Flora of New York/Nymphaeales…Piperales

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Pinales
Flora of New York — Nymphaeales &
magnoliids
 : Magnoliales, Laurales, Piperales

Acorales & Alismatales
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This page is the start of the angiosperms or flowering plants, which comprise the bulk of this guide. It starts with the order Nymphaeales and continues with the three orders of the Magnoliidae that are found in New York.
Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Nymphaeales Cabombaceae Brasenia (water-shield)
Cabomba (fanwort)
2 2
Nymphaeaceae Nupharoideae Nuphar (pond lily) 1 4
Nymphaeoideae Nymphaea (waterlily) 1 2
Magnoliales Magnoliaceae Magnolia (magnolia)
Liriodendron (tulip tree, tulip poplar)
2 6
Annonaceae Annonoideae Asimina (pawpaw) 1 1
Laurales Calycanthaceae Calycanthoideae Calycanthus (sweet-shrub) 1 2
Lauraceae Cinnamomeae Lindera (spicebush)
Sassafras (sassafras)
Persea (avocado)
3 3
Piperales Aristolochiaceae Asaroideae Asarum (wild ginger)
Hexastylis (heartleaf)
2 2
Aristolochioideae Aristolochia (birthwort)
Endodeca (snakeroot)
Isotrema (dutchman's pipe)
3 4
Saururaceae Saururus (lizard's tail) 1 1

Order NymphaealesEdit

The order Nymphaeales contains the aquatic flowering plant families Hydatellaceae, Cabombaceae, and Nymphaeaceae. Only the latter two have taxa found outside of cultivation in New York. Aside from Amborella, a shrub endemic to New Caledonia, the Nymphaeales are considered to be the oldest lineage of angiosperms. Most estimates put the age of the Nymphaeales at well over 100 million years.[1]

Family CabombaceaeEdit

Two Cabombaceae (water-shield family) species are found in New York. One, Cabomba caroliniana, is rare in most of the state but has the potential to be a highly invasive exotic plant.

Genus BraseniaEdit

The only extant species of Brasenia (B. schreberi) is native to New York, as well as much of the rest of the world.
Cabombaceaegenus Brasenia
Brasenia Brasenia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 J.F.Gmel.

1791. Brasenia schreberi  J.F.Gmel.
1803. Hydropeltis purpurea  Michx.
1814. Brasenia peltata  Pursh
1862. Cabomba peltata  F.Muell. nom. illeg.
1890. Brasenia purpurea  Casp.
Schreber's watershield,
Water-shield,
Purple wen-dock,
Water-target

Brasénie de Schreber
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 8

NWI: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp

Genus CabombaEdit

Although native to the southeastern United States, Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) is considered to be an alien invasive plant in the Northwest and Northeast, including New York, where it is listed as highly invasive.
Cabombaceaegenus Cabomba
Cabomba Fanwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 A.Gray

1837. Cabomba caroliniana  A.Gray
1903. C. caroliniana
   var.
pulcherrima R.M.Harper
1953. C. pulcherrima  (R.M. Harper) Fassett
Carolina fanwort,
Fanwort,
Purple fanwort,
Carolina watershield,
Green cabomba

Cabomba de Caroline
Introduced from
 southeast US,
 South America,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 72%[1],
Prohibited[2]
NYFA-X
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp

Family NymphaeaceaeEdit

Six Nymphaeaceae (water-lily family) taxa in two genera are found in New York. All are native to the region and appear to be fairly secure.

Subfamily NupharoideaeEdit

Genus NupharEdit
Nymphaeaceaesubfam. Nupharoideaegenus Nuphar
Nupharsect. Astylus Pond-lily N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
Durand

     Nuphar lutea ssp. variegata
     Nuphar fraterna
     Nymphaea americana
     Nymphaea fraterna
Common yellow pond-lily,
Common cow-lily,
Common spatterdock,
Northern yellow pond-lily
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 3
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


BNA 

Images, wsp
(Aiton) W.T.Aiton
ssp. advena

     Nuphar lutea ssp. advena
     Nymphaea advena  Aiton
Broad-leaved yellow pond-lily,
Broad-leaved yellow cow-lily,
Broad-leaved spatterdock,
Broad-leaved bull-head lily
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 4

Perennial
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


BNA 

Images, wsp

Nuphar pumila ×
Nuphar variegata

     Nuphar lutea ssp. rubrodisca
Hybrid yellow pond-lily,
Peck's yellow pond-lily
Native,
Likely secure
NYFA-3-5
USDA-NN



BNA 

Images, wsp
Nupharsect. Nuphar Pond-lily N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
(Pers.) Fernald

     Nuphar pumila  (Timm) DC.
     Nuphar lutea ssp. pumila
     Nuphar microphylla  (Pers.) Fernald
Small yellow pond-lily,
Small yellow cow-lily,
Dwarf spatterdock
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 10

NWI: OBL
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


BNA 

Images, wsp

Subfamily NymphaeoideaeEdit

Genus NymphaeaEdit
Nymphaeaceaesubfam. Nymphaeoideaegenus Nymphaea
Nymphaea Waterlily N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
ssp. odorata

1789. Nymphaea odorata  Aiton
1806. Castalia odorata  (Aiton) Wood
White water-lily,
American white water-lily,
Fragrant water-lily,
Sweet-scented white water-lily,
Pond-lily,
Great white water-lily
Native,
Secure

Perennial,
Forb-herb
NYFA-5
USDA-N

ARS 



Images, wsp
ssp. tuberosa

1994. Nymphaea odorata ssp. tuberosa
Tuberous white water-lily,
Large white water-lily,
American white waterlily
Native,
Likely secure
NYFA-5?
USDA-N

ARS 



Images, wsp

Order MagnolialesEdit

The order Magnoliales Bromhead ...

Family MagnoliaceaeEdit

The Magnoliaceae (magnolia family) has traditionally been separated into the two subfamilies Magnolioideae and Liriodendroideae. Magnolioideae contained a number of genera including Magnolia s.s., the largest genus. Liriodendroideae contained the single genus Liriodendron. Phylogenetic research has shown Magnolia s.s. to be non-monophyletic. Therefore it was suggested that rather than breaking Magnolia into numerous new genera, all other genera in Magnolioideae would be placed in Magnolia s.l. to create a single monophyletic genus. This leaves the two subfamilies with one genus apiece, making Magnoliaceae subfamilies redundant. So, they are not used here.[1][2]

Genus MagnoliaEdit

Magnoliaceaegenus Magnolia
Magnoliasubg. Yulania Magnolia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 (L.) L.

1753. Magnolia virginiana var. acuminata L.
1759. Magnolia acuminata  (L.) L.
1803. Magnolia cordata  Michx.
1886. M. acuminata var. cordata (Michx.) Sarg.
1903. Tulipastrum cordatum  (Michx.) Small
Cucumber tree,
Cucumber magnolia,
Mountain magnolia,
Blue magnolia

Magnolia acuminé
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 7

Perennial,
Tree
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
Magnoliasubg. Magnolia Magnolia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 L.
var. virginiana
Sweet-bay,
Northern sweet-bay,
Swamp-bay,
Magnolia-bay,
Laurel-magnolia,
Beaver-tree

Laurier doux
Native,
Endangered,
CoC: 9,
NYNHP: 1[3]
NYFA-1
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 

BNA 

Images, wsp
Umbrella-tree,
Umbrella magnolia
Introduced,
US South native
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 




Images, wsp
 Walter
Fraser magnolia,
Mountain magnolia
Introduced,
US South native
NYFA-X
USDA-N0





Images, wsp
 Michx.
Big-leaved magnolia,
Cowcumber magnolia
Introduced,
US South native
NYFA-X
USDA-N0





Images, wsp

Genus LiriodendronEdit

The lumber of the tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) has similar properties to poplar (Populus) species, so it is often marketed as "tulip poplar," even though the trees are not closely related.

Magnoliaceaegenus Liriodendron
Liriodendron Tulip tree N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Liriodendron tulipifera  L.
1903. L.t. fo. aureomarginatum (Dippel) Schelle
1903. L.t. fo. integrifolium (G. Kirchn.) Schelle
Tuliptree,
Tulip tree,
American tuliptree,
Tulip poplar,
Yellow poplar

Bois jaune
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 6

NWI: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW 
ARS ITIS

BNA 

Images, wsp

Family AnnonaceaeEdit

The Annonaceae (custard apple family) is the largest family of the Magnoliales, but contains primarily tropical plants. Only one of its more than 2000 species has been discovered growing outside of cultivation in New York.

Subfamily AnnonoideaeEdit

Genus AsiminaEdit
The native range of the pawpaw (Asimina triloba) extends only into western New York, but the tree can persist where cultivated in other parts of the state and may naturalize there.
Annonaceaesubfam. Annonoideaegenus Asimina
Asimina Pawpaw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Dunal

1753. Annona triloba  L.
1796. Annona pendula  Salisbury
1803. Orchidocarpum arietinum  Michx.
1806. Porcelia triloba  (L.) Pers.
1817. Asimina triloba  (L.) Dunal
1838. Uvaria triloba  (L.) Torr.& A.Gray
Pawpaw,
Dog banana,
Indian banana

Asiminier trilobé,
Asiminier
Native,
Threatened
NYFA-2
USDA-N
Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA 
IPN
Images, wsp

Order LauralesEdit

The order Laurales ... [1]

Family CalycanthaceaeEdit

The Calycanthaceae (strawberry-shrub family) ...

Genus CalycanthusEdit

Calycanthaceaesubfam. Calycanthoideae
Calycanthus Sweet-shrub N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.
var. floridus
Eastern sweetshrub,
Hairy sweet-shrub,
Hairy strawberry bush,
Hariy bubby-bush,
Hairy Carolina-allspice
Introduced from
 southeast US,
US South native
NYFA-X0
USDA-N

ARS ITIS
FNA 
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 L.
var. glaucus (Willd.) Torr. & A.Gray
Eastern sweetshrub,
Smooth sweet-shrub,
Smooth strawberry bush,
Smooth bubby-bush,
Smooth Carolina-allspice
Introduced from
 southeast US,
US South native
NYFA-X0
USDA-N

ARS ITIS
FNA 
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp

Family LauraceaeEdit

The Lauraceae (laurel family) contains only two species, spicebush and sasafrass, that are native to the State of New York.

Tribe CinnamomeaeEdit

Genus LinderaEdit
Lindera is primarily native to eastern Asia, but of its nearly 100 species, only three (northern, southern, and bog spicebush) are native to eastern North America. And of the three, only northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), is native as far north as New York.
Lauraceaetribe Cinnamomeaegenus Lindera
Lindera Spicebush N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Blume

1753. Laurus benzoin  L.
1831. Benzoin odoriferum
1836. Benzoin aestivale  Nees
1851. Lindera benzoin  (L.) Blume
1939. Lindera benzoin
   var.
pubescens Rehder
Spicebush,
Northern spicebush,
Benzoin-bush,
Benjamin-bush,
Fever-bush,
Wild allspice

Benjoin,
Laurier faux-benjoin
Native,
Secure,
Shrub, small tree
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
Genus SassafrasEdit
Sassafras has only three extant species. Two are native to eastern Asia, and one, Sassafras albidum, is native to much of eastern North Americam including New York.
Lauraceaetribe Cinnamomeaegenus Sassafras
Sassafras Sassafras N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Nutt.) Nees

1753. Laurus sassafras  L.
1818. Laurus albida  Nutt.
1831. Sassafras officinale  Nees & C.H.Eberm.
1836. Sassafras albidum  (Nutt.) Nees
1891. Sassafras variifolium  Kuntze
1936. S. albidum var. molle (Raf.) Fernald
Sassafras,
White sassafras,
Silky sassafras,
Ague tree,
Mitten tree

Sassafras officinal,
Gombo filé
Native,
Secure
NYFA-N
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA 
IPN
Images, wsp
Genus PerseaEdit
A specimen of the avocado plant (Persea americana) was collected from a composte pile in Orange County in 1996. As this subtropical species would not be able to naturalize in New York, placing it in the New York Flora was probably an error.
Lauraceaetribe Cinnamomeaegenus Persea
Persea Red bay N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Mill.

1753. Laurus persea  L.
1768. Persea americana  Mill.
1892. Persea persea  (L.) Cockerell
1950. Persea nubigena  L.O.Williams
1953. Persea gigantea  L.O.Williams
Avocado

Avocatier
Introduced from
 Mexico,
 Mesoamerica,
 Venezuela,
Impersistent,
Composte-pile waif
NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp

Order PiperalesEdit

The order Piperales

Family AristolochiaceaeEdit

The Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort family)

Subfamily AsaroideaeEdit

Genus AsarumEdit

Although Canada wild ginger has some similarities to Zingiber officinale (true ginger), it is at least somewhat toxic and is not appropriate for use as a food additive.

Aristolochiaceaesubfam. Asaroideaegenus Asarum
Asarum Wild ginger N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Asarum canadense  L.
1897. A. canadense var. acuminatum Ashe
1897. A. reflexum var. ambiguum E.P.Bicknell
1898. A. acuminatum  (Ashe) E.P.Bicknell
1898. A. reflexum  E.P.Bicknell
1907. A. ambiguum  (E.P.Bicknell) Daniels
Canada wild ginger,
Wild ginger,
Asarabacca

Asaret du Canada,
Asaret gingembre,
Gingembre sauvage
Native,
Secure
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Genus HexastylisEdit
Aristolochiaceaesubfam. Asaroideaegenus Hexastylis
HexastylisRaf. Heartleaf N.Y. Status Images Distribution 0
(Britten & Baker f.) Small
var. shuttleworthii

1898. Asarum shuttleworthii  Britten & Baker f.
1903. Hexastylis shuttleworthii  Small
Largeflower heartleaf Introduced,
US South native
NYFA-U
USDA-N0


FNA 


Images, wsp

Subfamily AristolochioideaeEdit

Genus EndodecaEdit
Aristolochiaceaesubfam. Aristolochioideaegenus Endodeca
EndodecaRaf. Snakeroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Raf.

1753. Aristolochia serpentaria  L.
1818. Aristolochia hastata  Nutt.
1828. Endodeca serpentaria  Raf.
1894. Aristolochia nashii  Kearney
1897. Aristolochia convolvulacea  Small
Virginia snakeroot,
Virginia serpentary,
Snakeroot,
Serpentary
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]
NYFA-2
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA 
Note [2]
Images, wsp
  1. New York Natural Heritage Program. 2013. Online Conservation Guide for Endodeca serpentaria. Endangered, S2/G4.
  2. The New York Flora Atlas segregates Isotrema macrophyllum, Isotrema tomentosum, and Endodeca serpentaria from Aristolochia into Isotrema and Endodeca, respectively, while other sources, as of yet, have left them in Aristolochia.
Genus IsotremaEdit
Aristolochiaceaesubfam. Aristolochioideaegenus Isotrema
IsotremaRaf. Pipevine N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(Lam.) C.F. Reed

1783. Aristolochia macrophylla  Lam.
1822. Hocquartia macrophylla  Dumort.
1965. Isotrema macrophyllum  C.F.Reed
auct. Aristolochia durior  non. Hill
Dutchman's-pipe,
Largeleaf dutchman's-pipe,
Pipevine

Aristoloche à
  grandes feuilles
Introduced,
US South native,
(PA to GA native)
NYFA-X
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 
NSE BNA 
Note [1]
Images, wsp
(Sims) H.Huber 1960

1811. Aristolochia tomentosa Sims
1960. Isotrema tomentosum H.Huber
Woolly Dutchman's-pipe,
Wooly pipevine,
Common Dutchman's-pipe
Introduced,
US South native,
Impersistent
NYFA-Xm
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 
NSE BNA 
Note [1]
Images, wsp
  1. a b The New York Flora Atlas segregates Isotrema macrophyllum, Isotrema tomentosum, and Endodeca serpentaria from Aristolochia into Isotrema and Endodeca, respectively, while other sources, as of yet, have left them in Aristolochia.
Genus AristolochiaEdit
Aristolochiaceaesubfam. Aristolochioideaegenus Aristolochia
Aristolochia Birthwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Aristolochia clematitis  L.
Birthwort,
Creeping birthwort,
Heartwort

Aristoloche clématite,
Sarrasine
Introduced from
 Eurasia
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp

Family SaururaceaeEdit

The Saururaceae (Lizard's tail family)

Genus SaururusEdit

Saururaceaegenus Saururus
Saururus Lizard's tail N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Saururus cernuus  L.
   non Thunb. 1784
Lizard's tail,
Water-dragon,
Swamp root

Saurure penché,
Lézardelle penchée,
Saurure penchée
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 6

NWI: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS

BNA 

Images, wsp