- Sen (س) makes the [s] sound as in "see". Never pronounce it like a [z]. In English we often mix our [z] and [s] sounds subconsciously.
- Sħen (ش) makes the [ʃ] sound as in "she". It is often spelled "sh" in English, but has several other spellings too.
- Sžaad (ص) makes the emphatic [sˁ] sound. Refer to the description of emphatic sounds in Row 2.
- Džaad (ض) makes the [d̪ˁ] sound. It is the same as د, only emphatic.
- Qaaf (ق) makes the [q] sound — another non-English sound. It is similar to [k], but it is pronounced farther back in the mouth, almost touching the very back.
- Laam (ل) makes the [l] sound as in "lip". It might actually be [l̪], in which case it would be pronounced farther forward that the English version, with the tip of the tongue on the back of the teeth.
- Non (ن) makes the [n] sound as in "now".
- Often pronounced as a [zˁ] in non-standard dialects