Last modified on 29 November 2011, at 10:39

Statistics/Summary

Statistics


  1. Introduction
    1. What Is Statistics?
    2. Subjects in Modern Statistics
    3. Why Should I Learn Statistics? 0% developed
    4. What Do I Need to Know to Learn Statistics?
  2. Different Types of Data
    1. Primary and Secondary Data
    2. Quantitative and Qualitative Data
  3. Methods of Data Collection
    1. Experiments
    2. Sample Surveys
    3. Observational Studies
  4. Data Analysis
    1. Data Cleaning
    2. Moving Average
  5. Summary Statistics
    1. Measures of center
      1. Mean, Median, and Mode
      2. Geometric Mean
      3. Harmonic Mean
      4. Relationships among Arithmetic, Geometric, and Harmonic Mean
      5. Geometric Median
    2. Measures of dispersion
      1. Range of the Data
      2. Variance and Standard Deviation
      3. Quartiles and Quartile Range
      4. Quantiles
  6. Displaying Data
    1. Bar Charts
    2. Comparative Bar Charts
    3. Histograms
    4. Scatter Plots
    5. Box Plots
    6. Pie Charts
    7. Comparative Pie Charts
    8. Pictograms
    9. Line Graphs
    10. Frequency Polygon
  7. Probability
    1. Introduction to Probability
    2. Bernoulli Trials
    3. Introductory Bayesian Analysis
  8. Distributions
    1. Discrete Distributions
      1. Uniform Distribution
      2. Bernoulli Distribution
      3. Binomial Distribution
      4. Poisson Distribution
      5. Geometric Distribution
      6. Negative Binomial Distribution
      7. Hypergeometric Distribution
    2. Continuous Distributions
      1. Uniform Distribution
      2. Exponential Distribution
      3. Gamma Distribution
      4. Normal Distribution
      5. Chi-Square Distribution
      6. Student-t Distribution
      7. F Distribution
      8. Beta Distribution
      9. Weibull Distribution
  9. Testing Statistical Hypothesis
    1. Purpose of Statistical Tests
    2. Formalism Used
    3. Different Types of Tests
    4. z Test for a Single Mean
    5. z Test for Two Means
    6. t Test for a single mean
    7. t Test for Two Means
    8. paired t Test for comparing Means
    9. One-Way ANOVA F Test
    10. z Test for a Single Proportion
    11. z Test for Two Proportions
    12. Testing whether Proportion A Is Greater than Proportion B in Microsoft Excel
    13. Spearman's Rank Coefficient
    14. Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
    15. Chi-Squared Tests
      1. Chi-Squared Test for Multiple Proportions
      2. Chi-Squared Test for Contingency
    16. Approximations of distributions
  10. Point Estimates100% developed  as of 12:07, 28 March 2007 (UTC) (12:07, 28 March 2007 (UTC))
    1. Unbiasedness
    2. Measures of goodness
    3. UMVUE
    4. Completeness
    5. Sufficiency and Minimal Sufficiency
    6. Ancillarity
  11. Practice Problems
    1. Summary Statistics Problems
    2. Data-Display Problems
    3. Distributions Problems
    4. Data-Testing Problems
  12. Numerical Methods
    1. Basic Linear Algebra and Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization
    2. Unconstrained Optimization
    3. Quantile Regression
    4. Numerical Comparison of Statistical Software
    5. Numerics in Excel
    6. Statistics/Numerical_Methods/Random Number Generation
  13. Multivariate Data Analysis
    1. Principal Component Analysis
    2. Factor Analysis for metrical data
    3. Factor Analysis for ordinal data
    4. Canonical Correlation Analysis
    5. Discriminant Analysis
  14. Analysis of Specific Datasets
    1. Analysis of Tuberculosis
  15. Appendix
    1. Authors
    2. Glossary
    3. Index
    4. Links

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Summary StatisticsEdit

The most simple example of statistics "in practice" is in the generation of summary statistics. Let us consider the example where we are interested in the weight of eighth graders in a school. (Maybe we're looking at the growing epidemic of child obesity in America!) Our school has 200 eighth graders, so we gather all their weights. What we have are 200 positive real numbers.

If an administrator asked you what the weight was of this eighth grade class, you wouldn't grab your list and start reading off all the individual weights; it's just too much information. That same administrator wouldn't learn anything except that she shouldn't ask you any questions in the future! What you want to do is to distill the information — these 200 numbers — into something concise.

What might we express about these 200 numbers that would be of interest? The most obvious thing to do is to calculate the average or mean value so we know how much the "typical eighth grader" in the school weighs. It would also be useful to express how much this number varies; after all, eighth graders come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes! In reality, we can probably reduce this set of 200 weights into at most four or five numbers that give us a firm comprehension of the data set.