Flora of New York/Nymphaeales…Piperales

< Flora of New York

Order NymphaealesEdit

The order Nymphaeales contains the aquatic flowering plant families Hydatellaceae, Cabombaceae, and Nymphaeaceae. Only the latter two have taxa found outside of cultivation in New York. Aside from Amborella, a shrub endemic to New Caledonia, the Nymphaeales are considered to be the oldest lineage of angiosperms. Most estimates put the age of the Nymphaeales at well over 100 million years.[1]

Family CabombaceaeEdit

Two Cabombaceae (water-shield family) species are found in New York. One, Cabomba caroliniana, is rare in most of the state but has the potential to be a highly invasive exotic plant.

Genus BraseniaEdit

The only extant species of Brasenia (B. schreberi) is native to New York, as well as much of the rest of the world.
Nymphaeales – fam. Cabombaceae – genus Brasenia
Brasenia Brasenia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 J.F.Gmel.

1791. Brasenia schreberi J.F.Gmel.
1803. Hydropeltis purpurea Michx.
1814. Brasenia peltata Pursh
1862. Cabomba peltata F.Muell. nom. illeg.
1890. Brasenia purpurea Casp.
Water-shield,
Watershield,
Schreber's watershield,
Purple wen-dock,
Water-target

Brasénie de Schreber
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

Genus CabombaEdit

Although native to the southeastern United States, Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) is considered to be an alien invasive plant in the Northwest and Northeast, including New York, where it is listed as highly invasive.
Nymphaeales – fam. Cabombaceae – genus Cabomba
Cabomba Fanwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 A.Gray

1821. Cabomba aquatica DC.
1830. C. pinnata (Pursh) Schult.& Schult.f.
1837. C. caroliniana A.Gray
1841. Nectris caroliniana (A. Gray) Steud.
1880. C. australis Speg.
1903. C. caroliniana var. pulcherrima
1953. C. pulcherrima (R.M.Harper) Fassett
Fanwort,
Carolina fanwort,
Purple fanwort,
Carolina watershield,
Green cabomba

Cabomba de Caroline
Introduced from
 southeast US,
 South America,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 72%[1],
Prohibited[2]
NYFA-X
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp

Family NymphaeaceaeEdit

Six Nymphaeaceae (water-lily family) taxa in two genera are found in New York. All are native to the region and appear to be fairly secure.

Subfamily NupharoideaeEdit

Genus NupharEdit
Nymphaeales – fam. Nymphaeaceae – subfam. Nupharoideae – genus Nuphar
NupharSm.sect. Astylus Pond-lily N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
Durand

1956. Nuphar lutea ssp. variegata
1866. Nuphar variegata Durand
1912. Nymphaea fraterna
G.S.Mill.& Standl.
1912. Nymphaea americana
G.S.Mill.& Standl.
1931. Nuphar fraterna
(G.S.Mill. & Standl.) Standl.
Common yellow pond-lily,
Common spatter-dock,
Common cow-lily,
Variegated yellow pond-lily,
Northern yellow pond-lily,
Bullhead yellow pond-lily

Grand nénuphar jaune
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
FNA 
BNA


Images, wsp
(Aiton) W.T.Aiton
ssp. advena

    Nuphar lutea ssp. advena
    Nymphaea advena Aiton
Broad-leaved yellow pond-lily,
Immigrant pond-lily,
Broad-leaved yellow cow-lily,
Broad-leaved spatterdock,
Broad-leaved bull-head lily

Nénuphar à feuilles émergentes,
Nénutar à feuilles émergentes
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can


BNA


Images, wsp
NupharSm.sect. Nuphar Pond-lily N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
(Pers.) Fernald

    Nuphar pumila (Timm) DC.
    Nuphar lutea ssp. pumila
    Nuphar microphylla
(Pers.) Fernald
    Nuphar minima (Willd.) Sm.
Small yellow pond-lily,
Small yellow cow-lily,
Dwarf spatterdock
Native, CoC: 10,
Secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


BNA


Images, wsp

Nuphar microphylla ×
Nuphar variegata

1886. Nuphar rubrodisca Morong
1994. Nuphar lutea ssp. rubrodisca
    
    
Red-disked yellow pond-lily,
Red-disked spatter-dock,
Peck's yellow pond-lily,
Hybrid of
 small yellow pond-lily &
 common yellow pond-lily
Native,
Likely secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-3-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp
NupharSm. (excluded species) Pond-lily N.Y. Status Images Distribution X
Nuphar polysepala × variegata

Nuphar polysepala ×
Nuphar variegata

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 small yellow pond-lily &
 common yellow pond-lily
N. America native,
Excluded
NYFA-EXCLD






Images, wsp

Subfamily NymphaeoideaeEdit

Genus NymphaeaEdit
Nymphaeales – fam. Nymphaeaceae – subfam. Nymphaeoideae – genus Nymphaea
Nymphaea Waterlily N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
ssp. odorata

1789. Nymphaea odorata Aiton
1806. Castalia odorata (Aiton) Wood
White water-lily,
American white water-lily,
Fragrant water-lily,
Sweet-scented white water-lily,
Pond-lily,
Great white water-lily

Nymphéa odorant
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-N
Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
 Aiton
ssp. tuberosa (Paine) Wiersma & Hellq.

1865. Nymphaea tuberosa Paine
1888. Castalia tuberosa (Paine) Greene
1966. Nymphaea odorata var. maxima
1994. Nymphaea odorata ssp. tuberosa
Tuberous white water-lily,
Large white water-lily,
American white waterlily

Nymphéa tubéreux,
Lis d'eau,
Nénuphar blanc,
Nymphée tubéreuse
Native, CoC: 5,
Likely secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5?
USDA-N
Can
ARS 




Images, wsp

Order MagnolialesEdit

The order Magnoliales Bromhead ...

Family MagnoliaceaeEdit

The Magnoliaceae (magnolia family) has traditionally been separated into the two subfamilies Magnolioideae and Liriodendroideae. Magnolioideae contained a number of genera including Magnolia s.s., the largest genus. Liriodendroideae contained the single genus Liriodendron. Phylogenetic research has shown Magnolia s.s. to be non-monophyletic. Therefore it was suggested that rather than breaking Magnolia into numerous new genera, all other genera in Magnolioideae would be placed in Magnolia s.l. to create a single monophyletic genus. This leaves the two subfamilies with one genus apiece, making Magnoliaceae subfamilies redundant. So, they are not used here.[1][2]

Genus MagnoliaEdit

Magnoliales – fam. Magnoliaceae – genus Magnolia
Magnoliasubg. Yulania Magnolia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 (L.) L.

1753. Magnolia virginiana var. acuminata L.
1759. Magnolia acuminata (L.) L.
1803. Magnolia cordata Michx.
1886. M. acuminata var. cordata (Michx.) Sarg.
1903. Tulipastrum cordatum (Michx.) Small
Cucumber tree,
Cucumber magnolia,
Mountain magnolia,
Blue magnolia

Magnolia acuminé
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
DC.

1817. Magnolia kobus DC.
1908. M. kobus var. borealis
    
Kobus magnolia Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
No specimens
NYMFP-X
USDA-X0

ARS 




Images, wsp
Magnoliasubg. Magnolia Magnolia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 L.
var. virginiana

Sweet-bay,
Northern sweet-bay,
Swamp-bay,
Magnolia-bay,
Laurel-magnolia,
Beaver-tree

Laurier doux
Native, CoC: 9,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]

WL: FACW

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
NYFA-1
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp

Umbrella-tree,
Umbrella magnolia
Introduced,
US South native

WL: FACU
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 


BNA


Images, wsp
 Walter

Fraser magnolia,
Mountain magnolia
Introduced,
US South native

WL: FACU
NYFA-X
USDA-N0



BNA


Images, wsp
 Michx.

Big-leaved magnolia,
Cowcumber magnolia
Introduced,
US South native
NYFA-X
USDA-N0



BNA


Images, wsp

Genus LiriodendronEdit

 
Tulip tree illustration by Pancrace Bessa, ca. 1819

Liriodendron consists of two species: Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree) from eastern North America and Liriodendron chinense from southeast Asia.

The lumber of the tulip tree has similar properties to poplar (Populus) species, so it is often marketed as "tulip poplar" or "yellow poplar," even though the trees are not closely related.

Magnoliales – fam. Magnoliaceae – genus Liriodendron
Liriodendron Tulip tree N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Liriodendron tulipifera L.
1903. L. tulipifera fo. aureomarginatum
1903. L. tulipifera fo. integrifolium
Tuliptree,
Tulip tree,
American tuliptree,
Tulip poplar,
Yellow poplar

Bois jaune
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun - shade
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS

BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

Family AnnonaceaeEdit

The Annonaceae (custard apple family) is the largest family of the Magnoliales, but contains primarily tropical plants. Only one of its more than 2000 species has been discovered growing outside of cultivation in New York.

Subfamily AnnonoideaeEdit

Genus AsiminaEdit
 
Native range of Asimina triloba.
Asimina or pawpaw is a genus of small trees or shrubs that are native to eastern North America. Of these, only the most common species (Asimina triloba) is thought to be native as far north as New York. Though its native range only reaches into the western part of the state, common pawpaw trees can persist where cultivated in other parts of the state and may naturalize in clonal thickets. Pawpaw is considered to be the largest edible native North American fruit (in the culinary sense).[1]
Magnoliales – fam. Annonaceae – subfam. Annonoideae – genus Asimina
Asimina Pawpaw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Dunal

1753. Annona triloba L.
1796. Annona pendula Salisbury
1803. Orchidocarpum arietinum Michx.
1806. Porcelia triloba (L.) Pers.
1817. Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal
1838. Uvaria triloba (L.) Torr.& A.Gray
Pawpaw,
Common pawpaw,
Dog banana,
Indian banana,
Kentucky banana,
American custard apple

Asiminier trilobé,
Asiminier
Native, CoC: 5,
Threatened

WL: FAC

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - shade
NYFA-2
USDA-N
Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN LBJ

Images, wsp

Order LauralesEdit

The order Laurales ... [1]

Family CalycanthaceaeEdit

The Calycanthaceae (strawberry-shrub or sweet-shrub family) contains only three small genera worldwide, only one of which is native to North America.

Genus CalycanthusEdit

Calycanthus (sweet-shrub) is endemic to North America and contains about two to four species. Of these, only Calycanthus floridus is found outside of cultivation in New York, but it is thought to have been introduced from farther south. Though naturalization in New York is rare, it can become established and persist in wooded understories.

Laurales – fam. Calycanthaceae – subfam. Calycanthoideae
Calycanthus Sweet-shrub N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.

1759. Calycanthus floridus L.
1788. C. fertilis Walter
1840. C. floridus var. glaucus
1840. C. floridus var. laevigatus
1891. Beurera fertilis (Walter) Kuntze
1894. Butneria florida (L.) Kearney
1894. Butneria fertilis  (Walter) Kearney
1894. Buttneria florida (L.) Kearney
1894. Buttneria fertilis  (Walter) Kearney
Sweetshrub,
Eastern sweetshrub,
Hairy sweetshrub,
Smooth sweetshrub,
Sweet-shrub,
Strawberry bush,
Bubby-bush,
Spicebush
Introduced from
 southeast US,
 VA to FL,
 TX to NC,
US South native

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Shrub,
Part shade
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

Family LauraceaeEdit

The Lauraceae (laurel family) contains only two species, spicebush and sasafrass, that are native to the State of New York.

Tribe CinnamomeaeEdit

Genus LinderaEdit
Lindera is primarily native to eastern Asia. Of its nearly 100 species, only three (northern, southern, and bog spicebush) are native to eastern North America. And of the three, only northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), is native as far north as New York.
Laurales – fam. Lauraceae – tribe Cinnamomeae – genus Lindera
Lindera Spicebush N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Blume

1753. Laurus benzoin L.
1831. Benzoin odoriferum
1836. Benzoin aestivale Nees
1851. Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume
1939. L. benzoin var. pubescens
Spicebush,
Northern spicebush,
Benzoin-bush,
Benjamin-bush,
Fever-bush,
Wild allspice

Benjoin,
Laurier faux-benjoin
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

WL: FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Shrub,
Sun - shade
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN LBJ

Images, wsp
Genus SassafrasEdit
Sassafras has only three extant species. Two are native to eastern Asia, and one, Sassafras albidum, is native to much of eastern North Americam including New York.
Laurales – fam. Lauraceae – tribe Cinnamomeae – genus Sassafras
Sassafras Sassafras N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Nutt.) Nees

1753. Laurus sassafras L.
1818. Laurus albida Nutt.
1831. Sassafras officinale Nees & C.H.Eberm.
1836. Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees
1891. Sassafras variifolium Kuntze
1936. S. albidum var. molle (Raf.) Fernald
Sassafras,
White sassafras,
Silky sassafras,
Ague tree,
Mitten tree

Sassafras officinal,
Gombo filé
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - shade
NYFA-N
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN LBJ

Images, wsp
Genus PerseaEdit
A specimen of the avocado plant (Persea americana) was collected from a composte pile in Orange County in 1996. As this subtropical species would not be able to naturalize in New York, placing it in the New York Flora was probably an error.
Laurales – fam. Lauraceae – tribe Cinnamomeae – genus Persea
Persea Bay N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Mill.

1753. Laurus persea L.
1768. Persea americana Mill.
1892. Persea persea (L.) Cockerell
1950. Persea nubigena L.O.Williams
1953. Persea gigantea L.O.Williams
Avocado

Avocatier
Introduced from
 Mexico,
 Mesoamerica,
 Venezuela,
Impersistent,
Composte-pile waif
NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Persea (excluded species) Red bay N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(L.) Spreng.

1753. Laurus borbonia L.
1803. Laurus caroliniensis Michx.
1825. Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.
1836. Persea carolinensis Nees
1838. Tamala borbonia (L.) Raf.
1903. Persea littoralis Small
1913. Tamala littoralis (Small) Small
1922. Borbonia littoralis (Small) House
Redbay,
Shorebay
N. America native,
southeastern U.S.,
Excluded
NYFA-EXCLD
USDA-N0

ARS 
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp

Order PiperalesEdit

The order Piperales

Family AristolochiaceaeEdit

The Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort family)

Subfamily AsaroideaeEdit

Genus AsarumEdit

Although Canada wild ginger has some similarities to Zingiber officinale (true ginger), it is at least somewhat toxic and is not appropriate for use as a food additive.

Piperales – fam. Aristolochiaceae – subfam. Asaroideae – genus Asarum
Asarum Wild ginger N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Asarum canadense L.
1897. A. canadense var. acuminatum
1897. A. reflexum var. ambiguum
1898. A. acuminatum (Ashe) E.P.Bicknell
1898. A. reflexum E.P.Bicknell
1907. A. ambiguum (E.P.Bicknell) Daniels
Canada wild ginger,
Canadian wildginger,
Wild ginger,
Asarabacca

Asaret du Canada,
Asaret gingembre,
Gingembre sauvage
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

WL: FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Genus HexastylisEdit
Piperales – fam. Aristolochiaceae – subfam. Asaroideae – genus Hexastylis
HexastylisRaf. Heartleaf N.Y. Status Images Distribution 0
(Britten & Baker f.) Small
var. shuttleworthii

1898. Asarum shuttleworthii Britten & Baker f.
1903. Hexastylis shuttleworthii Small
Largeflower heartleaf Introduced,
US South native
NYFA-U
USDA-N0


FNA 



Images, wsp

Subfamily AristolochioideaeEdit

Genus EndodecaEdit
Piperales – fam. Aristolochiaceae – subfam. Aristolochioideae – genus Endodeca
EndodecaRaf. Snakeroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Raf.

1753. Aristolochia serpentaria L.
1818. Aristolochia hastata Nutt.
1828. Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf.
1894. Aristolochia nashii Kearney
1897. Aristolochia convolvulacea Small
Virginia snakeroot,
Virginia serpentary,
Virginia dutchmanspipe,
Snakeroot,
Serpentary
Native, CoC: 8,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

WL: UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Shade
NYFA-2
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN LBJ

Images, wsp
Note: [2]
  1. New York Natural Heritage Program. 2016. Online Conservation Guide for Endodeca serpentaria. Endangered, S2/G4.
  2. The New York Flora Atlas segregates Isotrema macrophyllum, Isotrema tomentosum, and Endodeca serpentaria from Aristolochia into Isotrema and Endodeca, respectively, while other sources, as of yet, have left them in Aristolochia.
Genus IsotremaEdit
Piperales – fam. Aristolochiaceae – subfam. Aristolochioideae – genus Isotrema
IsotremaRaf. Pipevine N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(Lam.) C.F. Reed

1783. Aristolochia macrophylla Lam.
1822. Hocquartia macrophylla Dumort.
1965. Isotrema macrophyllum
(Lam.) C.F.Reed
 auct. Aristolochia durior non. Hill
Dutchman's-pipe,
Largeleaf dutchman's-pipe,
Pipevine

Aristoloche à
  grandes feuilles
Introduced from
 PA to GA,
US South native
NYFA-X
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Note: [1]
(Sims) H.Huber

1811. Aristolochia tomentosa Sims
1960. Isotrema tomentosum H.Huber
Woolly Dutchman's-pipe,
Wooly pipevine,
Common Dutchman's-pipe
Introduced,
US South native,
Impersistent

WL: FAC
NYFA-Xm
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Note: [1]
  1. a b The New York Flora Atlas segregates Isotrema macrophyllum, Isotrema tomentosum, and Endodeca serpentaria from Aristolochia into Isotrema and Endodeca, respectively, while other sources, as of yet, have left them in Aristolochia.
Genus AristolochiaEdit

Members of the genus Aristolochia, Aristolochia clematitis in paricular, have been used as medicinal plants since ancient times, but have been shown to be both carcinogenic and toxic to the kidneys.

Piperales – fam. Aristolochiaceae – subfam. Aristolochioideae – genus Aristolochia
Aristolochia Birthwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Aristolochia clematitis L.
Birthwort,
Creeping birthwort,
Heartwort,
Asarabacca[2]

Aristoloche clématite,
Sarrasine
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Naturalized[1]

Perennial,
Herb-vine
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
  1. FNA states that Aristolochia clematitis "probably does not persist" when it occasionally escapes cultivation, but NYFA states that, although a rare weed, it is "quite aggressive at least at some sites, when naturalized."
  2. "Asarabacca" is isted as a common name for Aristolochia clematitis by FNA and Tropicos, but Asarabacca is also a common name for Asarum europaeum (Eropean wild ginger).

Family SaururaceaeEdit

The Saururaceae (lizard's tail family) world-wide contains only about seven species in four genera. Two of these plants are native to North America, and one is native to New York. The other North American family member (Anemopsis californica) is a southwestern native.

Genus SaururusEdit

The genus Saururus contains only the two lizard's tail plants Saururus cernuus (native to eastern North America) and Saururus chinensis (native to eastern Asia). Only the North American plant has been found outside of cultivation in North America.

Piperales – fam. Saururaceae – genus Saururus
Saururus Lizard's tail N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Saururus cernuus L.
non Thunb. 1784
Lizard's tail,
Water-dragon,
Swamp root,
Swamp lily

Saurure penché,
Lézardelle penchée,
Saurure penchée
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN LBJ

Images, wsp

Pinales
Flora of New York — Nymphaeales &
magnoliids
 : Magnoliales, Laurales, Piperales

Acorales & Alismatales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index