What writing system(s) does this language use?
Punjabi is written either in the Gurmukhi script or in a form of the Arabic script known as Shahmukhi which is very similar to the script used for Urdu. Both scripts look different from the Latin script that the words you are reading now are written in.
How many people speak this language?
Approximately 100 million.
Where is this language spoken?
Primarily in the Punjab region which is now split between India and Pakistan. It is also spoken across the world by a sizable number of people that have moved away from the Punjab region.
What is the history of this language?
Punjabi is a descendant of Sauraseni, which is a name for one of the languages spoken in Northern India in the medieval period.  Punjabi emerged as an independent language approximately in the 11th century. Since Punjabi shares a related history with the Hindi and Urdu languages, someone who speaks Punjabi can understand a lot of what someone speaking in Hindi or Urdu is saying and the same for the other way around.
What are some basic words in this language that I can learn?
- ਆਲੂ (ālū) means potato
- ਦਿਲ (dil) means heart
- ਗਾਂ (gã) means cow
What is a simple song/poem/story that I can learn in this language?
- India's culture through the ages by Mohan Lal Vidyarthi. Published by Tapeshwari Sahitya Mandir, 1952. Page 148: "From the apabhramsha of Sauraseni are derived Punjabi, Western Hindi, Rajasthani and Gujerati [sic]..."
- National Communication and Language Policy in India By Baldev Raj Nayar. Published by F. A. Praeger, 1969. Page 35. "...Sauraseni Aprabhramsa from which have emerged the modern Western Hindi and Punjabi."
- The Sauraseni Pr?krit Language. "This Middle Indic language originated in Mathura, and was the main language used in drama in Northern India in the medieval period. Two of its descendants are Hindi and Punjabi."
- Language India. Volume 5 : 12 December 2005. Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Introduction • Glossary • Authors and Contributing • Print Version