Last modified on 1 October 2008, at 17:48

The Zope 3 Book/Getting Started

Python installationEdit

The Zope community has always recommended using a custom built Python for development and deployment. Python 2.4 is the recommended version for Zope 3, although Python 2.5 will also work, but it is not yet officially supported.

GNU/LinuxEdit

To install Python, you will be required to install gcc, g++ and other development tools in your system. A typical installation of Python can be done like this:

$ wget -c http://www.python.org/ftp/python/2.4.5/Python-2.4.5.tar.bz2
$ tar jxvf Python-2.4.5.tar.bz2
$ cd Python-2.4.5
$ ./configure --prefix=/home/guest/usr
$ make
$ make install

As given above, you can provide an option, --prefix to install Python in a particular location. The above steps install Python inside /home/guest/usr directory.

After installation, you can invoke the Python interpreter like this (~ is an alias to /home/guest):

$ ~/usr/bin/python2.4
>>> print "Hello, world!"
Hello, world!

If you are not getting old statements in Python interactive prompt when using up-arrow key, try installing libreadline development libraries (Hint: apt-cache search libreadline). After installing this library, you should install Python again. You also will be required to install zlib (Hint: apt-cache search zlib compression library) to properly install Zope 3.

MS WindowsEdit


FIXME: Write about installation of Python in MS Windows with few screen shots.


BuildoutEdit

IntroductionEdit

We are going to use a build tool called Buildout for developing Zope 3 applications from multiple parts. Buildout will give you an isolated working environment for developing applications. The Buildout package, named zc.buildout is available for download from PyPI. This section briefly goes through the usage of Buildout for developing applications.

Buildout has a boostrap.py script for initializing a buildout based project for development or deployment. It will download and install zc.buildout, setuptools and other dependency modules in a specified directory. Once bootstrapped it will create a buildout executable script inside bin directory at the top of your project source. The default configuration for each project is buildout.cfg file at the top of your project source. Whenever you run the buildout command it will look into the default configuration file and will do actions based on it. Normally, the configuration file and boostrap script will be bundled with the project source itself. Other than the default configuration file along with the project source, you may also create a system wide default configuration file at ~/.buildout/default.cfg.

Buildout creator Jim Fulton recommend a custom built clean Python installation, i.e., there should not be any Python modules installed in your site-packages (ideally, a fresh Python installation). When you boostrap your project using Buildout's boostrap.py script, it will download and install all necessary packages in a specified directory. So, for an ideal project you only required a custom built clean Python and the project source with proper Buildout configuration and bootstrap script along with the source package.

Buildout configurationEdit

These days, most of the Python packages are available in egg format. Buildout will download and install the eggs in directory and the location can be changed from the configuration file. It is better to give a system-wide location for eggs directory. And this configuration can be added to your system-wide configuration file. The default configuration file for Buildout is ~/.buildout/default.cfg. We are going to use eggs directory inside your home directory to keep all eggs downloaded, so first create those directories and file:

$ cd $HOME
$ mkdir .buildout
$ mkdir eggs
$ touch .buildout/default.cfg

You can add the following to your ~/.buildout/default.cfg file:

[buildout]
newest = false
eggs-directory = /home/baiju/eggs
find-links = http://download.zope.org/ppix

The eggs-directory is where Buildout stores the eggs that are downloaded. The last option, find-links points to a reliable mirror of the Python Package Index (PyPI). The default configurations given above will be available to all buildouts in your system.

MS Windows notesEdit


FIXME: Add any specific things required for MS Windows here.


Setting up development sandboxEdit

To demonstrate the concepts, tools and techniques, we are going to develop a simple ticket/issue tracking application named Ticket Collector. To begin the work, first create a directory for the project. After creating the directory, create a buildout.cfg file as given below. To bootstrap this application checkout bootstrap.py and run it inside that directory.

$ mkdir ticketcollector
$ cd ticketcollector
$ echo "#Buildout configuration" > buildout.cfg
$ svn co svn://svn.zope.org/repos/main/zc.buildout/trunk/bootstrap
$ ~/usr/bin/python2.4 bootstrap/bootstrap.py

You can see a buildout script created inside bin directory. Now onwards, you can run this script when changing Buildout configuration.

Our application is basically a Python package. First we will create an src directory to place our package. Inside the src directory, you can create ticketcollector Python package. You can create the src and the ticketcollector package like this:

$ mkdir src
$ mkdir src/ticketcollector
$ echo "#Python package" > src/ticketcollector/__init__.py

To start building our package you have to create a setup.py file. The setup.py should have the minimum details as given below:

We have included bare minimum packages required for installation here: zope.app.zcmlfiles, zope.app.twisted, zope.app.securitypolicy and setuptools.

from setuptools import setup, find_packages
 
setup(
    name='ticketcollector',
    version='0.1',
 
    packages=find_packages('src'),
    package_dir={'': 'src'},
 
    install_requires=['setuptools',
                      'zope.app.zcmlfiles',
                      'zope.app.twisted',
                      'zope.app.securitypolicy',
                      ],
    include_package_data=True,
    zip_safe=False,
    )

Modify buildout.cfg as given below:

[buildout]
develop = .
parts = py
 
[py]
recipe = zc.recipe.egg
eggs = ticketcollector
interpreter = python

Now run buildout script inside bin directory. This will download all necessary eggs and install it. So installing Zope is nothing but just setting up a buildout with setup.py with required packages install_requires for installation. Unless you specified a parts section which use ticketcollector in some way, buildout will not download dependency packages.

A simple applicationEdit

Configuring applicationEdit

We are going to continue the Ticket Collector application in this section. In the last section when you run ./bin/buildout command all necessary Zope 3 packages required for running our application is downloaded inside ~/eggs directory. Now to run the bare minimum Zope 3, we have to create Zope Configuration Markup Language (ZCML) file and extend the buildout.cfg with appropriate Buildout recipes. We are going to use zc.zope3recipes:app,zc.zope3recipes:instance and zc.recipe.filestorage recipes for setting up our application. Here is our modified buildout.cfg (inside the ticketcollector project directory):

[buildout]
develop = .
parts = ticketcollectorapp instance
 
[zope3]
location =
 
[ticketcollectorapp]
recipe = zc.zope3recipes:app
site.zcml = 
  <include package="ticketcollector" file="application.zcml" />
eggs = ticketcollector
 
[instance]
recipe = zc.zope3recipes:instance
application = ticketcollectorapp
zope.conf = ${database:zconfig}
 
[database]
recipe = zc.recipe.filestorage

Then we will create application.zcml inside src/ticketcollector directory with the following text. Consider it as boiler plate code now, we will explain this in details later:

<configure
  xmlns="http://namespaces.zope.org/zope"
  >
 
  <include package="zope.app.securitypolicy" file="meta.zcml" />
 
  <include package="zope.app.zcmlfiles" />
  <include package="zope.app.authentication" />
  <include package="zope.app.securitypolicy" />
  <include package="zope.app.twisted" />
 
  <securityPolicy 
    component="zope.app.securitypolicy.zopepolicy.ZopeSecurityPolicy" />
 
  <role id="zope.Anonymous" title="Everybody"
    description="All users have this role implicitly" />
  <role id="zope.Manager" title="Site Manager" />
  <role id="zope.Member" title="Site Member" />
 
  <grant permission="zope.View"
    role="zope.Anonymous" />
  <grant permission="zope.app.dublincore.view"
    role="zope.Anonymous" />
 
  <grantAll role="zope.Manager" />
 
  <unauthenticatedPrincipal
    id="zope.anybody"
    title="Unauthenticated User" />
 
  <unauthenticatedGroup
    id="zope.Anybody"
    title="Unauthenticated Users" />
 
  <authenticatedGroup
    id="zope.Authenticated"
    title="Authenticated Users" />
 
  <everybodyGroup
    id="zope.Everybody"
    title="All Users" />
 
  <principal
    id="zope.manager"
    title="Manager"
    login="admin"
    password_manager="Plain Text"
    password="admin"
    />
 
  <grant
    role="zope.Manager"
    principal="zope.manager" />
 
</configure>

Running applicationEdit

Now you can run the application by running ./bin/buildout command followed by ./bin/instance command.

$ ./bin/buildout
$ ./bin/instance fg

So, to run a Zope 3 application we have to use buildout recipes with proper configurations.

Using ZMIEdit

After running your instance, If you open a web browser and go to http://localhost:8080 you'll see the ZMI (Zope Management Interface).

Go ahead and click the Login link at the upper right. Enter the user name and password as admin, which is given in applications.zcml. Now click on [top] under Navigation on the right. Play around with adding some content objects (the Zope 3 name for instances that are visible in the ZMI). Note how content objects can be arranged in a hierarchy by adding folders which are special content objects that can hold other content objects.

There is nothing special about the ZMI, it is just the default skin for Zope 3. You can modify it to your liking, or replace it entirely.

When you're done exploring with the ZMI, go back to the window where you typed ./bin/instance fg and press Control-C to stop Zope 3.

Hello worldEdit

Now you can begin your development inside src/ticketcollector directory. Create a browser.py with following content:

from zope.publisher.browser import BrowserView
 
class HelloView(BrowserView):
 
    def __call__(self):
        return """
        <html>
        <head>
          <title>Hello World</title>
        </head>
        <body>
          Hello World
        </body>
        </html>
        """

Now append the following text just above the last line of application.zcml:

<browser:page
  for="*"
  name="hello"
  permission="zope.Public"
  class="ticketcollector.browser.HelloView"
/>

As you can see above, we are using page attribute from the browser namespace. So, you have to include that namespace in the beginning ZCML as shown below:

<configure
   xmlns="http://namespaces.zope.org/zope"
   xmlns:browser="http://namespaces.zope.org/browser"
   >

After restarting Zope, open http://localhost:8080/hello, you can see that it displaying Hello World !.

Overview of packagesEdit

Installing additional packagesEdit

SummaryEdit

See alsoEdit

DiscussionsEdit