the grain grain at the end of a piece of wood which is perpendicular to the surface.
when a board has one side that is wider than the other, the wider side is referred to as the face (as opposed to the edge). May also refer to the face that is to be visible in the finished item.
a flat and straight length of some material, usually wood, steel or aluminium, which provides a reference for tools to work against, or which prevents the work from sliding.
the fine tube-like structure of wood which is hollow and determines the grain direction.
naturally occurring decorative patterns in wood, usually due to medullary rays.
a chisel bevelled on both sides instead of only one.
Fishtail chisel or gouge
a chisel or gouge with a splayed end.
a gouge with minimal curvature, used for finishing and smoothing.
a board in which the round of the trunk is still visible, a rough-cut board.
a deep channel cut in wood; occasionally denotes the cannel of a gouge.
a yellow-brown discoloration of wood due to fungal infection.
a saw with a very fine toothed blade used for delicate cuts in thin material.
regular indented patterns created with a special-purpose punch called a froster.
the longitudinal fibers in wood.
a chisel like tool with a curved cutting edge.
The grade of particles in sandpaper or sharpening stones which determines the aggressiveness of the cut.
wood from an angiosperm tree, i.e. a tree in the division Magnoliophyta; Despite the name, not necessarily very hard or dense wood (e.g. balsa is a hardwood), although generally harder than softwoods.
a shake radiating out from the heartwood.
the corner of a chisel, knife, or gouge bevel which meets the back of the blade and polishes the cut.
Hold down or hold fast
a hold-down iron, fitting into a hole in a bench, tightened or loosened by hammer taps.
a concave bevel on a chisel, gouge, or knife.
the concave surface of a gouge; a gouge sharpened on the concave surface.
grain which has multiple longitudinal directions in alternating layers, typical of many tropical hardwoods, and very difficult to work and to produce smooth surfaces.
a power tool that cuts by moving a blade up and down as it is guided through the cut.
the gap left when material is removed by a saw. The width of the kerf is equal to the set of the saw.
the tendency for wood that is being cut to direct the saw parallel to its grain.
Mortise or Mortice
a cavity or hole (generally rectangular) in a piece of wood, meant to receive a tenon or a hinge
the convex surface of a gouge; a gouge sharpened on the convex surface.
(verb) the process of removing material in thin shavings in order to make it flat, or (noun) a tool for planing.
cutting part of a hand plane.
describes a plank with growth rings perpendicular to the wider face (see picture).
Horizontal member of a frame on a door, window or panel.
a long and flat steel tool with raised teeth for shaping wood.
a series of beads in a row.
short straight cuts made at right angles to a curved layout so sharper than normal curves can be cut with a jig saw or band saw.
a paddle-shaped rasp.
Rift sawn similar to quarter-sawn.
a shake occurring between annual rings.
a rasp with saw teeth.
a drawknife with a curved, sometimes completely circular blade; often used for hollowing out objects such as bowls.
a motorized fretsaw.
reducing the moisture content of wood before working to prevent cracking, splitting, and other damage due to drying.
a crack or split in wood, caused by damage or drying. Can also mean a split (as opposed to sawn) shingle.
planing an edge straight or square. See Shooting board.
describes a plank with growth rings roughly parallel to the wider face (see picture).
a shaped stone used for sharpening non-flat blades such as gouges.
a wooden toggle used to hold the work on a table.
wood from a gymnosperm tree, i.e., trees in the divisions Pinophyta and Ginkgophyta; Despite the name, not necessarily very soft or light wood (e.g., douglas-fir is a softwood).
a change in the texture, strength and color of wood caused by colonies of fungus growing within the dead wood. Where colonies of fungus meet, fine black lines - often considered a desirable feature, can be seen.
to longitudinally separate wood along grain layers.
a moulding that is part of a larger piece of wood such as a frame (as opposed to being applied).
Stile (or sometimes style)
Vertical member of a frame on a door, window or panel.
the curvature of a gouge, ranging from flat (little curvature, but not actually flat else it would be a chisel) to deep or quick.
broken or torn fibres resulting from damage as the blade of a tool exits the cut.
is a projection on the end of a piece of wood for insertion into a mortise.
longitudinal twisting of wood due to uneven seasoning or grain.
cutting away from an edge to increase the sense of relief or thinness.
a small deep gouge.
very thin slices of wood used for inlay or to cover surfaces.
speciality tool for trimming veneer.
an edge of a sawn board where the bark or surface of the trunk remains.
distorted lumber, such as a twist, cup or a bow.
quickly removing wood during carving, usually with an adze, knife, or rasp.
wood that will be removed in the finished work, often retained during working as a handle.