The Class concept is the main foundation of Object Oriented Programming. In a world of Graphical User Interfaces and more complex programs, classes have become a very important part of programming.
To create a class, in the Solutions explorer, after a right click on the application, Add, then Class. Or select "Add Class..." from the Project menu of the menu bar.
object: A unit that has its own properties and methods for a user to use at his or her discretion.
encapsulation: Lets the user of the class control the data and operations of a class that can be seen from other classes.
property: Represents a data value associated with an instance.
method: An operation that can be performed by the class.
constructor: The method that is called when an object of the class has been instantiated.
field: A variable at the class level.
Fields are variables that are inside a class but not inside functions, sub routines and properties. These variables are also not allowed to be called outside a class. Declaring these variables is simple, as shown in this segment of a class:
Public Class customer Private Name As String Private Address As String Private Age As Integer ...
The class can call these variables up easily with "Me" calling. Look at this segment of a class to understand how:
... Public Function GetName() Return Me.Name End Function ...
Trying to call up a private field outside of a class will not work.
When a new object of a class is declared, we can initialize the fields of a class. For example, look at this segment of a class:
Public Class customer Public Name As String Private Address As String Private Id_number As String ' Constructor with parameters Public Sub New(ByVal name As String) Me.Name = name End Sub ' Constructor with no parameters Public Sub New() End Sub ...
Technically, a constructor with no parameters is called an Empty Constructor or a Default Constructor. A Constructor that has parameters is called a Custom Constructor.
Properties are divided into two categories: getters and setters. A getter returns a value from a class, much like how a function works and a setter sets a value into the class.
Public Property name() As String Get Return Me.Name End Get Set(ByVal value As String) Me.Name = value End Set End Property
Because this class property is "Public", we can access it from outside the class. If it was "Private", it would be the complete opposite.
Methods are pretty much sub routines specific to a class. These can be called up as many or as little times as the programmer desires.
We use the keyword "New":
Dim customer1 = New customer("John Doe") MsgBox(customer1.name)
This is just an example of a class using all the above techniques:
Public Class customer ' Fields Private Name As String Private Address As String Private Age As Integer Private Items_Bought As Integer ' Constructor with a parameter Public Sub New(ByVal value As String) Me.Name = value End Sub ' Default Constructor Public Sub New() End Sub ' Name Properties Public Property name() As String Get Return Me.Name End Get Set(ByVal value As String) Me.Name = value End Set End Property ' Address Properties Public Property Address() As String Get Return Me.Address End Get Set(ByVal value As String) Me.Address = value End Set End Property ' Age Properties Public Property Age() As Integer Get Return Me.Age End Get Set(ByVal value As String) Me.Age = value End Set End Property ' Items_Bought Properties Public Property Items_Bought() As Integer Get Return Me.Items_Bought End Get Set(ByVal value As String) Me.Items_Bought = value End Set End Property End Class