 6WF to rebroadcast the KDKA shortwave transmissions

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . A Power Amplifier Giving High Quality Reproduction. Given good conditions, W.A. amateurs should have a chance of hearing KDKA during their transmission to Australia within the course of a fortnight. It is proposed by Mr. Coxon if he is successful in receiving KDKA's broadcast with a fair degree of strength to relay it on to 6WF, from whence it will be re-broadcast with their 5 kilowatts. This relayed programme if successful will have the honor of being accorded one of the outstanding events in radio transmission of telephony.[167]

1926Edit

1926 01Edit

Coxon heads north to determine reception quality on shortwave from his amateur transmitter

SHORT WAVE EXPERIMENT. TRIP TO THE NORTH-WEST. 6AG UNDERTAKES BIG TASK. COMBATING TROPICAL CONDITIONS. The doyen of wireless experimenters in this State, 6AG (Mr. W. E. Coxon), shortly leaves to undertake a big experiment, the result of which will be watched with interest not only by metropolitan amateurs, but by the whole of the broadcast listeners throughout the State, and particularly in the North. In a discussion with the writer a few days ago, 6AG made it clear that the experiment is essentially an amateur affair, and has no connection with his status as station manager at broadcasting station 6WF. This statement is given for the benefit of readers, although it is not difficult to imagine that if the experiment which 6AG has in mind is successful it may have a certain influence on decisions of the broadcasting station. The North-West and the Far North of this State have few wireless sets installed, although there is nothing which under existing circumstances would so remedy that feeling of detachment, as being able to be in daily touch with the metropolis. Living in the tropics has its disadvantages, for static storms are of comparatively frequent occurrence, and wireless reception is only carried on with the utmost difficulty. Mr. Coxon during recent weeks has been able to spend a fair number of hours late at night at his experimental station, and has worked many amateurs in many parts of the world. One of the most interesting letters in this regard which he has had recently has been from an amateur experimenter at Yuna, north of Geraldton, in this State. This amateur has sets capable of reception on the broadcasting wave lengths, and also on the amateur band (35 to 100 metres). Following a recent transmission by Mr. Coxon on 37 metres, a letter was received from Yuna, in which the following statements were made:— "You come in here at three times the strength of 6WF, with no noticeable static." Naturally, with such a good report, Mr. Coxon is anxious to ascertain the possibilities of shortwave working for transmissions of speech and music. With that end in view he purposes leaving within a week or two on a trip by motor car. How far north he will go is as yet uncertain, but plans are being mapped out whereby he will be able to test at a distance of between 700 and 800 miles from Perth. Arrangements have been made with a friend to operate his station three times a day on short waves, and as the experimental party proceeds northward receptions will be made, and all data carefully recorded. All experimenters will extend their best wishes to 6AG, and hope that his trip will be the success that he himself expects it to be. Mr. Coxon should have some interesting comments to make upon his return.[168]

1926 02Edit

6WF frequency drifting due to equipment issues; tests in parallel to 6WF being conducted on 40 metres using Coxon's amateur station; issues with a modulator valve cause 6WF to go off air for 30 minutes; 6WF share of licence fees unfavourably compared to other Class A stations

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . Suspected of late that the Farmers' wave length has varied a few metres, as a fixed tuning arrangement used for tuning in this station has had to have a little less condenser in circuit to bring about resonance. This is the first occasion on which a variation has been noticed, so presumably, a few minor adjustments have been made. . . . 6WF has been carrying out tests lately with a relayed transmission of the station programme on a wave length of 40 metres. This short wave broadcast was transmitted from Mr. W. E. Coxon's experimental station (6AG), and already successful reception has been reported from as far afield as Colombo. Reports on the reception of these experimental transmissions will be welcomed by the station manager. . . . The half-hour stop in 6WF's programme, which occurred during the early part of the week, was occasioned by one of the modulator valves going soft, this being an item which is bound to occur occasionally when high powers are used. It is due in some measure to the difficulty in obtaining transmitting valves which have a uniform degree of hardness. When a number are used in parallel, as is the case at 6WF, a defaulter throws the load on to the remainder and care has to be exercised to prevent one or more of the anodes melting. Such cases have taken place, and 6WF has an unique exhibit of a melted 250-watter which collapsed whilst working in the oscillator units. . . . 2BL, a Sydney B class station, received £22,941 11s. 8d. revenue during 13 months, whilst 6WF, which is an A class station, and using a more expensive plant and four times the power of 2BL, only received £7673 for the same period. When a B class station accrues to itself thrice the revenue gained by an A class station it seems high time some method of pooling the revenue on a more equitable basis was adopted. Sydney's A class station 2FC received £53,530 7s. 9d., whilst 3LO, Melbourne, obtained £31,078 2s. 4d. in a like period. This is is another example of W.A.'s disabilities, and one that calls for a little remedying somewhere.[169]

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1928 01Edit

Gibson calls a halt to new construction in response to necessary economies in the Great Depression

NEW POSTAL BUILDINGS. A Halt Called. CANBERRA, Jan. 11.— Modifications in the Postal Department's programme of the new works are to be made in consequence of the Federal Ministry's policy of economy. The Postmaster-General (Mr. Gibson) said to-day that the only way that further economies could be effected in his department was by curtailing the erection of new buildings. The amount of £600,800 had been placed on the Estimates for new postal buildings but, in view of the necessity for economy, no new buildings would be proceeded with other than those for which tenders had been accepted.[170]

As previous

POSTAL WORKS. A PROGRAMME REVISED. May Affect Automatic Telephones. It is possible that the decision of the Federal Ministry to reduce expenditure of loan money in the present financial year as much as possible will affect seriously the development of programme arranged by the Postal department. It has been stated that the department intends to omit the construction of a number of new buildings from its activities for the year, and the suggestion was made yesterday that the conversion of the metropolitan telephone exchanges from the manual to the automatic system might be delayed. The acting director of Postal services (Mr. Haldane) said yesterday that only essential works would be undertaken. The business of the department had been affected by the general financial depression, and there had not been the great demand for new services that had been expected. No decision had yet been reached on the question of postponing the construction of automatic telephone exchanges, but it was possible that they might be affected. The whole position would be reviewed before the end of the financial year, so that estimates for next year could be compiled accurately. Reports of the dismissal of telephone officers had been exaggerated. Of the 180 telephonists in Sydney who had become superfluous at the change over to the automatic system, 30 had already been absorbed, and it was expected to find positions for more. In Melbourne about 20 officers had been affected and efforts would be made to absorb them elsewhere.[171]

Perth Sunday Times commentator asserts that 6WF will probably not leave longwave

PROPOSED WAVE LENGTH ALTERATIONS. As a result of the Washington Wireless Conference, which was international in character, various recommendations were made regarding the allocation of wave lengths for broadcasting services. The recommendations will have to be given effect to by the various Governments, who were represented, but as far as Australia is concerned, there is every probability that little alteration will be necessary. The present range, it is understood, will be decreased to embrace 200 metres, and which is about as low a wave in that particular band, that any high powered station can successfully employ. It is significant that various long wave stations in Europe have been disbanded, and the restriction of the 1000 metre was probably a recommendation. It is learned that nothing official has been heard regarding alteration to 6WF's present 1250 metre wave, owing to the suitability of this wave length for local conditions it is quite probable that no alteration is contemplated, as a clause in the agreement states:— "The administrations of the contracting countries may assign any frequency or any type of wave to any radio station within their jurisdiction upon the sole condition that it will result in no interference with any service of another country."[172]

Gibson threatens licence cancellation unless the Class A stations extend services and co-ordinate

BROADCASTING SERVICES. Improvements Promised. MELBOURNE, Jan. 25.— The Postmaster-General (Mr. Gibson) said today that action would probably be taken by his department shortly to bring about improvements in the broadcasting services. One of the recommendations in the report of the Royal Commission on wireless was that the broadcasting companies should be induced to co-operate in an effort to improve their services and programmes, said Mr. Gibson, but so far as his department was aware little had yet been done in this direction. His department now intended to go into the matter and a suggestion had been made that if action was not taken by the companies some licenses might be cancelled. The position was made somewhat difficult by the fact that some of the smaller broadcasting companies had been operating at little or no profit. One of the objects which his department had in mind was the elimination of all unnecessary duplication of services, and he thought that about £30,000 could be saved if a proper system of co-ordination was adopted. If this could be done it would probably put some of the less payable stations on a better working basis. For the year ended June 30, 1927, wireless fees paid throughout the Commonwealth amounted to £307,117, and for the remaining six months in last year the sum of £201,000 was received — that was when the amount for a listener's licence was 27/6. Under the new scale this amount had been reduced to 24/ of which Amalgamated Wireless (Australia), Ltd., received 3/, the Postmaster-General's Department, 1/, while 1/6 was paid for copyrights. This left 18/6 to go into the fund for distribution among the broadcasting companies. "The question of improving services and erecting stations to serve country districts has been left to the companies to consider and to make suggestions," added Mr. Gibson. "Nothing has been suggested so far, and action is being contemplated by my department to bring about improvements as recommended by the Royal Commission."[173]

Use of the 6WF shortwave transmitter necessitates provision of additional screening to the nearby small studio

6W.F.'S SMALL STUDIO. Screened in Zinc. Alterations are in progress in 6WF's small studio, from which usually the news and markets are broadcast. The room, which has ordinary plaster-board lining, together with drapings for deadening effect, is only a short distance away from where the 100-metre transmitter is fixed. During recent experiments it has been found that the transmissions on the highfrequency has been affecting the microphone in the small studio, and therefore it was decided that screening should be provided. To that end builders are now engaged in lining the studio with zinc.[174]

1928 02Edit

A 6WF listener receiving interference from the 6WF shortwave transmissions asks whether they are for broadcast or experimental purposes, journalist pointedly fails to address that part of the question.

ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES.. . . . "Doublegee," Midland Junction, writing with reference to interference from station 6WF 104.5 metre transmissions on Eastern States reception, wishes to know if these short wave transmissions are given for the benefit of country subscribers or for experimental purposes. Answer: Although somewhat severe in your censure of the shortwave transmissions from station 6WF, I think you can overcome the apparent difficulty by including a vernier on your tuning condenser, or, better still, using a slow-motion dial. A wavetrap in series with the set would also cut out any interference, and can be made by winding a solenoid coil with 100 turns of No. 22 d.c.c. wire, taking taps to the 10th turn tap should be connected to the The starting end of the coil, i.e., that nearest to the 10th turn tap should be connected to the fixed plates of a .0005 mfd. variable condenser, the other end of the coil being connected up to the moving vanes. A flex lead from the wavetrap "aerial" terminal, fitted with a spring clip, operates the trap. A lead from the starting end of the coil should go to a terminal on the panel of the trap, which in turn is linked up with the aerial terminal on the original set. [175]

6WF attempts to assist with emergency communications after Kalgoorlie telegraph lines downed by cyclone

WIRELESS TRIED. Through the courtesy of Mr. J. E. I. Cairns, of the Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, and a member of the Wireless Institute, efforts were made to communicate with Kalgoorlie by wireless, when the telegraph lines were down, but without success. Mr. Selwood Austin, of Sussex-street, Victoria Park, one of the few amateurs in Western Australia, with a receiving and transmitting set — 6SA. — endeavoured to raise Mr. J. Vincent, a Kalgoorlie amateur, on an 80-metre wavelength. A message was broadcast from 6WF., in the hope that Mr. Vincent, who also owns a receiving and transmitting set, would pick it up, and get in touch with 6 S.A. Arrangements were made for Mr. Austin to telephone the "West Australian" Office if his efforts were successful, but no message was received — probably because Mr. Vincent's aerial was destroyed by the cyclone.[176]

1928 03Edit

3LO spending £420 a week on programs compared to £43 a week for 6WF

£111,000 Profit for 3LO. Figures made available by the P.M.G. Department show the capital and amounts paid to subscribers in the various "A" Class broadcast stations throughout Australia. A remarkable profit has been made by 3LO, Melbourne, which on a paid up capital of £6,250 to date has paid shareholders sums aggregating £111,000. 2FC, Sydney, has made profits totalling £11,375, 3AR, Melbourne, £5,630, and 7ZL Hobart £4,000. The financial standing of our West's station, 6WF, is unknown, but the actual amounts paid for the average weekly programmes by some of the companies is interesting: 3LO, £420 a week; 2FC, £225 a week; 3AR, £50 a week; 6WF, £43 a week; 7ZL, £7 a week.[177]

Thomson makes clear that Westralian Farmers ready to relinquish its involvement in the broadcasting field

TRANSFER OF 6WF. EASTERN FIRM NEGOTIATING. STATION ALMOST SOLD. A letter of acceptance of certain modification in the terms is all that stands between the present control of broadcasting station 6WF and its control by organisations in the Eastern States which have recently consolidated their interests. This was the announcement made by Mr. J. Thomson, managing director of Westralian Farmers Ltd., in an interview this morning. He stated that negotiations which had been going on for some time had now reached the stage when a letter of acceptance of a minor point in the negotiations will close the deal. SATISFACTORY SERVICE. Recently the Postmaster-General (Mr. Gibson) indicated to all "A" class broadcasting stations that they would have to come to some arrangement which would provide a more satisfactory service and at the same time recompense the smaller stations. As a result of that announcement negotiations have been going on between "A" class stations with a view of finding some practical method of putting into effect the P.M.G.'s wishes. "So far as Western Australia is concerned," said Mr. Thomson, "we have indicated our willingness to vacate the field of broadcasting, provided whoever agrees to carry on the work will do so in such a manner that our farmer friends, and those who have invested in expensive sets will not be let down. "Being so far away from the centre of negotiations it is extremely difficult for us to keep in touch, and we have had more or less to leave it to the Eastern States stations to formulate a plan. This we understand has been done and we have made an offer which we believe will be acceptable, and which will mean that to all intents and purposes we are no longer interested in broadcasting." Mr. Thomson declined to indicate the terms on which the transfer is exacted to take place, but stated that certain statements which had appeared in Eastern States papers were not correct so far as the Perth station is concerned. 3LO's INTERESTS. Those concerned with wireless matters in this State are aware that several amalgamations between broadcasting interests have taken place in the other States, in pursuance of the P.M.G.'s instruction, and it is understood that interests with which station 3LO is connected are behind the present development. As is generally known prominent shareholders in station 3LO are J. C. Williamson and Co., "Herald" Newspaper, and Buckley and Nunn. It has been stated that the proposal was that the Westralian Farmers should accept 8000 shares in the new amalgamation for the disposal of their interests, but that they should have no seat on the new directorate, while the "A" class station in Adelaide should have about twice that number of shares allotted it together with a seat on the controlling board. STRAIGHTOUT TRANSFER. It is learned, however, that such is not the case so far as the Perth station is concerned, and from what can be gleaned the chances are that the transfer will be without encumbrances. Station 6WF since its inauguration over three years ago, has had a difficult row to hoe, for after the first flush of novelty wore off licences have gradually reduced until now their number is in the 3000 region. No doubt if the change comes about, there will be many changes of personnel in an endeavor to put the station on a sound financial basis. Because of the high cost of establishing a station of the size of 6WF it may be fairly safe to hazard that should the final seal be put on the agreement that some arrangement will be made where by the present site can be utilised for at least a given period. LOWER WAVELENGTH. The high wavelength (1250 metres) which station 6WF has been using since it came on the air has been the subject of much comment among certain sections in this and the Eastern States. The Sydney station 2FC operated by Farmers Ltd., was originally on the high waveband, but about two years ago came down into the 200-400 metre band where most of the Eastern States stations are to be found. It was claimed for the local station that the use of higher wavelength enabled the station to overcome much of the static interference and was therefore of more value to the farmers who are living scattered over a wide area as compared with the residents of the other States. Although nothing is known officially here, people interested in wireless who have returned from the Eastern States during the last fortnight have been convinced in their own minds, from what they have heard in authoritative circles there, that the wavelength of the local station will shortly be reduced to somewhere around 400 metres. Until such time, however, as an official statement is made further comment is unnecessary, except to say that to bring the station into the generally accepted broadcast band will be to open the way for the importation of cheap sets of Australian and American construction and thus make wireless more attractive by reason of its cheapness. Those listeners who are operating sets with fixed coils will of necessity have to have them reconditioned to accommodate the new wavelength. The developments of the next few days will be awaited with interest.[178]

Melbourne Argus announces that arrangements almost complete for merging of 6WF and 7ZL with Melbourne & Sydney stations

BROADCASTING MERGER. 3LO Absorbing 6WF and 7ZL. Since the inception of broadcasting services throughout the Commonwealth, privately owned stations in New South Wales and Victoria have shown a profit on their business, but in all other States there have been losses which have seriously affected the quality of the services. Some time ago it was suggested that several companies should amalgamate to provide a service in all States which would give the public full value for their licence fees and the Postmaster-General (Mr. Gibson) announced yesterday that arrangements were almost complete for the merging of the companies operating the main stations in Perth (6WF) and Hobart (7ZL) with the companies which were successfully operating 3LO Melbourne and 2FC Sydney. The losses in the other States would thereby be made good in the two states in which the majority of Australian licences were held.[179]

Mann (Nat. Ind., W.A.) states in House of Representatives that 6WF being squeezed out by Victorian interests

BROADCASTING. Government Control Wanted. CANBERRA, March 16.— Government control of broadcasting in Australia was urged by Mr. Fenton (Lab. V.), who, when the House of Representatives met this morning, moved the adjournment in order to discuss "the movement of large broadcasting companies in Australia towards the establishment of monopolies and the consequent injury to the people of Australia if such a monopoly is established." Mr. Fenton said that if the large broadcasting companies in Sydney and Melbourne could carry on broadcasting and make large profits it was time that the Ministry considered whether it would be wise to take over the services. He understood that the two "A" class stations in Sydney had pooled their interests and that stations 3AR and 3LO, Melbourne, were conducting certain negotiations. There was also, he understood, a friendliness between 3LO and Farmers, Ltd., in Sydney. If such an amalgamation took place it would be one of the largest monopolies in Australia. Central Broadcasters, Ltd. Adelaide, had sent a circular to all members of Parliament asking them to prevent, if possible, the establishment of a great monopoly and suggesting that Government control would be preferable. The Postmaster-General (Mr. Gibson) said that in taking over the control of broadcasting the Government would be faced with great difficulties. Although the large companies had made profits it would be necessary for them to spend large sums in the erection of relaying stations, according to the terms of the wireless agreement, for the benefit of the more distant parts of Australia. Before long it would be possible to relay one programme from one station all over the Commonwealth. It might just as well be suggested that the Government should take over the control of the theatres. By the close co-operation of all the companies the best results would be achieved. Mr. Brennan (Lab. V.) said that while there was competition there was also incentive to produce a higher class programme. Because vested interests were developing broadcasting it appeared that the State was to be excluded permanently from this field. Mr. Mann (Nat. Ind., W.A.), said that it was only by a hit and miss system that the best method of control could be determined. Cognisance should be taken of the trials and failures of other countries. He hoped the Government would go slowly along the line on which it was travelling. The broadcasting company in Western Australia had been working under extreme difficulties because it was unable to obtain instructive and high class entertainment as the better class artists were controlled by other interests. The result was that the West Australian broadcasting company was being compelled to merge with those interests that were starving it out. The motion was negatived.[180]

As previous

TRANSFER OF 6WF. What is Next? The news of the week in wireless circles has been the negotiations between 6WF and Eastern States stations for the taking over of the local broadcasting station. Those with their "ears to the ground" of course, have heard rumours of a reported business overture and were prepared for any announcement that might come along. The move, however, is not surprising. When the Royal Commission on wireless visited this State last year figures tendered to it by 6WF disclosed with that station finance was becoming increasingly more desperate. Of course, with a grant of £5000 out of the collective fund, the rot might be stopped, but evidently the directorate of the Westralian Farmers Ltd., has been prepared to cut the loss, so long as their farmer friends will not suffer in the matter of market news and other matters which mean so much to the agriculturalist who is not otherwise in touch with city affairs. Although for sentimental reasons, one will regret seeing the station pass into other hands, nevertheless if the change is effective in producing greater interest in wireless throughout this State, it will be universally welcomed. There is no genuine reason why wireless should not be as popular here as in any of the other far-flung and sparsely populated states and with an organisation such as 3LO behind it, able to draw upon "J.C.W." talent at will. The next point of interest will be to learn when the new station (if negotiations are satisfactorily finalised) will take over. As the financial year of the present station is about June will arrangements be made to make the transfer then? Interest, too, is also centred on whether the station will have its wave length reduced. Following upon the recent decision of the World Radio Convention in America, it is anticipated that the Commonwealth will quickly fall into line with the decisions arrived at there. The future of wireless in this State is full of interest.[181]

1928 04Edit

Perth Sunday Times states still no outcome of merger negotiations; supports continuance of longwave

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . Broadcasting Fusion. No official intimation has yet been given regarding the disposal of 6WF to Eastern States interests, but rumor says it is most likely to eventuate. If the Westralian Farmers decide to delete broadcasting from their activities, there will be many regrets, and being retrospective, it must be admitted the service they have given, in the face of many difficulties, has been an excellent one. The programme quality has been often criticised and we might say, so has 3LO's, and also those of the British Broadcasting stations. Any stagnation with wireless in W.A. has not been due to 6WF but simply to the fact that a solo station does not, and cannot, make an appeal to popular tastes. Where such a diversity of opinion is prevalent Eastern States broadcasting, or, as a matter of fact, broadcasting in any part of the world where a variety of stations exist, has simply become popular through the variety of entertainment offered, and the advantage of switching over to another if the programme from one does not please. Could one, for a moment, imagine a listening-in audience of over three millions in England if only 2LO London existed? Yet, 6WF has to cater for an area much vaster than is served by England's 200 broadcasters. As variety is the spice of life, so it is the very life of broadcasting and until Western Australia has two or three stations, despite the controlling interests, we are firmly of the opinion local broadcasting will not, in any way, advance to the popularity which it should be enjoying. . . . 6WF's Wave Length. In the event of new interests controlling 6WF, there is certain to be speculation regarding any change in 6WF's wave length. At present this is the only broadcaster in practically the whole of the Southern Hemisphere which uses a wave of over 1000 metres. Nevertheless, past experience has shown that the 1250-metre wave is singularly adapted to Western Australian conditions, and the prime necessity for a good daylight range, which is not obtainable with the medium wave band. Admittedly the 300-400 band shows a marked superiority with night-time reception, but this is greatly offset with its fickleness in fading, especially at long distances. The choice and retention of the 1250-metre wave was in the nature of a compromise, and we think, it has so satisfactorily fulfilled its part as to merit its continuance.[182]

6WF transfer still not finalised

TRANSFER OF 6WF. Papers Await Signature. Mr. J. Thomson, manager of Westralian Farmers Ltd., returned to Perth by this morning's transcontinental express. In the course of a brief chat on the platform he said that just before he left Melbourne he had been informed that the documents in connection with the disposal of broadcasting station 6WF were ready for signature. Unfortunately, however, he had not been able to call around at the office of 3LO, and had left the matter in the hands of Mr. Harper, who was remaining a little longer in Melbourne. Mr. Thomson's visit had primarily to do with a conference concerning the co-operative movement.[183]

3LO director Conder rumoured to be visiting Perth to assess situation with 6WF

Broadcast Listener. (By "Chris T. L.") TRANSFER OF 6WF. 3LO Director Coming Although nothing definite has been announced, it is believed that the transfer of Station 6WF has been formally completed, and that the new owners will take over at an early date. 3LO have long been known for the general excellence of their programmes, and wireless folk in this State are looking with interest to the change-over. The recent relaying of "The Student Prince" — a "J.C.W." production — gave some idea of what listeners here may expect. According to private advices from Melbourne, one of the directors of 3LO will be visiting Perth in a week or two for the purpose of making a business survey of the position before commencing a reorganisation. Advices indicate that the visitor will be Major Condor, managing director of 3L.O., who is reputed to have an uncanny ability for putting his finger on the weak spots and for general organising.[184]

1928 05Edit

6WF not to be sold rather 3LO to "control" the station

BROADCASTING MERGER. Melbourne and Perth Stations. Following the agreement made between the Melbourne broadcasting stations 3LO and 3AR, whereby their services will be coordinated it was announced last night that a partial merging of interests has been arranged between 3LO and the Perth station 6WF. 3LO has not purchased the Perth station but a working agreement has been made whereby 3LO will largely control the service. It is expected that this agreement will result in a much improved broadcasting service in Perth. It is under-stood that negotiations for a further linking of interstate broadcasting interests are proceeding and as a result it is likely that close co-operation will be established be-tween nearly all the main stations in the Commonwealth, thus bringing broadcasting in Australia to nearly the same position it was in Great Britain when the British Broadcasting Company controlled the services. The service provided by the co-ordinating stations of the British Broadcasting Company was regarded as the finest in the world.[185]

3LO control of 6WF merely a "co-ordination" agreement

HITCH IN LINKING-UP OF RADIO STATIONS. Adelaide Stands Out. A hitch has occurred in the scheme set in motion by the Federal Government for the co-ordination of A class wireless services throughout Australia. Central Broadcasters, Adelaide (5CL) telegraphed to The Herald today stating that reports of negotiations with 5CL were incorrect. "Last Saturday," said the telegram, "the P.M.G. endeavored to arrange a conference between New South Wales, Victoria and South Australian broadcasting stations, but Victoria refused to participate." "PROPOSAL UNSATISFACTORY" The chairman of directors of 3LO (Sir George Tallis) and the manager (Major Condor) explained today that the amalgamation of interests was merely between the two Victorian stations 3LO and 3AR. Major Condor explained that a representative of the Adelaide company had been in Melbourne, but the proposition put by him to 3LO for a merging of interests was totally unsatisfactory to the new Victorian company. At present no scheme was being considered for a working agreement with 5CL. "The pooling of interest between 3LO and 3AR was carried out with the objective of co-ordination in broadcasting and the prevention of overlapping of programmes," said Major Condor. "The new company which will control broadcasting in Victoria, is to be known as the Dominion Broadcasting Co. "Arrangements have been practically completed for a working agreement with the Tasmanian station 7ZL and the West Australian station 6WF. These will both be under the control of the new Victorian company. QUEENSLAND WILLING. "The Director of Queensland Radio Services (Mr J. W. Robinson) was in Melbourne last week, and stated that the Queensland Government was willing to consider any scheme for co-ordination with other stations for the benefit of service and programmes. "It is hoped that very shortly there will be a definite working agreement between Victoria and New South Wales."[186]

Still no finality to 3LO-6WF agreement

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL . . . Control of 6WF. Although no official intimation has been given it is generally believed the transfer of 6WF to the new controlling interests will take place at an early date. 3LO has established for itself a foremost place in Australian broadcasting, and the management have a reputation for providing the right type of programme. Nevertheless we firmly believe broadcasting in West Australia has long merited an alternative station, and such a provision would make a material difference to the popularity of local broadcasting. One must admit that the programme quality from 6WF has at times not been above criticism. However the general all round performance has been extremely good, and any successor will find it a hard job to improve upon, unless the alternative is given the listening-in public of tuning in another programme with the same ease that exists for 6WF.[187]

As previous

BROADCASTING MERGER. One Big Company. MELBOURNE, May 6.— Following the announcement that the broadcasting stations 3LO and 3AR had decided to merge, it is expected that action will he taken early this week to create the combined company. The present shareholders of 3LO and 3AR will hold shares in the new company, approximately in the same pro-portion, as the two stations now share in the revenue obtained from the sale of licences. Nearly every class of broadcasting company is attempting to establish working agreements with the stations in the other States. This movement may result shortly in the formation of one large company, which will control the broadcasting services in every State of the Commonwealth, with the possible exception of Queensland. Experts here regard a move of this kind as essential to the development of broadcasting in the smaller States. A working agreement has already been made between 3LO and 6WF, in Perth, and efforts are being made to effect a merger between 3LO and 5CL.[188]

The licensees of 3LO & 3AR come under the Dominion Broadcasting Company; Australian Government stands back

TWO COMPANIES MERGED. Negotiations in This State. MELBOURNE, Monday. Following the decision of the Broadcasting Company of Australia, Proprietary, Limited, and the Associated Radio Company, Limited, which controlled respectively, the Melbourne broadcasting stations 3LO and 3AR, to merge their business and to combine into one company, a meeting was held today to elect directors of the new company, which will be known as the Dominion Broadcasting Company. The directors chosen were:— Sir George Tallis, Mr. John Tait, Mr. George Wright, Mr. Kiernan, M.L.C., and Mr. R. F. Gardiner. Sir George Tallis, Mr. Tait, and Mr. Wright will represent the interests of 3LO in the new company, while Mr. Kiernan and Mr. Gardiner will represent those of 3AR. It is understood that the Dominion Broadcasting Company will hold interests in Sydney broadcasting services, and under a working agreement it will also direct the service from the Perth broadcasting station 6WF. It is possible that agreements will be made shortly whereby the new company will also gain interests in broadcasting services in South Australia and Tasmania. If that occurs the one company will then exercise at least partial control over services in every State but Queensland, and a substantial measure of co-ordination between the interstate services will be arranged. The directors of the new company will hold their first meeting tomorrow. "INTERESTS OF THE PUBLIC." SYDNEY, Monday. Referring tonight to the announcement by the Postmaster-General (Mr. Gibson) that the Ministry was endeavouring to bring about a united control of wireless broadcasting in Australia, the Prime Minister (Mr. Bruce) said that the Ministry did not propose to take any part in the management of wireless broadcasting stations. It determined the conditions upon which licences were issued to the broadcasting companies, and would see that the interests of the public were safeguarded.[189]

1928 06Edit

Company Mergers. TERMS OF AMALGAMATION. The memorandum and articles of association of the New South Wales Broadcasting Com-pany, Limited, as filed with the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies, show that whilst the company is to control the broadcasting stations of 2FC and 2BL, the separate inter-ests of the shareholders of both companies, as at the time of amalgamation, are to be maintained. The nominal capital of the company is fixed at £100,000, and the memorandum provides that "any part of the capital may be issued as fully or partly paid up." The articles in-dicate that the control of the shares shall remain absolutely with the directors, three of whom represent 2FC and three 2BL. Mr. George Wright, of 2FC, is appointed under the articles of association as chairman for two years, but the articles provide that he shall not have a casting vote as chairman of any meeting of directors. In the event of an equality of votes on any matter before the board the articles provide that "the ques-tion shall be referred to the decision of the president for the time being of the Chamber of Commerce, Sydney, whose decision shall be binding as the decision of the board." Of the 100,000 shares of £1 each, 60,000 are allocated as "Group A," and these are be-ing held by the interests which controlled 2FC at the time of amalgamation, and 40,000 are "Group B" shares, allocated to 2BL inter-ests. A provision in the articles is "that the funds of the company shall not be em-ployed in the purchase of its shares." No transfer of any of the shares in the company can be made without the consent of the direc-tors. In the event of the death or insol-vency of the holder of shares the board re-serves the right to say to whom the shares shall be transferred. A clause states that "the directors may decline to register any transfer of shares without being bound to give any reason for so declining." In the case of certain shares in "Group A" it is provided that "no transfer shall be made except to a company which is the representative, or successor, of 2FC, Limited, or some trustee for such company." A similar proviso is made regarding certain ordinary shares in "Group B," preserving the rlghts of Broadcasters (Sydney), Limited, its successor or trustee. A peculiar provision in clause 62 of the articles is that "in case of a poll every member holding Group A ordinary shares shall have two votes for every group A share held by him, and every member holding group B ordinary shares shall have three votes for every group B share held by him." The arrangement for the appointment of directors is such as to secure the separate entity of the interests of the two stations. The holders of the majority of "Group A" shares have the right to appoint three direc-tors, and a similar right is secured for the majority of holders of "Group B" shares. The remuneration payable by the company to its directors annually is £600 for the chairman, and £400 for each of the other directors. The directors are given the right to trade and make contracts with the com-pany, and also to hold any office of profit to which they may be appointed under the com-pany's trading rights. Those rights are very extensive, and give the company permission to engage in all branches of the radio enter-tainment publishing and other businesses. No shareholder of the Company, or any member of the public, shall have the right to inspect any of the books or documents or balance-sheets of the company unless by order of the directors, unless such books or papers are required by statute to be open for inspection.[190]

Agreement between 6WF and 3LO of any kind reported to have fallen through

"B" STATION LICENCE. Another Applied For. People interested in wireless have heard a lot about the new stations, which are going to relieve the tedium in this State of listening to one station's programme, night after night, but nothing seems to have come of it. Application for a "B" class station was made some months ago by Mr. Faraday, of North Perth, but nothing further has been heard of this, although it has been reported that much of the material required is lying in bond in the Customs shed. If the delay is with the department in granting a formal licence then it is about time that that department — it is controlled from Melbourne — woke up and did something. If on the other hand Mr. Faraday has decided to go no further with the project the public would be interested to know. Hopes were raised that something would be done for wireless in this State when it was reported that 3LO had secured the control of the local "A" class station, but even this negotiation appears to have fallen through. It is learned that an application for a second "B" class station has recently been lodged for operation in this State, and it will be interesting to see what fate it meets with; whether the ardour of the promoters will wane should they be kept waiting in suspense concerning their licence, or whether the scheme comes to fruition. It is understood that principal interest in the proposal comes from South Australia and it will be interesting, to know whether Mr. A. L. Brown, late manager of 5CL, Adelaide, who arrived by the transcontinental train today, has any interest in the concern.[191]


BROADCASTING LICENSES. The Postmaster-General (Mr. Gibson), in the House of Representatives on Wednesday, in answer to Mr. Fenton, stated that the licenses now held by the different "A" class stations for the transmission of entertainment and news by radio would expire on the following dates:— 2FC (Sydney), on July 16, 1929; 2BL (Sydney), on July 21, 1929; 3LO (Melbourne), on July 21, 1929; 3AR (Melbourne) on August 7, 1929; 4QG (Brisbane), on January 29, 1930; 5CL (Adelaide) on January 13, 1930; 6WF (Perth), on July 21, 1929; and 7ZL (Hobart), on December 13, 1930. No renewal of licenses has been granted to any of the existing "A" or "B" broadcasting stations. There are seven "B" class stations licensed for the transmission of news, entertainment, and ad-vertisements, in New South Wales. The first license will expire on November 11, 1929, and the last (2GB) on May 15, 1931.Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content

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Coxon launches a lengthy criticism of 6WF under PMGD control

BROADCASTING FROM 6WF. Criticism of New System. Mr. W. E. Coxon writes:— "Sufficient time has elapsed since September last, when the Australian Broadcasting Company and the Postmaster-General's Department assumed the control of broadcasting in Western Australia, to arrive at some conclusion as to the advantage, or otherwise of some of the changes that have been made. From a broadcasting standpoint, Western Australia, of all States, is the most unfavourably situated. Its large area and small population — much of it lying in the tropics with consequent poor receiving conditions — and the long distances from the broadcasting stations in the Eastern States make conditions differ greatly from that of the other States. It is unfortunate that, when regulations governing wireless are made, Western Australia must accept them whether they are adaptable to this State or not, and, as far as wireless is concerned, very little, if any, consideration has been given this State in the past. It is certain that a much greater number of licences would now be in existence if the particular needs of Western Australia had been investigated during the first years of broadcasting. "It does not matter how excellent one single programme is, it will not create the interest that a variety of programmes will even if of lesser merit. For years the several applications for 'B' class licences from this State have received no encouragement from the Postmaster-General's Department, and, because of conditions that existed in the East, the holding up of all 'B' class licences had to apply to Western Australia, and yet this State was without a 'B' class station. This is evidence of ignorance of the wireless position in Western Australia. The approval of an application by Musgrove's, Limited, will certainly stimulate interest in radio in Western Australia, but it seems more than a coincidence that, following a change of Government, the licence should be granted . A reply to an application by that firm a few months ago practically amounted to a refusal to grant any 'B' class licences. The enterprise of a company in entering the field of broadcasting in Western Australia is, indeed, to be commended, and its efforts deserve every success. Let us hope also that any future applications from Western Australia for 'B' class licences will receive encouragement rather than what has been in the past — discouragement. "The change of wavelength of 6WF as made by the Postmaster-General's Department has proved a lamentable failure. The State's geographical position is such that a longwave broadcasting station is a necessity. It makes no difference to that position even if the Timbuctoo Broadcasting Company provided the programmes, and this fact seems to have been lost sight of by those that inaugurated the 'new era.' The most reliable stations in Europe from a service point of view are those that are broadcasting on a long wavelength, and the conditions make it even more necessary here. Remedy with Department. "Where a service is maintained by a licence fee it should be the aim of the authorities to provide that service. In Western Australia at present it is not being done. The remedy lies within the power of the Postmaster-General's Department only. The Australian Broadcasting Company, provide the programmes, and the transmission to the distant parts of the State is an obligation of the department. The present wavelength of 6WF is useless in daylight on the average set in the country over 150 miles from Perth, and on the most expensive of receivers in the majority of cases poor volume is obtained over 250 miles distance. The night reception is so marred by fading between 30 and 200 miles that what is gained in strength and freeness from atmospherics does not compensate for the troubles of fading. The proof of the unsuitability of the present wavelength for country listeners is clearly shown by the large number of cancellations of licences. "In the metropolitan area the locating of the 435 metre wavelength right in the centre of the Eastern States stations has caused the blotting out of those stations' programmes and will, particularly during the coming winter, when reception of distant programmes is good, cause such interference that it will seriously retard progress. The ability to tune to alternative programmes from the Eastern States stations has been instrumental in keeping many a listener interested. Now the position is that if the local programme is not to one's liking the alternative is to switch off altogether. If a wavelength had been arrived at by the department by picking one from a hat, most likely a more suitable one would have been obtained. It is evident again that the conditions in Western Australia have never been considered by the department; otherwise when a change of wavelength was decided on it would have been chosen either above or below the band occupied by the stations in the East. The department was not obliged to alter the wavelength of 6WF by reason of international radio law, for any band of broadcasting wavelength could be used and even wavelengths outside the bands are available, provided that no interference is caused to services of other countries. "If more local dealers had advocated the retention of the long wavelength and turned their attention to British set manufacturers for agencies, they would have found sets equal and better than the best that ever came from America, and in addition would be suitable for both long and medium waves. The State's wireless problems must be solved by ourselves, and we should not be led into calamities by the 'wise men from the East.' The trade finds difficulty in selling expensive all-electric sets — those suitable for Eastern States reception — because within the area in which power is available to work them Eastern States reception is mostly out of the question because of interference from 6WF. Perhaps with the joining up of the capital cities by carrier telephone lines one programme will be broadcast from all stations, and there will be nothing gained by tuning to a different one, and the problem of interference will be solved for those listeners who remain. Poor Quality of Transmissions. "As well as the disadvantage of the pre-sent wavelength there is a just cause for complaint regarding the poor quality of the present transmissions. This is a matter that is not under the control of the Australian Broadcasting Company, but the Postmaster General's Department. Judging by the frequency that one hears the broadcast announcement that the quality is excellent, possibly listeners will in time come to believe it. In the vain endeavour to reach country districts in daylight and the Eastern States at night, an excessive amount of modulation for the stability of the plant is being used. The consequent wavelength distortion is terrific, and with the multiplicity of waves being radiated, some accompanied by hum and speech almost unintelligible there is no wonder that complaint is general regarding the quality. Metropolitan listeners owing to their proximity can sort out a particular adjustment that does give reasonable reception at times, but when it is necessary by distance to tune to the station, then the quality is poor and is not improved by the extremely resonant studio in use. Without going into technical details it suffices to say that the quality will never be entirely satisfactory with the present method of modulation. What is suitable for 1,250-metres, is not necessarily best suited for the present shorter wavelength. With the expert technical staff of the Postmaster-General's Department available, it is time that such alterations were made as will provide a reasonably sharply tuned single carrier and modulated in a modern way. "The locality of the station cannot be blamed for the poor quality of the transmission. A little less theory and more practice would make a world of difference, and, being a believer in constructive criticism, having voiced at length some complaints, I will offer some suggestions. I maintain that to put wireless in Western Australia on a footing that will lead to success, the department should provide a station with a power of 10 kilowatts on a wavelength of over 1,000-metres, situated not more than 20-miles from the city. This would allow of crystal reception in the city and provide an excellent service over the most thickly portion of the State, entirely free from fading at night, good reception in daylight, and with no interference to other programmes. In addition a small power crystal-controlled transmitter of ½ kilowatt should be situated approximately 10 miles from the city, preferably in a south-easterly direction from Perth, so as to be equidistant from Fremantle and Midland Junction. The wavelength of this transmitter should be just below 300 metres, and with an efficient plant, equal or even better results would be obtained than with the existing plant in its present unsatisfactory condition. The small power, location and wavelength would allow of reception of Eastern States stations without interference. "It was thought by many (particularly those in and from the Eastern States) that the small number of licences in Western Australia was due to poor programmes and wrong wavelength. Considering the small increase in licences since the programmes have been improved and the wavelength reduced, it is very evident that neither of these alterations will make a 'new era' in broadcasting in Western Australia at least. I am confident that licences would have been many more had even a portion of the money expended on the station in alterations been wisely spent on necessary studio and amplifier equipment for the longwave plant, the installation of a ½ kilowatt transmitter working on a wavelength just below 300 metres, and broadcasting simultaneous programmes. Encouragement given to suitable firms to conduct 'B' stations both in Perth and country towns, would also improve the position.[192]

As previous, letter to the editor highly critical of 6WF since changeover to PMGD control, numerous breakdowns, reduced daytime coverage etc

BROADCASTING FROM 6WF. To the Editor "The West Australian." Sir,— I wish to congratulate Mr. Coxon on his fearless criticism of the Postmaster General's Department regarding the local broadcasting station. There is no doubt that the change in wavelength is not in the interests of local listeners-in, but is to the advantage of those Yankee and Eastern States set manufacturers, who, prior to the wavelength change were unable to satisfactorily market a set suitable for West Australian conditions. At present, country listeners are unable to obtain worthwhile results in daytime, while little if any, diminution of static is noticeable at night time. In common with many other listeners I have cursed Mr. Coxon in the past; but I now realise that he is to be commended for the efficient manner in which he conducted the station, considering the handicaps he laboured under. At any rate, he was not guilty of the innumerable breakdowns, which have made the local station the radio joke of modern times. Some day perhaps, the departmental wise-heads will realise that someone has blundered in the wavelength change, and will again operate on a wavelength of over 1,000 metres, when listeners will be permitted to enjoy the privileges they have paid for, in listening to Eastern States reception without the local station casting a blanket of cacophony over their efforts in tuning in. The cry has been raised that if first-class reception is not obtained, the set should be scrapped and one of the new imported productions installed in its place. Will Colonel Roberts kindly inform his long suffering listeners in what respect circuits now used differ from those made by our local dealers six years ago? Dealers whom I have interrogated on the subject assure me that the PI tuned anode, Reinartz and Schnell circuits just about cover the range of radio receivers in use at the present time and that these circuits were in use many years ago, while the audio side of wireless sets is identical with that used in the far-off days when Mr. Coxon was the only transmitter of music in the State.— Yours, etc. ALFRED G. GREEN. Subiaco, Jan. 17.[193]

Further criticism of 6WF's transmissions and programs

Wireless News. BROADCASTING. Notes and Comments. (By "Radio.") Although there is a steady increase in the number of new licences each month, many complaints are being made about broadcasting, chiefly against the poor quality of the transmissions, which are the responsibility of the Federal Government, while there is a school of opinion which favours a return to a wave length above 1,000 metres. As these matters will be dealt with in a special article later in the week, no further comment will be made in this column. Apart from all other considerations one of the chief drawbacks against wireless in this State is its geographical position whereby, for the greater part of the year, listeners are cut off from the Eastern States. The writer was in Melbourne recently and was able to appreciate the popularity of radio there when, with an average set, he was able to log with the greatest ease from 10 stations upwards each night. That gave the variety, while the quality of the four Melbourne stations 3DB, 3UZ, 3LO and 3AR was in decided contrast to 6WF. In Melbourne itself the two "B" class stations were the most popular, and their transmissions were perfect, the most difficult types of music to broadcast, coming through with crystal clearness. It is thought in many quarters there that the "A" class stations, in trying to be on the air for such long periods, are inclined to give quantity at the expense of quality. It appears certain that shorter hours and better items will be a feature of programmes in the not too distant future. The early morning session, for instance, could be dispensed with as it would be surprising to learn that more than 300 out of the 4,600 local licensed enthusiasts regularly listen to 6WF's session from 7.30 to 8.30. Racing Broadcasts. After negotiating between the management of the local station and the committee of the West Australian Turf Club, the latter body has granted permission for results to be broadcast from headquarters by 6WF after the third race instead of the fifth race as formerly. A running commentary of the fifth and sixth events will also be given, but no betting details will be put over the air. This news will be welcomed by those listeners outside the city area, and should add generally to the number of wireless enthusiasts. The station has received the permission of the West Australian Trotting Association to broadcast descriptions of all events at Brennan Park. This permission will be particularly useful during the Australasian championships in March next, when person's not ordinarily interested in trotting will take an interest in the events owing to their importance. Items From the Programmes. Amid all the criticism of 6WF, it is pleasing to note that listeners generally are satisfied with the programmes. Improvement is possible, but with the present transmission it would be wasteful to give out programmes of more than the existing standard, only to see them spoilt by faulty transmission. Tonight there will be a musical programme from the studio, to which Misses Audrey Dean, Lulu Potter and Edna Waterman, Messrs. Archie Graham and Harold Newton, the A.B.C. instrumental trio and the Radio Troubadors will contribute. The last hour will be devoted to a recital of gramophone records. Tomorrow night the R.S.L. Band will give items which will be interspersed with records by leading artists. On Friday night Mr. R. Sandemann will discuss the prospects of the following day's races and Misses Gladys Thomas and Joan Coltham and Mr. W. McDiarmid will entertain until 9 o'clock, when the second half of the programme by the Merrymakers will be broadcast from Olympia Gardens. After a talk by a member of the Wireless Institute at 8 o'clock, listeners on Saturday night will be given a description of the events at the Claremont Speedway and the results of the trotting meeting. At intervals Mr. Reuben Betts, the popular singer of light numbers, will be on the air, and a special dance hour by the Temple Court Band will complete the programme. Mr. Howell has arranged another of his interesting programmes from the Ambassadors Theatre for Sunday night, when the assisting artists will be Miss Irene Stancliffe and Mr. David Lyle. On Monday there will be a varied programme, and on Tuesday, night, among other items, will be numbers from the Ambassador's Studio by Mr. Howell and his stage band.[194]

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Perth Daily News journalist suggests shortwave listening to those tired of the problems with 6WF transmissions and programs

THE BROADCASTER. Radio Wrinkles. SHORT=WAVE ATTRACTIONS. (By VK6FG) With complaints continuing to come in regarding the transmissions from the local station, many wire enthusiasts are devoting their attention to short waves. The writer has commented so frequently of recent weeks on the transmissions from 6WF that he has grown tired of the subject, and, furthermore, has no desire to weary his readers with a repetition of the same topic. Assuming, then, that a large proportion of listeners are sick of the present broadcast position, tired of the frequent interruptions to the programme whilst adjustments are made, fed up with the inability to receive the station in the country and generally disheartened with the whole business, what then can be offered in its place? Having paid the licence, the listener feels he is entitled to receive something for it, even if it does not come from the station which his annual fee supports. Many licensees consider they have a moral right to a return of their licence fee, when the station is not able to provide them with what they alleged they have contracted to receive, but governments and big corporations have a different way of looking at things. Seeing then that the licensee has to be paid if the set is maintained, what is the best advice which can be given to dissatisfied listeners in both city and country? ALLUREMENT OF SHORT WAVES. The answer is not altogether easy to give. With existing sets for instance, many people in the country may be able to receive the Eastern States stations with fair strength. The present season is against good reception of interstate stations, but with the approach of winter good conditions should again be experienced. Those who are too busy to bother much with radio at present may therefore be content to let matters remain where they are are at the moment, and if conditions with the local station do not improve in the interval, they may concentrate on the reception of the Eastern States stations which come in at good strength when conditions are propitious. The city listener, and the more ardent an enthusiast he is the more will he be impressed with the idea, will find his relief in the searching of the shortwaves for his entertainment. Many people have a quite mistaken idea about the shortwaves. Most folk think that to listen in to programmes on shortwaves requires the operator to be a radio-magician. Such is not the case. Any person who can tune in an ordinary broadcast receiver on any interstate station, or any station more than a couple of hundred miles away, can certainly tune in a shortwave station with a modern set. The sets, too, are comparatively cheap to build. With a three-valve set, most of the world's stations can be brought in, and, of course, the addition of a fourth valve will give loudspeaker strength, of many of them. THRILL OF HEARING ENGLAND. Most Australians of British stock get a thrill from listening to either 5SW, Chelmsford or GBX. These stations may be heard either early in the morning or during the evening, and while the reception has not always the clarity of a local station, it is undoubtedly a great attraction as a wireless entertainment. Then there is PHI, the shortwave station of Philips lamps, at Huizen, Holland, 2XAF, in New York, PCL Kootwijk, Holland, PCJ, the well-known station at Eindhoven, Holland, and 7LO Nairobi, Kenya Colony. All these stations beyond the shores of Australia have been tuned in in Perth at good strength on several occasions by the writer. In Australia there are a number of stations which occasionally work on short waves, such as 2BL Sydney on 32.5, 3LO Melbourne on 31.55, and 2FC Sydney on 31.28. In addition there are the dozens of amateurs who frequently put out radio telephone transmissions. In the short waves there is no absence of variety, and this is largely the secret of sustained interest in radio. What is more alluring than to sit down and tune in one of the several Java stations or Manila? Undoubtedly the whole world is waiting to be tuned in by the owner of the shortwave set which will operate from 10 to 100 metres. Once properly started on shortwave listening the average licensee will probably forget his local worries and will take delight in tuning in the big orchestras, the grand opera and the other attractions which the oversea stations so frequently put on the air. [195]

WA Traders' Assoc releases exchange of correspondence with the PMG on the problems with 6WF

BROADCASTING. TRADERS TAKE ACTION. Mr. H. P. Brown's Statements. Shortly after the change of control of the local wireless broadcasting station 6WF, which took place on September 1 last, the Radio Traders' Association of Western Australia considered the position, and put their views strongly before the secretary to the Postmaster-General's Department (Mr. H. P. Brown) by telegram. Correspondence then ensued, which was not made public until yesterday, when, receiving no satisfaction from the department, which controls the transmissions from 6WF for the Commonwealth Government, the association decided to release for publication the messages which had passed between the association and Mr. Brown on the condition of radio in this State. On September 24 last the association sent the following telegram to Mr. Brown: We, the members of Radio Traders' Association of Western Australia, view with grave concern a Press statement that your department proposes erecting two transmitting plants in rural districts in Eastern States already adequately catered for, when the quality of transmission from the local station 6WF is deplorably unsatisfactory. In view of the heavy expenditure incurred by local traders in purchasing thousands of pounds' worth of modern receiving apparatus, which is rapidly becoming unsaleable, we strongly urge that the present unsuitable location of the transmitter be abandoned and the obsolete plant immediately replaced with a modern transmitting plant erected out of the metropolitan area. Otherwise there will be a complete collapse of broadcasting in this State, despite the Australian Broadcasting Company's efforts to improve the programmes. If a modern transmitter were installed immediately, we consider there is every possibility of obtaining 30,000 licenses in this State. We will appreciate an early reply for our next meeting. Mr. Brown's reply on September 27 was as follows:— Regret to learn of your difficulties in securing satisfactory reception but I can assure you that the quality of the transmissions from 6WF is of a high standard since the station was reconstructed. The improvements that have been made will also result in the transmissions being much more powerful within a radius of 50 miles and, in the metropolitan area, this may load valve sets attached to even moderate size outdoor aerials, with the result that the reproduction is distorted. There should be no difficulty in securing very good reproduction in this area from 6WF on a modern set with proper volume control. Reception at parts distant more than 100 miles will be subject to fading and atmospheric disturbances which are natural phenomena obviously beyond the control of the station. Since the reconstruction of the plant at 6WF it is equal to that of any station in Eastern States capital cities. No further considerable changes can be made in the broadcasting served at Perth until the licence revenue is in a more satisfactory condition. Therefore, the department must rely on traders encouraging goodwill for the present station and assisting listeners to secure the clear reproduction which the good technical quality of the transmission from 6WF now renders practicable. On October 1 the association, having considered Mr. Brown's reply, sent the following telegram:— Your reply suggests that both traders and listeners are incompetent to judge what is satisfactory in the broadcasts from 6WF, as it is at present, judged by results from modern sets. The public will not take out licences in the belief that, at some indefinite and distant date, you will improve the transmissions. We consider the position definitely entitles Western Australia to one of the new plants previously mentioned. We cannot understand your reply in view of the fact that mechanics are still frantically trying to improve the transmissions and that cancellations total half of the new licences for the month. At present we are doing all that is possible to persuade the Press to restrict condemnatory publicity, but we have decided that, unless you guarantee better conditions, our association will resort to Press publicity, even to publishing your reply. On October 9 the association again telegraphed to Mr. Brown, urging a definite reply to its telegram of October 1, and Mr. Brown replied, on October 14, in these terms:— The department previously gave consideration to the request for the provision of a new station but, after a careful study of the existing plant, reached the conclusion that it would be capable of giving first-class service, if reconstructed. This was done and tests show that 6WF now gives good quality transmissions with a high intensity over the city and suburbs, thereby overriding most of the interference previously experienced from trams and electric motors, etc. Of course, the shorter wave length will give fading and distortion to more distant listeners but, as you will readily agree, this is a natural difficulty. On the other hand 6WF will now give a night service with a certain amount of fading, to areas not previously reached, with 1,250 metres. Although the quality of 6WF is good your association can rest assured that the department will not hesitate to improve it further since our policy is to utilise the most recent knowledge and practice in electrical communication in all our technical services. Country Listeners "Fed Up." Yesterday the association met for the first time for some months, the chairman (Mr. C. Colebrook) presiding. After considering routine business, the present position regarding transmissions was discussed. Mr. C. S. Baty moved:— That a lettergram be sent to Mr. H. P. Brown, claiming that station 6WF is handled by an inexperienced operating staff with the result, among other things, that three simultaneous transmissions on different wave lengths are being made; requesting that two experienced operators be immediately supplied from Melbourne or Sydney and asking that a test be made of the transmissions at a distance of 100 miles from the station. Mr. Baty said the transmissions were very good, and the Commonwealth Government was to blame. At the present time the operating staff at the station was not competent, and the Government should provide two qualified and experienced operators from the Eastern States, who would get the best out of the plant. If they asked for a new station situated outside of the city the Government would say it had no funds, but if they asked for skilled operators they might get them. At present boys were in charge of the control panel, and such a state of affairs was disgraceful, and an insult to the public and the traders generally. The transmissions were good for a time; then there would be noise and interruption, and so things went on. He had heard good quality transmissions for an hour, but never for a whole evening. It seemed that the operators could not control the power, and at times there were three simultaneous transmissions on different wave lengths. They wanted 435 metres, and 435 metres only; not two or three other wave lengths interfering with other stations. These other wave lengths were not always present, which proved that faulty equipment or operation was to blame. Listeners in the country, were "fed up." He suggested a final appeal to Melbourne, and, failing satisfaction there, the association should interest all the West Australian members of the Federal Parliament in the matter. The motion was carried unanimously. Opinions In the City. Traders approached in the city agreed with the article published yesterday, and supported the demand that the Commonwealth Government do something immediately to rectify the present state of affairs. "The present transmissions are spoiling business," said a member of a firm which specialises in radio-gramophone combinations. "In the country we get nothing but complaints, and 90 per cent. of our business is done in the metropolitan area. Even there there is a pronounced hum which spoils the value of the programmes and makes demonstrations useless. Nothing can be done with the present plant, which is obsolete, and a new station is urgently needed outside the city. There is a persistent rumour that the existing transmitter will be continued in its present position for some years, and if this is so the future of radio is very dark. As things are, we sell our sets because of the electric gramophone. If we depended on radio alone we would soon be out of business. Another trader said that from the opening night of the new service on September 2 last, when, during, the special official inaugural ceremony, the land line broke down, and part of the programme was ruined; nothing had gone right. Anything seemed to be regarded as good enough for Western Australia by the authorities in the Eastern States, and the sooner modern equipment was provided, the sooner wireless would progress here. "Last December was our worst month for six years," said the director of another firm. "We are just hanging on, hoping for something to be done. The new 'B' class station will help, but why was there a delay of five years between the first application for a 'B' class licence for this State and the actual granting of this licence. There is too much delay when immediate action is needed." Neither the Deputy-Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. S. Roberts) nor officials of the Australian Broadcasting Company would comment on the matter.[196]

WA licensed listener numbers showing steady increase in lead up to commencement of the first Perth Class B station 6ML

Wireless News. BROADCASTING. Notes and Comment. (By "Radio.") Prior to the change in control of 6WF the highest number of licences in Western Australia was reached in September, 1926, when there were 4,172 licensed listeners. This record has now been passed, and on December 1 last, when the latest figures were made available, there were 4,727 listeners. It should not be long now before this figure is increased to 5,000 for the first time in the history of the State. Since September 1 about 1,200 new licenses have been taken out chiefly in the city and the growth of the radio trade can be realised by the fact that the value of sets sold to those new listeners is in the vicinity of £25,000. The existing disabilities of country listeners have led to many cancelled licences with the result that, where there used to be an equal distribution of licences between the town and the country, there are now seven city listeners to four country listeners. This is a regrettable state of affairs as wireless should be more popular in the country owing to the many advantages it confers on those outside the metropolitan area. It is to be hoped that the Commonwealth Government will take immediate steps to remedy this state of affairs. It is understood that the Commonwealth Government has extended its lease of the premises in Westralian Farmers' Buildings in Wellington-street and this news will cause much disappointment among listeners who were hoping that the transmitting apparatus would be moved out of the city area and thus the interference of 6WF with stations in the Eastern States would be removed. This will eventually have to be done and it is unfortunate that the Government has not decided to take steps now while the interest in radio is greater than it has ever been. If a modern transmitter, employing 10 kilowatts power and being modulated according to the latest practice, were built on one of the hills outside of Northam a great improvement would be effected in the country and much of the present waste of energy avoided. Musical Difficulties. We listeners are prone to condemn the programmes of a wireless station for their lack of variety and often it is said that certain musical items are rendered too frequently. I was interested the other day to learn that the restrictions of the Australian Performing Rights Association have a great effect on the numbers a station can broadcast. Eight typewritten sheets of foolscap are sent by the association to each station setting out what can and what cannot be put over the air. The popular Gilbert and Sullivan operas are under the control of Mr. D'Oyley Carte, who is the legal owner of the performing rights of these numbers. Instrumental, orchestral and band versions of music from these operas can be broadcast but no songs or dialogue can be used under any consideration. The same applies to a long list of musical comedies controlled by J. C. Williamson, Ltd., and to other musical works owned by Chappell and Co., Ltd. Nothing at all may be broadcast from another list of musical comedies which have not yet been produced in Australia, including "Hello Daddy," "Merry Merry," and "Mr. Cinders." Relief is found in a list of some 40 non-copyright operas which can be used without restriction either as to songs or music. These include "Faust," "The Barber of Seville" and most of the better known operas. Coming Events at 6WF. Tonight Mr. H. Graham and his Revue Co. will give another of their interesting hours and the remainder of the night's programme will be contributed to by different artists. Tomorrow evening the Perth City Band will entertain, and on Friday night the first half of the programme presented by "The Merrymakers" at Olympia Gardens will be put on the air. On Saturday there will be descriptions of trotting and speedway events interspersed with gramophone records by Caruso, Clara Butt, Chapiapin, McCormack, and Kreisler. On Sunday morning the service from St. Andrew's Church will be broadcast, and in the evening the service of the Seventh Day Adventists will be given. At 8.45 p.m. a commencement will be made with Mr. Howell's musicale to which the Ambassadorians Band, Les Waldron, David Lyle and Misa Irene Stancliffe will contribute. On Monday night there will be a varied musical programme from the the Ambassadors Theatre and by the studio, and on Tuesday night items from Melody Four will be given. [197]

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Perth Daily News responds favourably to announcement by PMG that 6WF is to be relocated outside the city. but few details

BROADCASTING CHANGES. Moving Station 6WF. 6ML'S NEW WAVE LENGTH. (By VK6FG) The announcement by the Postmaster-General (Mr. A. E. Green), that station 6WF will be shifted to a new site as soon as possible has created interest among radio listeners throughout the State. Listeners for many months past have been complaining from time to time of the transmissions from this "A" class station and the writer, for equally as long, has advocated the removal of the station to a site more suited to its purpose. It is not known at present what site the Commonwealth Government has in mind, but it is to be hoped that a spot sufficiently removed from the city will be chosen. It would be futile to dismantle and re-erect the station within 20 miles of the city, for the same conditions would still be apparent; that is, the country districts would receive no greater benefit, and a large proportion of the transmission would be wasted out to sea. If the Government power lines are to be drawn upon for the source of electrical current for the station, it would appear that the limits would be either Darlington or Kalamunda to the east, and Armadale to the south. SITE BEYOND DARLINGTON. The Commonwealth Government contemplated securing an area of land a few miles further in the hills than Darlington, where it was originally intended an observatory should be erected. This point, which is the highest spot in the Darling Ranges (Mount Cooke) is within about thirty miles of Perth, and is but a few miles from the termination of the present power line. From my own observations it should prove an ideal spot for the "A" class station, for the transmissions would radiate from there over the wheat belt area to the east, north and south, and is sufficiently close to the city to provide a good service to the metropolitan area. It is disappointing that the Postmaster-General had nothing to say regarding the establishment of a relay station, but possibly it is the policy of the Government in these hard times to first observe what effect the station on a new site will have, before giving further consideration to an additional station. Possibly, therefore, the present power of five kilowatt will be maintained for the station which, it is hoped, will be reconstructed and include crystal control. The work of making the transfer is not simple, but provided a building and other facilities are available at an early date, the actual transfer should mean that the station will not be off the air for more than a fortnight. Any attempt, however, to shift the station merely a few miles will render nugatory any effort to better the transmissions for the country listeners, nor will city listeners be in any better position than now to tune in the Eastern States.[198]

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Professor Ross passes on technical details of the PMGD plans for relocated 6WF and provides his own analysis of expected effectiveness

BROADCASTING. 6WF'S TRANSMITTER. Details of New Plant. Professor A. D. Ross has received from the Postmaster-General's Department, Melbourne, the following official information as to the plans for the reconstruction of the transmitter of the Perth broadcasting station, 6WF:— The department's officers are now engaged in the selection of a site outside the city of Perth. As in the case of the sites of all the department's new broadcasting stations, the selection is based upon economic and technical studies, the latter taking into account, among other things, the electrical conditions of the soil that favour efficient radiation. The radial distance of the site from the centre of the city will be such that, although there will be an intensity of radiation over the city sufficiently high to over-ride the general level of electrical noise, listeners will not be so heavily masked as they are at present. This again is representative of the practice which the department has adopted in other parts of the Commonwealth for its new stations. "The aerial will be strung between self-supporting steel towers and the aerial system will be of the multiple-tuned type. The multiple-tuned aerial possesses advantages in respect of radiation over the 'T' and 'L' type aerial when used on the longer wavelengths of the international broadcasting band, and, moreover, these advantages are secured without the use of excessively high towers. "The reconstructed transmitter will be of the crystal controlled master oscillator type, the power being raised to the final output level by amplifiers. Modulation will take place at a low power level and the depth of modulation without appreciable departure from linearity will be 100 per cent. The quality characteristics will be substantially a straight line from 50 cycles per second to 7,000 cycles per second, and the departure from this line at 30 cycles per second on the one hand and 10,000 cycles per second on the other hand will be quite small. "The power will be three kilowatts as measured in the aerial in the unmodulated condition." The Scheme Explained. Commenting on these particulars, Professor Ross said yesterday that the scheme promised to make 6WF a highly efficient broadcasting station. The power, as com-pared with that at present, would be greater than appeared at first sight from the figures. As the rating was given on the energy to be put into the aerial and not on the total energy consumed, the station would have doubled output. Again, the radiation would be sharply limited to the correct wavelength. At present the radiation was distributed over an exceedingly broad band, and a good selective receiver was operated by only a small portion of the radiated energy. It would be noted that the new station was to have self-supporting steel masts in-stead of the stayed type. There was no doubt that the system of stays used with the existing masts in the city was a source of considerable trouble. The aerial system had originally been designed for 1,250 metres and was unsuited to the 435 metre wave. The subsidiary radiations on several frequencies, so noticeable in the metropolitan area — rendering the reception of other stations difficult and unsatisfactory — were doubtless due at least in part, to self-excited oscillations in the supporting system. With the removal of this drain on the correctly radiated energy, 6WF should have much enhanced power. While it might appear that the erection of the station near to the coast implied that a large part of its effective area would be wasted on the ocean, it was to be re-membered that only by such location would it be possible to give a reasonable service down the coast to the southwestern part of the State. Radiation of the necessary intensity would be transmitted to a much greater distance along the coast than over land far removed from the sea. With the transfer of the station from the city Perth would cease to suffer from the disability of being in the "shock-area" which at present made reception of other Australian and overseas stations a matter of difficulty. High Quality Transmission. The guaranteed quality characteristics of the station, continued Professor Ross, were thoroughly satisfactory. Notes in vocal music had frequencies ranging from 80 to 1,200 vibrations per second, and the harmonics or overtures were important up to frequencies of about 8,000. The specifications indicated that the station would give practically perfect transmission of all frequencies from 50 to 7,000. The largest organs in Perth had pedal pipes which emitted notes of frequencies as low as 35, but the human ear was not at all sensitive to their pitch. Even for such deep notes the quality characteristic of the new station was amply good. For high notes the station would be equally satisfactory. It could deal perfectly with frequencies up to 7,000, and efficiently even to 10,000 vibrations per second. It should there-fore transmit effectively and with undistorted quality the top notes of a soprano singer or of the higher pitched instruments of the orchestra. Any limitations in reception of vocal or instrumental music would be the fault of the listener's earphones or loudspeaker rather than of the transmitter. A further consideration, and an important one, said Professor Ross, was the effective range of the station. With the increased power, improved aerial and new site, the station should give good day transmission to the south coast and far to the north, the distance in this direction depending merely on the sensitiveness of the receiver. Night reception, while it would show greater volume, would at considerable distances from Perth be affected by fading. That, however, had nothing to do with the transmitter, and was a necessary consequence of the reflection of waves at night-time in the upper atmosphere. Receivers at great distances would be actuated both by the direct waves and the reflected waves, and these at times must interfere and cause a certain amount of distortion. The area in which this fading would be altogether inappreciable or of negligible amount would be much more extensive with the new 6WF, and should on account of the greater wavelength be at least twice as large as for the "B" class stations. At distances of over 80 or 100 miles fading must begin to assert itself, except in a few special areas where the direct wave was too attenuated to annul the reflected wave. The difficulty of fading at distant receiving sets could not be obviated until relay stations were established. The new 6WF, however, should be capable of giving to Western Australia a more effective service than could be given to their respective States by 5CL (Adelaide), and 3LO (Melbourne). With the new station the grounds for serious complaint regarding the treatment meted out to West Australian licence-holders should largely vanish. Date of Completion. While the Postmaster-General stated six weeks ago that the plans for the station were in active preparation, and the matter of the site is now being settled, the public, said Professor Ross, had not been told the date by which the new station would be in operation. Considering what the people of Western Australia had had to put up with during the past two years, it would be only fair that a definite pronouncement should be made without delay. In this part of Australia licence-holders had had a succession of disappointments, artists had been disheartened by the knowledge that their efforts to give superlative renditions were frustrated by the plant, the Australian Broadcasting Company had been blamed for what was not its fault, and the officers operating the transmitter had made valiant efforts to accomplish what was a totally impossible task. Station 6WF as heard in the Eastern States exhibited little fading and distortion, while the broadness and multiplicity of its radiations were less noticeable. These facts, suggested Professor Ross, might have made certain officials sceptical as to the reports of its atrocious shortcomings. Fortunately the Postmaster-General had come to Western Australia, had heard the artists in the studio, and had had opportunity on his country visits to compare their work with the travesty which came over the ether. "He is now fully seized," concluded the Professor, of the genuineness of the complaints and is determined to set them right without delay. I am convinced that, unless some serious accident occurs, the new station could be on the air within three months, and I consider that if the Postmaster-General cannot give us such assurance he should in fairness to a long suffering public ask his officers to make available the reasons for the delay.[199]

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PMG Green confirms that a 12 acre site at Wanneroo Rd had been acquired

STATION 6WF. Proposed New Site. A statement was made by the Postmaster-General (Mr. A. E. Green) on Thursday in connection with the proposed new transmitting plant for the "A" class broadcasting station, 6WF, Perth. The chief difficulty in connection with the installation of a new plant, said the Minister, was the question of acquiring a site. When negotiations were first commenced, it was found that the land agents who were dealing with the property for sale were unable to discover the owners of some of the blocks on the site and sales of these blocks could not be effected to the Federal Government. After considerable negotiation the department had been able to acquire a site of about 12 acres on the Wanneroo-road about eight miles north of Perth. All that had to be done now was to secure the approval of the Federal Executive, and the matter would be dealt with at the first meeting of Cabinet. The transmitting plant on the new site would be the most up-to-date and powerful in Australia. Mr. Green added that he had received a telegram from the Prime Minister (Mr. Scullin) stating that a meeting of Cabinet had been called for January 5 at Canberra.[200]

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Speech by Prime Minister-elect Lyons broadcast by 6WF by telephone, broadcast quality landline not being available

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . Broadcast Speech by Mr. Lyons. To-morrow, at 6.30 p.m., a speech by the Prime Minister-elect (Mr. J. A. Lyons), discussing the personnel of the new Federal Ministry, will be broadcast from station 6WF, Perth. The speech will be relayed from Canberra by telephone.[201]

PMGD confirms that option to purchase new site had been exercised

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . New Site for 6WF Plant. The option taken by the Commonwealth Government over the site of the proposed new transmitting plant for the "A" class broadcasting station 6WF has been exercised, according to a departmental official, and the acquisition has been completed apart from certain formalities, the Government having definitely committed itself to the purchase. In view of the change which has taken place since the negotiations were begun, however, the new Government is not bound to use the property for the intended purpose. Nevertheless, certain progress has been made towards obtaining the transmitting plant, which will be the most up-to-date and powerful in Australia. The site is on sandy, undulating country, just south of the eight-mile peg on the Wanneroo-road, on which it fronts, and its area is 12 acres 1 rood 1 perch. The location is on the western side of the road, and near the Colcem tile works. It is roughly 4½ miles inland from a coastal position slightly north from Trigg Island.[202]

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Update on assembly of transmitter

NEW BROADCASTING PLANT. News reached Perth on Friday that much of the equipment for the new transmitting station for 6WF has arrived in Melbourne, and some of it is in the process of being assembled. Another section of the equipment for the new station is now in Perth. It is anticipated that the impending visit to Western Australia of the chief engineer of the Postmaster-General's Department (Mr. J. M. Crawford) will be to examine the site purchased in Wanneroo-road by the Commonwealth Government for the station, and to investigate various radio matters in this State.[203]

Johns and Waygood revealed as the successful tenderer for the supply and installation of the two self supporting towers for 6WF

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . Plant for 6WF Broadcasting Station. The contract for the supply and erection of two towers for the new transmitting plant for broadcasting station 6WF, to be built on a site purchased by the Commonwealth Government near the eight-mile peg on the Wanneroo-road, has been let to Johns and Waygood, of Melbourne. Delivery and erection are to be carried out by April 16. The price quoted in the tender has not been disclosed.[204]

Comprehensive status report on the 6WF project by J. M. Crawford

BROADCASTING. Erection of New Station. INTERESTING PARTICULARS. Interesting particulars of the new broadcasting station to be erected in place of station 6WF were supplied by Mr. J. M. Crawford, chief engineer for the Commonwealth of the Postmaster-General's Department, who was among the passengers on the Trans. train today. He will spend some time in this State in connection with the erection of the station. In addition to important staff and other organisation matters, which will be dealt with during his visit, Mr. Crawford said the broadcasting position would be closely examined, and the progress to date, and the possibility of exercising the utmost expedition in respect of the building of the new station, would be examined. "It is recognised," said Mr. Crawford, "that Western Australia was rather unfortunately hit by the financial depression with regard to its broadcast facilities. Orders had been placed for five new stations — one for Queensland at Rockhampton, one for the the populous Newcastle district of New South Wales, a third for the important townships and wheatbelt of the Riverina and northern Victorian townships at Corowa, the fourth for the populous area around Gladstone and Port Pirie at Crystal Brook, and a fifth for the correspondingly important area in the southwest portion of Western Australia. KATANNING STATION. "When the financial depression came, endeavors were made to cut down expenditure and commitments as much as possible, and in respect of the broadcasting facilities, of the five stations for which orders had been placed, the contractors were agreeable to cancel only one, as manufacture of the other four had actually been started, and was in varying stages of completion. This one happened to be the Katanning station, and Western Australia was, unfortunately, the chief sufferer from the financial position. "Of course, this was not the only contract that the post office was able to cancel. Considerable orders had been placed for cable and other material, and many of these had to be cancelled. The position which the contractors had reached made it possible to cancel only one of the new broadcasting station orders, and the Western Australian one was, therefore, deleted. Its provision, however, is only postponed, and when normal conditions are again reached it will be proceeded with. Meanwhile very valuable information is being obtained with regard to the other four stations, three of which — Rockhampton, Newcastle and Corowa — are now working, and the department will also have the advantage of the experience of the new 6WF station, all of which will enable us to provide the last of the five stations, with the advantage of the experience at its back. The delay may not therefore in the end be a bad thing for W.A. NEW STATION. "With regard to the new station, as the department has already announced, the present 6WF station is being replaced by an entirely new one designed and constructed by the post office. The new station will be of the most modern type, embodying all the latest improvements in transmitting technique. Perhaps the best means of comparing radio transmission is by stating the amount of power under full modulation. On this basis, comparing the present with the new station, the effective energy for reproducing a programme in the listeners' receiver of the present transmission compared with the new transmission, will be between six and seven times more effective. It is of interest to point out that on this basis the new 6WF transmitter will be about three times as effective as that of any of the stations in other capital cities of Australia. TO COST OVER £3000. "As has already been announced, a site has now been acquired. It is situate on the Wanneroo-road, about seven and a half miles north of the city, and its area is about 12 acres. The building has been designed and the architectural plans prepared by the Works Department, and construction is about to commence. The cost of the building itself will be over £3000. Contracts for the supply and the erection of the two steel towers have been let, and delivery will commence in a few weeks time. They will be 180 feet high, and of the self-supporting type; the foundations will be prepared in advance of their delivery. Orders have been placed for much of the material needed in the construction of the transmitter, and part of the material has been delivered. In addition to the material which is being manufactured in departmental workshops, a considerable number of the items required will be obtained from abroad and from manufacturers in Australia, and when completed the station should undoubtedly give efficient service. As is well known, one of the grave disadvantages of the present site is its close proximity to high buildings, many of which are of reinforced concrete not calculating to improve the radiation of a broadcast station. STATION'S RANGE. "It is, of course, difficult to predict the service area of the new station, or even, for that matter, of any radio station. The topographical features of particular localities have their own varying effect upon radiation, but it is probable that one new station will provide good daytime and night-time reception down the southwest coast as far as Bunbury, and possibly even to Busselton. Northward the service area should extend between 80 and 100 miles, and easterly, where, of course, the Darling Ranges and heavily timbered country intervene, the service area should be between 40 and 50 miles, where simple two or three valve sets are used. In the area which the new station is designed to serve, no less than nearly 60 per cent. of the population of Western Australia resides. One of the great advantages of opening the new station is designed to serve, no the construction of the country station will be that location of the new station can be much more effectively gauged after experience of the operation of the local station. LICENCES. "It is satisfactory to notice the increase in the number of broadcast licence holders in this State. During the last six months the number has advanced from 9219 in July, 1931, to 11,010 in January of this year. When the new station is in operation the department is confidently looking forward to considerably increasing the number of licences. It will be seen, therefore, that it was somewhat unfortunate that the financial depression affected the situation adversely from the point of view of Western Australia, but though possibly immediately irritating, it may prove in the long run distinctly to the advantage of Western Australia, which will certainly get the benefit of the department's experience as regards the other four stations, and this experience should be of very great value indeed." (Start Photo Caption) Mr. J. M. Crawford (End Photo Caption)[205]

Committee of 1932 Wireless Exhibition visit new site for 6WF

(Start Photo Caption) NEW SITE FOR BROADCASTING STATION 6WF. The upper picture shows members of the committee of management of the radio and electrical exhibition, to be held on April 19, who inspected the site of the new transmitting station for 6WF, Wanneroo-road, yesterday. Left to right:— Messrs H. U. Kendall, Basil Kirke (manager 6WF), A. L. Thomson, A. P. Dempster, F. C. Kingston, J. G. Kilpatrick (superintending engineer for Western Australia, Department of Postal Services who will supervise the engineering work of the new station) and J. L. Mattinson. Below is shown the site as it appears to-day. (End Photo Caption)[206]

Comprehensive description of new site at Wanneroo road

BROADCASTING. NEW 6WF SITE. Clearing for Aerial Masts. Business people associated with radio yesterday visited the site in Wanneroo-road, where preparations are being made to build the new transmitting station for 6WF, the A class broadcasting station in Perth. Positions of the various features of the proposed structure were pointed out by the West Australian superintending engineer of the Department of Postal Services (Mr. J. G. Kilpatrick), who will supervise the engineering portion of the work. Several workmen were engaged in clearing. The site, measuring about 12 acres, fronts on Wanneroo-road opposite to the Colcem Tile Works, slightly south of the eight mile peg. It is on jarrah and banksia country, with a complete absence of rock outcrop. From the road it dips slightly towards the west for a few chains, and then rises in an easy grade to its highest point, where the elevation from sea level is 160ft. The rear portion, embracing the elevated piece, will carry the two towers which will support the aerial, as well as a pair of winches which will be part of the aerial equipment. The building to house the remainder of the transmitting plant will be situated on the lower ground and alongside a roadway to be built along the southern boundary. A well, equipped with a mechanically driven pump, is already providing water for the work being done at present, and will remain part of the equipment of the station, since the metropolitan water supply is not available on the location. The two masts, to be of fabricated iron, and 180ft. high, will support a single aerial wire running east and west over a 360ft. span, the nearer, or eastern mast, being 750ft. from the road. The ground surrounding them, measuring 560ft. by 150ft., will be grubbed and ploughed clear, for the purpose of laying over that area a mesh of copper wires in two feet squares about a foot underground, to give the ground wave of broadcast impulses what engineers term "a good getaway." The masts, which are being made in Melbourne, will each have four legs, the foundations for which are about to be prepared. The use of stays has been obviated in accordance with modern practice, to prevent electrical interference in the radiating field. Absorption of sound waves by tall trees on surrounding property will be prevented by the height of the towers. The wire will be strained by a winch at each end, the aerial being multiple-tuned to afford even radiation. Provision is made in the contract for the masts to be erected by April 16. As yet, the contract for the buildings and their equipment has not been let, and a definite date for the completion of the station is not being announced. The station, with associated buildings, such as the operator's quarters, is expected to cost between £9,000 and £10,000. As much of the equipment as possible is being made in Australia, and the remainder will be British products, while all the assembling will be done in the Commonwealth. The station will be externally a facsimile of that at Corowa (N.S.W.), but internally the most up-to-date and strongest in any Australian, capital city. The party who visited the site yesterday included members of the works committee of the radio and electrical exhibition which will be opened on April 19 in No. 2 Garage, Temple Court, William-street. The convenor of the committee (Mr. A. P. Dempster) said yesterday that this would be the first exhibition in Perth promoted entirely by the trade. Also in the party was the manager of station 6WF (Mr. Basil Kirke).[207]

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Erection of the two galvanised steel towers to support the antenna system completed

6WF's New Transmitter. The erection of the two galvanised steel towers to carry the aerial system of the new transmitting plant for station 6WF on the site on the Wanneroo-road, slightly south of the eight-mile peg, was completed yesterday. The contractors, Johns and Waygood, Ltd., of Melbourne, whose tender of £1,274 for the work was accepted, started the first tower on April 2 and completed it on April 21. The second tower, which was started on April 22, took only eleven working days to erect. The ground is now being cleared in preparation for the earthing system for the aerial. This will involve laying 25 miles of wire under the ground, at a depth of twelve inches, in an area covering 5½ chains by 11 chains. Work is also progressing on the laying of the foundations for the buildings, which will house the new transmitting plant.[208]

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J. G. Kilpatrick farewelled for new post in Qld

ENGINEER'S TRANSFER. Mr. J. G. Kilpatrick Farewelled. Eulogistic references to the work of Mr. J. G. Kilpatrick, who for seven years has been superintending engineer of the Postmaster-General's Department, Perth, were made at a largely attended smoke social held at the Soldiers' Institute on Friday night. Amid loud applause, the Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. S. R. Roberts) presented Mr. Kilpatrick with a travelling case and a gold watch chain, and wished him the best of luck. Mr. Kilpatrick left by the Great Western express on Saturday night to take up the position of superintending engineer in Queensland. Among the speakers who paid tribute to Mr. Kilpatrick's ability and personal qualities were the deputy superintending engineer (Mr. L. C. Bott), Messrs. J. Murphy (representing the professional officers), H. B. Barton (mechanical officers), H. Holdman (lines officers), P. J. Sheedy (West Australian Amateur Swimming Association), the manager in West ern Australia for the Australian Broadcasting Commission (Mr. Basil Kirke), the Commonwealth Public Service Inspector (Mr. C. H. Brown) and the officer in charge of the Commonwealth Investigation Branch (Mr. D. R. Mitchell). Mr. Roberts said that it was an inspiration to have served with Mr. Kilpatrick. (Hear, hear). Mr. Kilpatrick had acted as a foster mother to broadcasting in this State. Mr. Brown said that at present there were 1,991 Commonwealth officers in this State, and the Postmaster-General's Department was the biggest department. With the Customs Department, it represented 90 per cent of the total number of officers. In 1900 the proportion of Commonwealth public servants to the population of the State was one to 140; in 1932 it was one to 302. Some secessionists who said that the Commonwealth did not run departments efficiently would be interested to know this. Commonwealth officers had not increased in proportion to population. Mr. Kirke outlined Mr. Kilpatrick's association with broadcasting in Western Australia from the time when the licences issued totalled only 3,000. Mr. Kilpatrick thanked those present in a witty speech, and said that his elation at being appointed to the new post was tinged with sadness at having to leave behind so many friends. He had received wonderful co-operation and loyalty.[209]

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  30. "RURAL TOPICS". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1355): p. 8 (Second Section). 30 December 1923. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58068829. Retrieved 23 August 2022. 
  31. "PRIMARY PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION". South Western Times (Western Australia) VII, (2): p. 1. 5 January 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article210759558. Retrieved 23 August 2022. 
  32. "MULLALYUP". South Western Times (Western Australia) VII, (2): p. 8. 5 January 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article210759592. Retrieved 23 August 2022. 
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  34. "Wireless Week by Week Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-In Lyrics[? Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge RADIOGRAMS"]. Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1358): p. 8 (First Section). 20 January 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58071416. Retrieved 24 August 2022. 
  35. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-In Lyrics— Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge RADIOGRAMS". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1359): p. 8 (First Section). 27 January 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58072750. Retrieved 24 August 2022. 
  36. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-In Lyrics— Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge RADIOGRAMS". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1359): p. 8 (First Section). 27 January 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58072750. Retrieved 24 August 2022. 
  37. "PRIMARY PRODUCERS' ASSOCIATION.". Geraldton Guardian (Western Australia) XVII, (4258): p. 2. 5 February 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66923327. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  38. ""LISTENING-IN"". South Western Times (Western Australia) VII, (15): p. 4. 5 February 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article210757965. Retrieved 24 August 2022. 
  39. ""SEALED" RADIO SETS". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,229): p. 8 (THIRD EDITION). 11 February 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78056913. Retrieved 24 August 2022. 
  40. "GOLDFIELDS RADIO SOCIETY". Western Argus (Western Australia) 24, (5049): p. 5. 12 February 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article34284683. Retrieved 24 August 2022. 
  41. "NOTES AND COMMENTS". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,230): p. 5 (THIRD EDITION). 12 February 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78063312. Retrieved 24 August 2022. 
  42. "SEALED RADIO SETS". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,230): p. 3 (THIRD EDITION). 12 February 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78063270. Retrieved 24 August 2022. 
  43. "SEALED RADIO SETS". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,233): p. 3 (THIRD EDITION). 15 February 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78064942. Retrieved 30 August 2022. 
  44. "WIRELESS AND AGRICULTURE.". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,234): p. 4 (THIRD EDITION). 16 February 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78061901. Retrieved 30 August 2022. 
  45. "WHERE ARE THE AMATEURS?". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1362): p. 8 (First Section). 17 February 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58071021. Retrieved 24 August 2022. 
  46. "THE WESTRALIAN FARMERS' SCHEME". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1365): p. 8 (First Section). 9 March 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58071785. Retrieved 24 August 2022. 
  47. ""NO BANANAS TO-DAY"". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,256): p. 8. 13 March 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78063425. Retrieved 24 August 2022. 
  48. "Wireless Matters". The Telegraph (Queensland, Australia) (16,005): p. 2 (SECOND EDITION). 17 March 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article182474036. Retrieved 4 July 2019. 
  49. "LOCAL AND GENERAL". Great Southern Leader (Western Australia) XV, (807): p. 4. 21 March 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article156955795. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  50. "Advertising". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1368): p. 8. 30 March 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58064295. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  51. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1368): p. 8. 30 March 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58064294. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  52. "WIRELESS". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,271): p. 8. 31 March 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78064411. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  53. "TRADE MARK APPLICATIONS.". Daily Commercial News And Shipping List (New South Wales, Australia) (11,148): p. 11 (Weekly Summary.). 2 April 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article159933735. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  54. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1369): p. 11. 6 April 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58064999. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  55. "PERSONALIA". The Leader (Western Australia) , (364): p. 3. 11 April 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article256963306. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  56. "BROADCASTING.". The Sydney Morning Herald (New South Wales, Australia) (26,917): p. 13. 12 April 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16145036. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  57. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1370): p. 11. 13 April 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58065386. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  58. "BROADCASTING.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XL, (6,832): p. 8. 17 April 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31226763. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  59. "WIRELESS.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XL, (6,834): p. 8. 19 April 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31227016. Retrieved 30 August 2022. 
  60. "Wireless Week by Week Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-in Lyrics— Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1371): p. 10. 20 April 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58065736. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  61. "KORBEL RADIOGRAMS". Merredin Mercury And Central Districts Index (Western Australia) XI, (529): p. 2. 1 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article252466628. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  62. "WHO SHALL RULE THE WIRELESS WAVES?". Westralian Worker (Western Australia) (918): p. 4. 2 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article148270520. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  63. "PERSONALIA". The Leader (Western Australia) , (368): p. 3. 9 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article256964486. Retrieved 25 August 2022. 
  64. "Wireless Week by Week Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-in LyricsOf the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1374): p. 12. 11 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58066856. Retrieved 26 August 2022. 
  65. "SOME REFLECTIONS.". Geraldton Guardian (Western Australia) XVII, (4290): p. 4. 13 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article67288102. Retrieved 26 August 2022. 
  66. "Wireless Broadcasting". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,307): p. 7. 14 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84246228. Retrieved 26 August 2022. 
  67. "A THREATENED WIRELESS RAMP". Call (Western Australia) (516): p. 2. 16 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article210903005. Retrieved 26 August 2022. 
  68. "Wireless Week by Week". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1375): p. 8. 18 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58067425. Retrieved 26 August 2022. 
  69. "REAL ESTATE". The West Australian (Western Australia) XL, (6,857): p. 5. 19 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31231798. Retrieved 26 August 2022. 
  70. "RADIO NEWS AND NOTES.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XL, (6,859): p. 7. 21 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31232267. Retrieved 26 August 2022. 
  71. "SRUGE-PAGE GOVT. ASSISTS WIRELESS COMBINE". Westralian Worker (Western Australia) (921): p. 5. 23 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article148271061. Retrieved 26 August 2022. 
  72. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1376): p. 8. 25 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58067647. Retrieved 27 August 2022. 
  73. "NEWS AND NOTES.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XL, (6,866): p. 8. 29 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31233664. Retrieved 27 August 2022. 
  74. "NEWS AND NOTES.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XL, (6,867): p. 8. 30 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31233869. Retrieved 27 August 2022. 
  75. "THE BROADCASTING CONCERT". Call (Western Australia) (518): p. 12. 30 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article210903362. Retrieved 27 August 2022. 
  76. "WIRELESS BROADCASTING". Westralian Worker (Western Australia) (922): p. 14. 30 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article148271200. Retrieved 27 August 2022. 
  77. "LISTENING IN". Mirror (Western Australia) (146): p. 4. 31 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article76437497. Retrieved 28 August 2022. 
  78. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1377): p. 8. 1 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58068196. Retrieved 28 August 2022. 
  79. "BROADCASTING.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XL, (6,872): p. 7. 5 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31234855. Retrieved 28 August 2022. 
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  81. "WIRELESS BROADCASTING.". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,326): p. 8 (THIRD EDITION). 5 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84245261. Retrieved 28 August 2022. 
  82. "SUMMED UP.". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,326): p. 1 (THIRD EDITION). 5 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84245130. Retrieved 28 August 2022. 
  83. ""6.W.F."". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,326): p. 5 (THIRD EDITION). 5 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84245172. Retrieved 28 August 2022. 
  84. "TELEGRAMS.". Geraldton Guardian (Western Australia) XVII, (4297): p. 3. 5 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article67283151. Retrieved 28 August 2022. 
  85. ""BROADCASTING" FROM PERTH". Northern Times (Western Australia) XIX, (954): p. 3. 6 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article75699998. Retrieved 28 August 2022. 
  86. "WIRELESS WAVES". Call (Western Australia) (519): p. 8. 6 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article213726085. Retrieved 28 August 2022. 
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  88. "THAT WIRELESS COMBINE". Westralian Worker (Western Australia) (923): p. 11. 6 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article148271452. Retrieved 28 August 2022. 
  89. "CORRESPONDENCE.". Geraldton Guardian (Western Australia) XVII, (4297): p. 3. 7 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article67286665. Retrieved 30 August 2022. 
  90. "WESTRALIAN FARMERS LIMITED Broadcasting Wireless Station". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1378): p. 3. 8 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58068579. Retrieved 31 August 2022. 
  91. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1378): p. 8. 8 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58068656. Retrieved 30 August 2022. 
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  93. "BROADCASTING". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1378): p. 8. 8 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58068662. Retrieved 30 August 2022. 
  94. "WIRELESS BROADCASTING.". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,329): p. 8 (THIRD EDITION). 9 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article83973222. Retrieved 30 August 2022. 
  95. "The Bunbury Herald TUESDAY, JUNE 10, 1924.". The Bunbury Herald And Blackwood Express (Western Australia) 32, (898): p. 2. 10 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article87035319. Retrieved 30 August 2022. 
  96. "No title". Western Mail (Western Australia) XXXIX, (2,002): p. 23. 12 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article37629069. Retrieved 31 August 2022. 
  97. "WIRELESS.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XL, (6,880): p. 14. 14 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31236626. Retrieved 31 August 2022. 
  98. "WESTRALIAN FARMERS LIMITED". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1379): p. 8. 15 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58053875. Retrieved 31 August 2022. 
  99. "Listening In". Western Mail (Western Australia) XXXIX, (2,003): p. 30. 19 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article37635911. Retrieved 31 August 2022. 
  100. "Famous Seaplane at Man-o'-War Steps.". The Daily Telegraph (New South Wales, Australia) (13,895): p. 12. 20 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245713543. Retrieved 31 August 2022. 
  101. "RADIO SOCIAL AND SUPPER". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1380): p. 8. 22 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58054280. Retrieved 31 August 2022. 
  102. "WESTRALIAN FARMERS LIMITED". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1380): p. 8. 22 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58054283. Retrieved 1 September 2022. 
  103. "WIRELESS FROM PERTH". News (South Australia) III, (286): p. 11 (HOME EDITION). 23 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article129727871. Retrieved 1 September 2022. 
  104. "Listening In". Western Mail (Western Australia) XXXIX, (2,004): p. 30. 26 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article37627338. Retrieved 1 September 2022. 
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  106. "BROADCASTING.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XL, (6,891): p. 10. 27 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31238797. Retrieved 1 September 2022. 
  107. "ITEMS ABOUT AMATEURS.". The Brisbane Courier (Queensland, Australia) (20,727): p. 16. 28 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article20748587. Retrieved 1 September 2022. 
  108. "Wireless Week by Week Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-in Lyrics Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1381): p. 8. 29 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58054550. Retrieved 1 September 2022. 
  109. "BROADCASTING AND MONOPOLY.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XL, (6,893): p. 6. 30 June 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31239270. Retrieved 1 September 2022. 
  110. "WIRELESS WAVES". Call (Western Australia) (523): p. 8. 4 July 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article213728528. Retrieved 2 September 2022. 
  111. "The Flat Earth Theory Again.". The Eastern Recorder (Western Australia) XIV, (751): p. 5 (Paper format edition). 4 July 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article259319208. Retrieved 2 September 2022. 
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  113. "Listening In". Western Mail (Western Australia) XXXIX, (2,007): p. 30. 17 July 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article37625038. Retrieved 2 September 2022. 
  114. "EXPERIMENTER'S RECEPTION". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1385): p. 8. 27 July 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58056339. Retrieved 2 September 2022. 
  115. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-In Lyrics— Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1385): p. 8. 27 July 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58056345. Retrieved 3 September 2022. 
  116. "Listening In". Western Mail (Western Australia) XXXIX, (2,009): p. 29. 31 July 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article37635755. Retrieved 3 September 2022. 
  117. "ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1387): p. 8. 10 August 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58056945. Retrieved 3 September 2022. 
  118. "WIRELESS AT SEA.". The Geraldton Express (Western Australia) XLV: p. 3. 29 August 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article259123818. Retrieved 3 September 2022. 
  119. "LOCAL INDUSTRIES". The Advertiser (Western Australia) IV, (207): p. 4. 5 September 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article255939930. Retrieved 3 September 2022. 
  120. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1392): p. 8. 14 September 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58058866. Retrieved 3 September 2022. 
  121. "SCIENCE CONGRESS.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XL, (6,968): p. 10. 25 September 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31254714. Retrieved 3 September 2022. 
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  124. "IN THE MIDLANDS". The News (Tasmania, Australia) 1, (116): p. 3 (FIRST EDITION). 13 October 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article233531061. Retrieved 24 January 2021. 
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  126. "WIRELESS.". The Age (Victoria, Australia) (21,719): p. 12. 11 November 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155551329. Retrieved 3 September 2022. 
  127. "THE UNIVERSITY.". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIII, (15,486): p. 6 (THIRD EDITION). 9 December 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article82860934. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  128. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1407): p. 8. 28 December 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58259939. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  129. "UNLICENSED BROADCAST LISTENERS". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1407): p. 8. 28 December 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58259937. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  130. "NOTES AND COMMENTS". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIV, (15,505): p. 5. 1 January 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article82864599. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  131. "MUSIC BY WIRELESS.". The Swan Express (Western Australia) XXIV, (52): p. 5. 16 January 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article206619881. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  132. "STATION 6W.F.". Call (Western Australia) (551): p. 8. 23 January 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article213729035. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  133. "RADIO TOPICS". The Telegraph (Queensland, Australia) (16,287): p. 11. 11 February 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article178384701. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  134. "WIRELESS INSTITUTE OF AUSTRALIA (W.A. DIVISION)". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIV, (15,544): p. 6 (THIRD EDITION). 16 February 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84303730. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  135. "THE TECHNICALITIES OF BROADCASTING". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1415): p. 9. 22 February 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58263232. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  136. "Wireless Radiates Happiness". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIV, (15,550): p. 6 (THIRD EDITION). 23 February 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84299138. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  137. "PEOPLE IN PASSING". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1417): p. 3. 8 March 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58254553. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  138. "WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1418): p. 8. 15 March 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58254749. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  139. "WEST AUSTRALIAN TRANSMISSIONS". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIV, (15,574): p. 6 (THIRD EDITION). 23 March 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84301264. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  140. "BROADCASTING DEMONSTRATION.". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIV, (15,581): p. 3 (THIRD EDITION). 31 March 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84259273. Retrieved 4 September 2022. 
  141. "WIRELESS DEMONSTRATION.". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIV, (15,582): p. 6. 1 April 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84254111. Retrieved 5 September 2022. 
  142. "WESTRALIAN FARMERS, LTD.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLI, (7,169): p. 10. 21 May 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31858893. Retrieved 5 September 2022. 
  143. "WHAT THE WIRELESS WAVES SAY". Mirror (Western Australia) (197): p. 8. 30 May 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article76443026. Retrieved 5 September 2022. 
  144. "6W.F.". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIV, (15,635): p. 5 (THIRD EDITION). 4 June 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84060114. Retrieved 21 August 2022. 
  145. "WIRELESS". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLI, (7,183): p. 6. 6 June 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31861929. Retrieved 5 September 2022. 
  146. "WIRELESS WEEK BY WEEK". Sunday Times (Perth) (Western Australia) (1430): p. 8. 7 June 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58219042. Retrieved 5 September 2022. 
  147. "STUDIO JOTTINGS". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIV, (15,638): p. 6 (THIRD EDITION). 8 June 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84053142. Retrieved 6 September 2022. 
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