Last modified on 19 March 2014, at 00:30

User-Generated Content in Education/User Generated Content through Second Life

Second LifeEdit

File:Second Life Image.jpg
Second Life Logo



Second Life is a virtual world which was launched on June 23, 2003. It allows residents of this virtual world to "explore the world (known as the grid), meet other residents, socialize, participate in individual and group activities, and create and trade virtual property and services with one another". [1] In Second Life (SL), users create avatars that represent themselves which can interact with other avatars, with objects, and their environments. In Second Life, each learner has the freedom to discover information relevant to his or her interests and to explore knowledge from the web through the "teleport" feature and the "hyperlink" feature. Learners have to become active participants rather than passive observers. The Second Life environment closely resembles the real world, thus allowing SL instructors to design authentic tasks whereby learners can explore the world, solve problems, construct and negotiate meaning, and collaborate with other learners. [2]

ProsEdit

There are many benefits to using Second Life in education. This includes:

1. Cost-effective

2. Improves communication

3. Encourages collaborative learning

4. Provides opportunities for synchronous learning activities for the home-schooler and cyber-schooler. Second Life boasts of being adopted by many colleges and universities around the world.

5. Historical recreations, simulations, virtual field trips, and role-playing

6. Social/language interaction [3]

ConsEdit

Researchers also note several barriers that educators and students must get past in order for effective learning to take place.

1. Access - many secondary schools have blocked the use of Second Life within their district as a social networking site. Special permission must be granted before the download can take place.

2. Expertise to deal with technical issues

3. Online etiquette

4. Learning curve associated with learning the Second Life program

5. Protecting students through acquiring private land[4]

MachinimaEdit

is the use of real-time 3D computer graphics rendering engines to create a cinematic production. Most often, video games are used to generate the computer animation.[5]

Machinima can be used in education in many ways. "Media educators, for instance, look to machinima as a creative, expressive form, with its own requisite skills and associated social and cultural practices. Others working with machinima production in educational contexts focus on the development of new applications, or the evolving relationship of machinima to the film or games industries. Others, meanwhile, are interested in machinima as a teaching tool; one that can be adapted to subject areas ranging from drama or film-making, to management training."[6]

There are four common approaches to machinima.

1. Straight Recording - A screen recording program simply records whatever is going on within the screen to record the activities.

2. Puppetry Approach - Actions are recorded in real-time and saved for later editing.

3. Recamming -"Builds on the puppet approach, and combines it with re-recording. Additional characters might be added, lighting changed, or cameras moved."[7] Click here to see an example of recamming machinima.[8]

4. Scripting - Programs are written to direct 3D characters to behave in a certain manner. This is the most complex of the four approaches to machinima and requires greater technical expertise. Scripting loses some of the "in the moment" feel of machinima but is more precise. [9]

NotecardsEdit

A notecard is an inventory item that is used for creating and/or sharing text and photos. For educational purposes, a notecard is a great way of sharing information that is too large to type in the chat forum. It is also good for giving directions or providing more information on a particular topic. [10]

A notecard can be attached to any prim on the island, with proper permissions. For example, while exploring Genome Island, clicking on each lab experiment will equip the resident with a notecard that provides more information about what is going on in that experiment. The notecard often asks a question of the resident and provides directions for answering it.[11]

SimulationsEdit

A simulation is a reproduction of contexts that can be too costly to reproduce in real life with the advantages that some physical constraints can be overcome.[12] Simulations enable learners not only to see how a place looks, but also 'feel' what it is like being part of it. [13] Second Life offers opportunities to simulate and replicate examples of cultural environments that are extinct or difficult to visit[14] and gives users access to objects or phenomena impossible to observe or examine in real life. For example, the International Spaceflight Museum designed a series of simulation modules enabling users to play with scientific objects such as the lunar landing and solar system; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration built the Earth System Research Laboratory featuring a simulator with which users could experience tsunami waves and observe the process of glacial retreat.[15]




Displays and ExhibitsEdit

In Second life avatars can create displays and exhibits on a broad range of subject areas. Using images, text and multimedia they are able to create dynamic, interactive displays and exhibits which avatars can move in and interact with. Photography is also very easy. Pupils can take photos 'in-world' and send them for free to Flickr or SLPics to be displayed and commented on by others.[16]

Digital StorytellingEdit

Digitial storytelling is storytelling that incorporates digital images, video, music, and reflective narratives in order to share life experiences and personal insights. Students can create an experience or a space in which others can walk through their stories.[17] Educators often identify the benefit of digital storytelling as the array of technical tools from which students may select for their creative expression. Learners set out to use these tools in new ways to make meaningful content. Students learn new software, choose images, edit video, make voiceover narration, add music, create title screens, and control flow and transitions. Additionally, there is opportunity to insert interactive features for “reader” participation. It is possible to click on imagery or text in order to choose what will happen next, cause an event to occur, or navigate to online content.[18]

Role PlayingEdit

Role-playing refers to the changing of one's behaviour to assume a role, either unconsciously to fill a social role, or consciously to act out an adopted role.[19] Role playing is an engaging teaching strategy that can be aided by the use of Second Life. In Second Life students can research their role model and create avatars resembling their role model. Role playing allows students to think beyond themselves and to understand issues by "walking in someone else's shoes."[20] Educators can create fictional scenarios in Second Life which provide a safe environment where students can immerse themselves in a scenario that may not otherwise be available.

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Second life." Wikipedia. (2011). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_life
  2. Wang, S., & Hsu, H. (2009). Using the ADDIE Model to Design Second Life Activities for Online Learners. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 53(6), 76-81. doi:10.1007/s11528-009-0347-x
  3. Linden Lab. (2011). Second life education: The virtual learning advantage. Retrieved from http://lecs-static-secondlife-com.s3.amazonaws.com/work/SL-Edu-Brochure-010411.pdf
  4. Carr, D. Oliver, M., & Burn, A. (2010). Learning, Teaching and Ambiguity in Virtual Worlds. Retrieved from http://learningfromsocialworlds.wordpress.com/paper-for-relive-08-at-the-ou//
  5. "Machinima." Wikipedia. (2011). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machinima
  6. Carr, D. (2007). "Machinima in education." Future Lab. Retrieved from http://archive.futurelab.org.uk/resources/publications-reports-articles/web-articles/Web-Article794
  7. Carr, D. (2007). "Machinima in education." Future Lab. Retrieved from http://archive.futurelab.org.uk/resources/publications-reports-articles/web-articles/Web-Article794
  8. Rainey, S. (2011). "Globe video." YouTube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=16PoZrwoPuM
  9. Carr, D. (2007). "Machinima in education." Future Lab. Retrieved from http://archive.futurelab.org.uk/resources/publications-reports-articles/web-articles/Web-Article794
  10. "Notecards." Second Life Wiki. (2009). Retrieved from http://wiki.secondlife.com/wiki/Notecards
  11. Robbins, S & Bell, M. (2011). Making Use of Notecards in Second Life. Retrieved from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/making-use-of-notecards-in-second-life.html
  12. Warburton, S. (2009). Second Life in higher education: Assessing the potential for and the barriers to deploying virtual worlds in learning and teaching. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(3), 414-426. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.00952.x
  13. Salmon, G. (2009). The future for (second) life and learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(3), 526-538. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.00967.x
  14. Salmon, G. (2009). The future for (second) life and learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(3), 526-538. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.00967.x
  15. Wang, S., & Hsu, H. (2009). Using the ADDIE Model to Design Second Life Activities for Online Learners. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 53(6), 76-81. doi:10.1007/s11528-009-0347-x
  16. .“Exploring the Potential of Second Life." Wikispaces. (2011). Retrieved from http://digitalkatie.wikispaces.com/How+to+use+SL
  17. Sanchez, J. (2009). Pedagogical Applications of Second Life. Library Technology Reports, 45(2), 21-28. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
  18. "Digital Storytelling." Wikipedia. (2011). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_storytelling
  19. “Role Playing." Wikipedia. (2011). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roleplaying
  20. Sanchez, J. (2009). Pedagogical Applications of Second Life. Library Technology Reports, 45(2), 21-28. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.