All the Plants

Table of ContentsEdit

PlantsEdit

  • Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom plantae.
  • Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdom including all living thing that were not animals and all algae and fungi were treated as plants.
  • However, all current definitions of plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes the archaea and bateria].
  • By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplanta [Latin name for "green plants"], a group that include the flower plant, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liveworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae.
  • Green plants obtain most of their enegy from sunlight via photosynthsis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymboisis with cyanobacteria.
  • Their chloropasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
  • Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize, but still have flowers, fruits and seeds.
  • Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common.
  • There are about 320,000 species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260-290 thousand, produce seeds.
  • Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems.
  • Plants that produce grain, fruit and vegetables also form basic human foods and have been domesticated for millennia.
  • Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs.
  • The scietific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology.
  • A living organism of the kind exemplified by trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns and mosses, typically growing in a permanent site, absorbing water and inorganic substances though its roots and synthesizing nutrients in its leaves by photosynthesis using the green pigment chlorophyll.
  • A place where an industrial or manufacturing process takes place.
  • Put [a seed, bulb or plant] in the ground so that it can grow.

VegetablesEdit

  • Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food.
  • The original meaning is still commenly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to edible plant matter, including the flowers, fruits, stems leaves, roots and seeds.
  • The alternate definition of the term is applied somewhat arbitrarily, often by culinary and cultural tradition
  • It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits, flowers, nuts and cereal grains, but include savoury fruits such as tomatoes and courgettes, flowers such as broccoli and seeds such as pluses.
  • Originally, vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world, probably during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed.
  • At first,plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types.
  • Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits and crops may be cultivated in protected enironments in less suitable locations.
  • China is the largest producer of vegetable and global trade in agricultural produts allows consumers to purchase vegetable grown in faraway countries.
  • The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops.
  • Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing, processing and marketing.
  • Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being mostly low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber
  • Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day often being recommended.
  • Vegetable in a market in the philines.

CarrotsEdit

  • They are a domesticated form of the wild carrot, Daucus carota, native to Europe and southwestern Asia.
  • The carrot is a biennial plant in the umbellifer family, Apiaceae.
  • At first, it grows a roseette of leaves while building up the enlarged taproot.
  • The domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its greatly enlarged, more palatable, less woody-textured taproot.
  • The plant probably originated in persia and was originally cultivated for its leaves and seeds.

TomatoEdit

  • The species originated in western South America and Central America.
  • Tomato are a significant source of umami flavor.
  • The tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces, salads and drinks.
  • The wild ancestor of the tomato is native to western south America.

BeetrootEdit

  • During the middle of the 19th centery, wine often was coloured with beetroot juice.
  • Usually the deep purple roots of beets are eaten boiled, roasted or raw and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable.
  • A large production of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilized beets or into pickles.
  • Raw beetroot is 88% water, 10% carbohydrates, 2% protein and less than 1% fat.
  • When beet juice is used, it is most stable in foods with a low water content, such as frozen novelties and fruit fillings.

BeansEdit

  • A bean is the seed of one of several genera of the flowering family Fabaceae which are used as vegetable for human or animal food.
  • They can be cooked in many different ways, including boiling, frying and baking and are used in many traditional dishes throughout the world unlike the closely related pea, beans are a summer crop that needs warm temperatures to grow.
  • Legumes are capable of nitrogen fixation and hence need less fertiliser than most plants.
  • Maturity is typically 55-60 days from planting to harvest.
  • Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants.

WitloofEdit

  • Witloof is a Dutch name that translates as white leaf.
  • The name of this vegetable can be confusing.
  • In New zealand it is called either witloof or chicory.
  • However, the British call it chicory and the French call it endive or Belgium endive.
  • There is also a type of luttuce that the French call chicory and is known as endive in Britain and New zealand.

LeeksEdit

  • The leek is a vegetable, a cultivar of Allium ampeloprasum, the broadleaf wild leek.
  • The edible part of the plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths that is sometimes erroneously called a stem or stalk.
  • The genus Allium also contains the onion, garlic, shallot, scallion, chive and Chinese onion.
  • Three closely related vegetable, elephant garlic, kurrat and Persian leek or tareh, are also cultivars of ampeloprasum, although different in their uses as food.
  • Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest, which takes places up to 6 months from planting.

OkraEdit

  • Raw okra is 90% water, 2% protein , 7% carbohydrates and negligible in fat.
  • Young okra leaves may be cooked in a similar way to the greens of beets or dandelion, or in salads.
  • Okra seeds may be roasted and ground to form a caffenine-free substitute for coffee.
  • It is valued for its edible green seed pods.
  • The plant is cultivated in tropical, subtropical and warm temperare region around the world.

CabbageEdit

  • Cabbage weights generally range from 500 to 1,000 grams [1 to 2 lb].
  • Although cabbage has an extensive history, it is difficult to trace its exact origins owing to the many varieties of leafly green classified as brassicas.
  • "Cabbage" was originally used to refer to multiple form of B.
  • Oleracea, inincluding those with loose or non-existent heads.
  • The varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for "having a head".

LettuceEdit

  • Lettuce [Lactuca sativa] is an annual plant of the daisy family Aateraceae.
  • It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds.
  • Lettuce is a rich source of vitamin K and vitamin A, and a moderate source of folate and iron.
  • Lettuce is very easy to grow and as such has been a significant source of sales for many seed companies.
  • Although this trait can be a problem to home gardeners who attempt to save seeds, biologists have used it to broaden the gene pool of cultivated lettuce varieties.

BroccoliEdit

  • It is eaten raw and cooked.
  • In 2018, global prodiction of broccoli [combined for production reports with cauliflower was 26.5 million tonnes, with China and India together accounting for 74% of the world total.
  • Beneforte is a variety of broccoli containing 2 – 3 times more glucoraphanin and produced by clossing broccoli with a wild Brassica variety, Brassica oleracea var villosa.
  • Other popular cultivars include Belstar, Blue Wind, Coroado Crown, Destiny, Dicicco, Green Goliath, Green Magic, Purple Sprouting, Romanesco, Sun king and Waltham 29.
  • Rapini, something called "broccoli raab", is a species from broccoli, froming similar but smaller heads and actually a type of turnip [Brassica rapa].

PeasEdit

  • The pea is most commonly the small sphereical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
  • Each pod contains several peas, which can be green or yellow.
  • The name is also used to describe other edible seeds from the fabaceae such as the pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan], the cowpea [Vigna unguiculata] and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus.
  • P. sativum is an annual plant, with a life cycle of one year.
  • It is a cool-season crop grown in many pats of the world; planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on location.

PuhaEdit

  • The geuns is named after the Anceint Greek for such plants.
  • All are soft, somewhat irregularly lobed leaves that clasp the stem and, at least initially, form a basal rosette.
  • The stem contains a milky latex.
  • Flower heads are yellow and range in size from half to one inch in dimeter; the florets are all of ray type.
  • Sonchus fruits are single-seeded, dry and indehiscent.

MushroomsEdit

  • A mushroom or toadstool is fleshly, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground, on soil, or on its food source.
  • Cultural or social phobias mushrooms and fungi may be related.
  • The trem "mushroom" and its variations may have been derived from the French word mosseron in reference to moss [mousse].
  • Identifying mushrooms requirs a basic understanding of their macrosscopic struture.
  • A hymenium is a layer of microscopic spore-bearing cells that covers the surface of gills.

PumpkinEdit

  • A pumpkinis a cultivar of winter squash that is round with smooth, slighhtly ribbed skin and is most often deep yellow to orange in coloration.
  • The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp.
  • Pumpkins are commonly carved into decorative lanterns called jack-o-lanterns for the Halloween season.
  • Pumpkins that are still small and green may be eaten in the same way as summer squash or zucchini.
  • Growers of giant pumpkins often compete to see whose pumpkins are the most massive.

CucumberEdit

  • Cucumber grown to eat fresh are called slicing cucumber.
  • The main varieties of slicers mature on vines with large leaves that provide shading.
  • Burpless cucumbers are sweeterand have a thinner skin than other varieties of cucumbers.
  • In the later 17th centery, a prejudice developed against uncooked vegetables and fruits.
  • According to Pling the Elder, the Emperor Tiberius had the cucumber on his table daily during summer and winter.

PotatoesEdit

  • Wild potato species, originating in modern-day Peru can be found thoughout the Americas, from Canada to southern Chile.
  • Potatoes were introducedto Europe from the Americas in the second half of the 16th centery by the Spanish
  • Following millennia of selective breeding, there are now over 5,000 different types of potatoes.
  • There are about 5,000 potato varieties worldwide.
  • The English word potato comes from Spanish patata [the name used in spain].

TurnipEdit

  • The turnip is an old vegetable charge in heraldry.
  • It was used by Leonhard von Keutschach, prince-archbishop of Salzburg.
  • The turnip is still the heart shield in he arms of Keutschach am See.
  • It is 100 grams 93% water, 4% carbohydrates and 1% protein,with negligilble fat.
  • The turnip or white turnip [Brassica rapa subsp. rapa] is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, fleshly taproot.

RadishEdit

  • Radish are a fast-growing , annual, cool-season crop.
  • They can also funtion as a trap crop, luring insect pests away from the main crop.
  • As a fast-growing plant, diseasesare not generally a problem with radishes, but some insect pests can be a nuisance.
  • A raw radish is 95% water, 3% carbohydrates, 1% protein and has negligible fat.
  • The most commonly is the napiform taproot, although the entire plant is edible and the tops can be used as a leaf vegetable.

CapsicumsEdit

  • Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America and northern South America.
  • Pepper seeds were imprtant to Spain in 1493 and then spread through Europe and Asia.
  • The mild bell pepper cultivar was developed in the 1920s, in Szeged, Hungary.
  • Like the tomato bell pepper are botanical fruits but culinary vegetable.
  • Pieces of bell pepper are commonly used in garden salads and as topping on pizza or cheesesteaks.

EggplantEdit

  • Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit.
  • Most commonly purple, the spongy, absorbent fruit is used in several cuisines.
  • Typically used as a vegetable in cooking, it is a berry by botanical definition.
  • The plant species is believed to originated in India, where it continues to grow wild, or in Africa.
  • The aubergine is unrecordedin England unit the 16th centery.

AsparagusEdit

  • By 1469, asparagus was cultivated in French monasteries.
  • Watermakes up 93% of asparagus's composition.
  • Asparagus is low in food energy and very low in sodium.
  • Asparagus can also be pickled and stored for several years.
  • Some brands label shoots prepared in this way as "marinated".

CeleryEdit

  • Celery was first grown as a winterand early spring vegetable.
  • The wild form celery is knownas "smallage".
  • In North America, commercial production of celery is dominated by the cultivar called 'Pascal' celery.
  • Leaf celery [Chinese celery, Apium graveoens var. secalinum] is a cultivar from East Asia that grows in marshlands.
  • Apiin and apigenin can be extracted from celery and parsley.

ChokosEdit

  • Colour range from green to ivory white.
  • Choko shoots are sometimes used in Asian cooking.
  • They were taken to Europe by Spanish explorers and from there were introduced to parts of Asia.
  • A choko is also known as chayote, vegetable pear or mango squash.
  • They grow on a climbing plant and look a bit like a pear.

Brussels sproutsEdit

  • In Continental Europe, the largest

producers are the Netherlands, at 82,000 metric tons and Germany, at 10,000 tons.

  • Total US production is around 32,000 tons, with a value of $27 million.
  • About 80 to 85% of US production is for the frozen food market, with the remainder for fresh consumption.
  • US varieties are generally 2.5-5 cm [0.98-1.97 in] in diameter.
  • Raw Brussels sproutsare 86% water, 9% carbohydrates, 3% protein and negligible fat.

Chilli pepperEdit

  • Chilli pepper originated in Mexico.
  • In 2016, 34.5 million tonnes of green chilli peppers and 3.9 million tonnes of dried chilli peppers were produced worldwide.
  • China was the world's largest producer of green chillis, providing half of the global total.
  • Peppers are commonly broken down into three groupings: bell peppers, sweet peppers and hot peppers.
  • Chilli pepper pods are, technically, berries.

CauliflowerEdit

  • It is an annualplant that reproduces by seed.
  • Raw cauliflower is 92% water, 5% carbohydrates, 2% protein and contains negligible fat.
  • It was introduced to India in 1822 by the British.
  • The word "cauliflower" derives from the Italian cavolfiore, meaning "cabbage flower".
  • Transplantable cauliflower can be produced in containers as flats, hotbeds, or in the field.

FruitsEdit

  • In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants [also known as angiosperms] formed from the ovary after flowering.
  • Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds.
  • Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source food.
  • Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output and some [such as the apple and the pomegranate] have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings.
  • In common language usage, "fruit" normally mean the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour and edible in the raw state, such as apples, bananas, grapes, lemons, orange and stawberries.
  • On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, tomatoes and wheat grains.
  • The section of a fungus that produces spores is also called a fruiting body.

AppleEdit

  • An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree [Malus domestica]
  • Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus Malus.
  • Apple trees are large if grown from seed.
  • There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics.
  • Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and use, including cooking, eating raw and cider production.

BananaEdit

  • Worldwide, there is no sharp distinction between "bananas" and "plantains".
  • The term "banana" is also used as the common name for the plants that produce the fruit.
  • The banana plant is the largest herbaceous flowering plant.
  • The genus Musa was created by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.
  • Musa is in the family Musaceae.

PearEdit

  • Pears are fruits produced and consumed around the world, growing on a tree and harvested in late Summer into October.
  • Several species of pears are valued for their edible fruit and juices, while others are cultivated as trees.
  • The tree is medium-sized and native to coastal and mildly temperate region of Europe, North Africa and Asia.
  • The pear was also cultivated by the Romans, who ate the fruits raw or cooked, just like apples.
  • Raw pear is 84% water, 15% carbohydrates and contains negligilble protein and fat.

StawberryEdit

  • The first garden stawberry was grown in Brittany, France, during the late 18th centery.
  • The stawberry fruit was mentioned in ancient Roman literature in reference to its medicinal use.
  • The entire stawberry plant was used to treat depressive illnesses.
  • By the 16th centery, references of cultivation of the stawberry became more common.
  • The combination of stawberries and cream was created by Thomas Wolsey in the court of king Henry VIII.

BlueberryEdit

  • Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with ble or purple berries.
  • They are classified in the section Cyanococcus within the genus Vaccinium.
  • Blueberries are usually prostrate shrubs that can vary in size from 10 centimeters [4 inches] to 4 meters [13 feet] in height.
  • Blueberry jam is made from blueberries, sugar, water and fruit pectin.
  • Blueberries consist of 14% carbohydrates, 0.7% protein, 0.3% fat and 84% water.

BlackberryEdit

  • The soft fruit is popular for use in desserts, jams, seedless jelly and sometimes wine.
  • It is often mixed with apples for pies and crumbles.
  • Blackberries are also used to produce candy.
  • The leaves are rich in tannin and have antibacterial properties.
  • They have been used medicinally since at least the time of the ancient Greeks.

GrapesEdit

  • A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
  • Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters.
  • The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000-8,000 years ago in the Near East.
  • The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC.
  • The consumption of grapes and raisins presents a potential health threat to dogs.

OrangeEdit

  • The tree trunk and major branches have thorns.
  • The leaves are shiny, green and rather small.
  • Citrus reticulata is a moderate-sized tree some 7.6 meters [25 ft] in height.
  • A orange contains 85% water, 13% carbohydrates, and negligible amounts of fat and protein.
  • A orange fruits are small 40-80 millimeters [1.6-3.1 in].

WatermelonEdit

  • Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus] is a flowering plant species of the Cucurbitaceae family.
  • A scrambling and trailing vine-like plant, it was originally domesticated in Africa.
  • It is a highly cultivated fruit worldwide, with more than 1,000 varieties.
  • Considerable breeding effort has developed disease-resistant varieties.
  • The bitter wooly melon is the sister species of Citrullus ecirrhosus Cogn.

GooseberryEdit

  • Human cultivate gooseberries as insect habitats or directly for the sweet fruits.
  • Numerous cultivars have been developed for both commercial and domestic use.
  • Fruit is produced on lateral spurs and the previous year's shoots.
  • Gooseberry bushes [Ribs] are hosts to magpie moth [Abraxas grossulariata] caterpillars.
  • Gooseberries are edible and can be eaten as-is, or used as an ingredient in dessert, such as pies, fools and crumbles.

kiwiEdit

  • Kiwifruit is native to central and eastern China.
  • The genus Actinidia comprises around 60 species.
  • Their fruits are quite variable, although most are easily recognised as kiwifruit because of their appearance and shape.
  • The skin of the fruit varies in size, hairiness and colour.
  • The flesh varies in colour, juiciness, texture and taste.

CranberryEdit

  • Historically, cranberry beds were constructed in wetlands.
  • Today's cranberry beds are constructed in upland areas with a shallow water table.
  • The topsoil is scraped off to form dykes around the bed perimeter.
  • Clean sand is hauled in and spread to a depth of four to eight inches [10 to 20 centimeters].
  • The surface is laser leveled flat to provide even drainage.

CherryEdit

  • A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus and is a fleshly drupe [stone fruit].
  • Many cherries are allied to the subgenus Prunus subg.
  • Other cherry fruits are borne on racemes and called bird cherries.
  • Cherries were introduced into England at Teynham, near Sittingbourne in Kent, by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders.
  • A cherry tree will take three to four years once it is planted in the orchard to produce its first crop of fruit, and seven years to attain full maturity.

MangoEdit

  • Most of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes.
  • The genus belongs to the casgew family Anacardiaceae.
  • Worldwide, there are several hundred cultivars of mango.
  • Depending on cultivar, fruits are variously yellow, orange, red, or green.
  • Ripe intact mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell.

BoysenberryEdit

  • It is a large 8.0-gram [0.28 oz] aggregate fruit, with large seeds and a deep maroon color.
  • By 1940,599 acres [242 ha] of land in California were dedicated boysenberries.
  • As of 2016, New Zealand was the world's largest producer and exporter of boysenberries.
  • There is also a hybird variety with marionberry called "Silvanberry"in Australia.
  • Boysenberries grow on low, trailing plants and are characterized by their soft texture, thin skins and sweet-tart flavor.

ElderberryEdit

  • Sambucus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae.
  • The various species are commonly called elder or elderberry.
  • The oppositely arranged leaves are pinnate with 5-9 leaflets [or, rarely, 3 or 11].
  • The seeds of Sambucus callicarpa are poisonous and may cause vomiting or diarrhea.
  • Elder commonly grows near farms and homesteads.

RaspberryEdit

  • The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family.
  • Most of which are in the subgenus ldaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves.
  • Raspberries are perennial with woody stems.
  • World production of raspberries in 2018 was 870,209 tonnes, led by Russia with 19% of the world total.
  • All cultivars of raspberries have perennial roots, but many do not have perennial shoots.

RaisinEdit

  • A raisin is a dried grape.
  • Raisin are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking, baking and brewing.
  • They are often treated with sulfur dioxide after drying.
  • Raisin can contain up to 72% sugar by weight, most of which is fructose and glucose.
  • They also contain about 3% protein and 3.7%-6.8% dietary fiber.

PruneEdit

  • A prune is a dried plum of any cultivar, mostly the European plum.
  • Contrary to the name, boiled plums or prunes are not used to make sugar plums.
  • More than 1,000 plum cultivars are grown for drying.
  • Fresh prunes reach the market earlier than flesh plums and are usually smaller in size.
  • Prunes are 31% water,64% carbohydrates, including 7% dietary fiber, 2% protein and less than 1% fat.

PlumEdit

  • A plum is a fruit of some species in Prunus subg.
  • Mature plum fruit may have a dusty-white waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance.
  • This is an epicuticular wax coating and is Known as "wax bloom".
  • Plums may have been one of the first fruits domesticated by humans.
  • Plums are a diverse group of species.

LemonEdit

  • The 'Bonnie Brae' is oblong, smooth, thin-skinned and seedless.
  • The origin of the word lemon may be Middle Eastern.
  • Lemon juice, rind and peel are used in a wide variety of foods and drinks.
  • Lemon juice is used to make lemonade, soft drinks and cocktails.
  • In Morocco, lemons are preserved in jars or barrels of salt.

PomegranteEdit

  • They can be tolerant of moderate frost, down to about – 12 C [10 F].
  • The pomegranate is native to a region from modern-day Iran to northern India.
  • This particular traditon is referred to in the opening pages of Ursula Dubosarsky's novel Theodora's Gift.
  • The pomegranate is considered one of the symbols of Azerbaijan.
  • Pomegranate skins may be used to stain wool and silk in the carpet industry.

PineappleEdit

  • In the wild, pineapples are pollinated primarily by hummingbirds.
  • Certain wild pineapples are foraged and pollinated at night by bats.
  • The pineapple fascinated Europeans as a fruit of colonialism.
  • Many different varieties, mostly from the Antilles, were tried for European glasshouse cultivation.
  • Raw pineapple pulp is 86% water, 13% carbohydrates, 0.5% protein and contains negligible fat.

PeachEdit

  • A domesticated peach appeared very early in Japan, in 4700-4400 BC, during the a Jomon period.
  • In India, the peach first appeared by about 1700 BC, during Harappan period.
  • It is also found elsewhere in Western Asia in ancient times.
  • Peach cultivation reached Greece by 300 BC.
  • As with peaches, nectarines can be white or yellow and clingstone or freestone.

PapayaEdit

  • Two kinds of papayas are commonly grown.
  • Either kind, picked green, is called a "green papaya".
  • Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome sequenced.
  • Papaya plants grow in three sexes: male, female and hermaphrodite.
  • Raw papaya pulp contains 88% water, 11%carbohydrates and negligible fat and protein.

PassionfruitEdit

  • Usually the vine produces a single flower 5-7.5 cm wide at each node.
  • The flower has 5 oblong, green sepals and 5 white petals.
  • The sepals and petals are 4-6mm in length and form a fringe.
  • The base of the flower is a rich purple with 5 stamens, an ovary and a branched style.
  • The styles bend backward and the anthers, which are located on top of the styles, have a very distinct head.

GuavaEdit

  • Archaeological sites in Peru yielded evidence of guava cultivation as early as 2500 BC
  • Guava are cultivated in amny tropical and subtropical countries.
  • When grown from seed, guava trees can bear fruit in two years and can continue to do so for forty years.
  • The outer skin may be rough, often with a bitter taste, or soft and sweet.
  • Other major producers were China and Thailand.

CoconutEdit

  • The specific name nucifera is Latin for 'nut-bearing'.
  • Genetic studies of coconuts have also confirmed pre-Columbian populations of coconuts in Panama in south America.
  • In contrast to the Pacific coconuts, Indo-Atlantic coconuts were largely spread by Arab and Persian traders into the East African coast.
  • Outside of New Zealand and India, only two other region have reported Cocos-like fossils, namely Australia and Colombia.
  • These vary by the taste of the coconut water and color of the fruit, as well as other genetic factors.

AvocadoEdit

  • It probably coevoled with extinct megafauna.
  • Before 1915, the avocado was commonly referred to in California as ahuacate and in Florida as alligator pear.
  • The modern English name comes from an English rendering of the Spanish aguacate as avogato.
  • It is known as "butter fruit" in parts of India.
  • Yield is reduced when the irrigation water is highly saline.

ApricotEdit

  • Apricots have been grown in China since 1000 BC.
  • Hubei is noted for its black smoked apricots.
  • Its introduction to Greece is attributed to Alexander the Great.
  • Subsequent sources were often confused about the origin of the species.
  • Apricots remain an important fruit in modern-day Iran.

HerbsEdit

  • In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, for medicinal purposes, or for fragrances; excluding vegetable and other plants consumed for macronutrients.
  • Culinary use typically distinguishes herbs from spices.
  • Herbs generally refers to the leafy green or flowering parts of a plant [either fresh or dried], while spices are usually dried and produced from other parts of the plant, including seeds, bark, roots and fruits.
  • Herbs have a variety of uses includingculinary, medicinal and in some cases, spiritual.
  • General usage of term "herb" differs between culinary herbs and medicinal herbs; in medicinal or spiritual use, any parts of the plant might be considered as "herbs",including leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner bark [and cambium], resin and pericarp.
  • The word "herb"is pronounced in Commonwealt English, but is common among North American English speakers and those from other region where h-dropping occurs.
  • In botany, the word "herb" is used as a synonym for "herbaceous plant".

Aloe veraEdit

  • Aloe vera is a succulent plant species of the genus Aloe.
  • It is cultivated for agricultural and medicinal uses.
  • The species epithet vera means "true" or "genuine".
  • This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
  • The species is also used for decorative purposes and grows successfully indoors as a potted plant.

MintEdit

  • Hybridization occurs naturally where some species range overlap.
  • Many hybrids and cultivars are known.
  • Mint grows all year round.
  • Mints are aromatic, almost exclusively perennial herbs.
  • Mentha is a member of the tribe Mentheae in the subfamily Nepetoideae.

RosemaryEdit

  • Rosemary has a fibrous root system.
  • Rosemary is an aromatic evergreen shrub with leaves similar to hemlock needles.
  • It is easily grown in pots.
  • Rosemary is used as a decorative plant in gardens.
  • It soon was spread to South America and global distribution.

BayEdit

  • The bay leaf is an aromatic leaf commonly used in cooking.
  • It can be be used whole or in a dried or ground form.
  • If eaten whole, bay leaves are pungent and have a shape, bitter taste.
  • They also contain eugenol.
  • Bay leaves were used for flavouring by the ancient Greeks.

DillEdit

  • Dill is an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae.
  • It is the only species in the genus Anethum.
  • Dill has been found in the in the tomb of Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II, dating to around 1400 BC.
  • Dill is best when used fresh, as it loses it flavor rapidly if dried.
  • Dill oil is extracted from the leaves, stems and seeds of the plant.

SaffronEdit

  • Saffron has long been the world's most costly spice by weight.
  • Although some doubts remain on its origin, it is believed that saffron originated in Iran.
  • Saffron's taste and iodoform-like or hay-like fragrance result from the phytochhemicals picrocrocin and safranal.
  • At US $5,000 per kg or higher, saffron is the world's most expensive spice.
  • A degree of uncertainty surrounds the origin of the English word "saffron".

ThymeEdit

  • Thyme are relatives of the oregano genus Origanum.
  • Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming.
  • It tolerates drought well.
  • The plant can take deep freezes and is found growing wild on mountain highlands.
  • Thyme is sold both fresh and dried.

GingerEdit

  • In 2018, world production of ginger was 2.8 million tonnes, led by India with 32% of the world total.
  • Ginger originated from Martime Southeast Asia.
  • It is a true cultigen and does not exist in its wild state.
  • Ginger produced in India is most often farmed through homestead farming.
  • The size of the seed ginger, called rhizome, is essential to the production of the ginger.

BasilEdit

  • Basil is native to tropical regions from central Africa to South Asia.
  • It is a tender plant and is used in cuisines worldwide.
  • There are many varieties of basil, as well as several related species or hybirds also called basil.
  • Several other basils, including some other Ocimum species, are grown in many region of Asia.
  • Basil is sensitive to cold, with best growth in hot, dry conditions.

ParsleyEdit

  • Parsley is widely used in European, Middle Eastern, and American cuisine.
  • Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish.
  • Excessive consumption of parsley should be avoided by pregnant women.
  • Parsely grows best in moist, well-drained soil, with full sun.
  • In cultivation, parsley subdivided into several cultivar groups, depending on the form of the plant, which is related to its end use.

SageEdit

  • Salvia officinalis has numerous common names.
  • Cultivated forms include purple sage and red sage.
  • Salvia offcinalis was described by CarlLinnaeus in 1753.
  • It is the type species for the genus Salvia.
  • The thujone present in Salvia extracts may be neurotoxic.

OreganoEdit

  • Oregano contains polyphenols, including numerous flavones.
  • Oregano combines well with spicy foods popular in southern Italy.
  • IT is less commonly used in the north of the country, as marjoram generally is preferred.
  • Oregano is a culinary herb, used for the flavor of its leaves, which can be more flavorful when dried than fresh.
  • It has an aromatic, warm and slightly bitter taste, which can vary in intensity.

ChivesEdit

  • Their close relatives include the common onions, garlic, shallot, leek, scallion and Chinese onion.
  • A perennial plant, it is widespread in nature across much of Europe, Asia and North America.
  • The edible flowers can be used in salads.
  • Chives have insect-repelling properties that can be used in gardens to control pests.
  • The plant provides a deal of nectar for pollinators.

TarragonEdit

  • In some other subspecies, the characteristic aroma is largely absent.
  • The species is polymorphic.
  • Tarragon has rhizomatous roots that it uses to spread and readily reproduce.
  • In Swedish, Dutch and German the plant is commonly known as dragon.
  • Tarragon is one of the main ingredients in Chakapuli, Georgian national dish.

CliantroEdit

  • Cliantro is also called coriander or it is called Chinese parsley
  • Coriander is native to region spanning from Southern Europe and North Africa to Southwestern Asia.
  • It is a soft plant growing to 50 cm [20 in] tall.
  • Cliantro is the Spanish word for coriander, also deriving from coriandrum.
  • The leaves have a different taste from the seeds, with citrus overstones.

Black peppercornsEdit

  • First if you want to eat it put it to the sun then you can eat.
  • Black pepper is produced from the still-green, unripe drupe of the pepper plant.
  • Once dry, the spice is called black peppercorn.
  • Pepper spirit is used in many medicinal and beauty products.
  • Ground white pepper is commonly used in Chinese, Thai and portuguese cuisines.

ClovesEdit

  • The spice is used in a type of cigarette called kretk in Indonesia.
  • Since 2009, clove cigarettes have been classified as cigars in the US.
  • Clove cigarettes have been smoked throughout Europe, Asia and the United States.
  • Because of the bioactive chemicals of clove, the spice may be used as an ant repellent.
  • Cloves can be used to make a fragrant pomander when combined with an orange.

CinnamonEdit

  • All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae.
  • Only a few Cinnmomum species are grown commercially for spice.
  • Ground cinnamon is composed of around 11% water, 81% carbohydrates [including 53% dietary fiber], 4% protein and 1% fat.
  • Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity.
  • Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon remained a mystery to the Western world.

Coriander seedsEdit

  • The dry fruits are coriander seeds.
  • It is described as warm, nutty, spicy and orange-flavoured.
  • Coriander is commonly found both as whole dried seeds and in ground form.
  • Coriander seeds are used in brewing certain styles of beer, particularly some Belgian wheat beers.
  • The coriander seeds are used with orange peel to add a citrus character.

CardamomEdit

  • Both general are native to the Indian subcontinent and Indonesia.
  • The first references to cardamom are found in Sumer and in the Ayurvedic literatures of India.
  • Species used for cardamom are native throughout tropical and subtropical.
  • Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart flavour.
  • It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking.

OnionEdit

  • Guinea hen weed and honey garlic contain a similar lachrymatory factor.
  • Some people suffer from allergic reactions after handing onions.
  • Most onions cultivars are about 89% water, 9% carbohydrates [including 4% sugar and 2% dietary fiber], 1% protein and negligible fat.
  • The onion plant has been grown and selectively bred in cultivation for at least 7,000 years.
  • It is a biennial plant, but is usually grown as an annual.

GarlicEdit

  • Garilc is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
  • China produces some 80% of the world's supply of garlic.
  • Allium sativum is a perennial flowering plant growing from a bulb.
  • Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates.
  • Garlic scapes are removed to focus allthe garilc's energy into bulb growth.