Exercise as it relates to Disease/The benefits of exercise on patients with Lupus Erythematosus
Lupus Erythematosus or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease  that causes chronic inflammation and damage to body tissues including the renal, cardiovascular, neural, musculoskeletal, and cutaneous tissues. It is associated with periods of active disease involvement and remission. The severity and symptoms of the disease varies among patients however research has indicated that if the onset of the disease occurs during childhood or adolescents then the disease is more likely to be severe going into adulthood. The cause of SLE is suggested to result from environmental and genetic factors that lead to a break down in the tolerance of the immune system. A common abnormality in this population is irregularities in their T and B lymphocytes. In addition, an increase in IL-10 production in peripheral blood b cells and monocytes, and elevated levels of IFN- α are indicative of the presence SLE disease activity.
Research has indicated that the prevalence of SLE is greater in the female population of a child bearing age with a prevalence rate of 90%, although the disease can occur at any stage of life. The characteristics of the disease are strongly influenced by environmental factors and this differs between racial and ethnic groups. It has been indicated that children with SLE have a more active disease activity and a higher prevalence rate of renal damage and which occurs at a more rapid rate compared to adult onset SLE(A-SLE).
Childhood onset SLE (C-SLE) is generally characterised by onset of symptoms before the age of 18. The onset of the disease has an around 15-20% prevalence in child populations with 60% of those developing the disease after 10 years of age. There is research to suggest that there is less gender bias towards females with C-SLE compared to adult onset. However, C-SLE is thought to be more prevalent and severe in those of African, Asian, Hispanic and Native American descent. It should be noted that not all studies support this finding.
Main Signs and Symptoms Associated with C-SLE and A-SLEEdit
This is not exhaustive list of signs and symptoms as they will vary between patients.
Current Treatments AvailableEdit
Pharmaceutical treatment for this disease varies with the individual, their symptoms and severity. Nonspecific drug treatments are the most common way to treat this disease  as currently there is no cure. The current drug treatments used carry a significant risk of toxicity, cytopenia, infection and malignancy. The drugs used include:
Hematopoietic stem cell and Mesenchymal stem cells transplantations are used in the most severe cases in an attempt to restart the immune system however it is not a cure but can improve the immune system activity.
In SLE patients exercise has been found to be an important non pharmaceutical treatment. Although undertaking exercise in this population can be difficult due to individuals suffering from chronic fatigue and pain and other comorbidities including premature atherosclerosis, dyslipidaemia  and insulin resistance. This is due to the increased levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and sTNFRs that also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Multiple other cardiac abnormalities can be found in SLE patients, including autonomic dysfunction, coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease. Therefore exercise has been found to decrease the inflammatory response in SLE, as patients display decreased levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF α at rest post chronic exercise training.
Cardiac abnormalities in SLE can also be reduced through exercise by: