Lesson 3 - What is that?Edit
This lesson's goals are to show the third person of verbs' conjugation (in singular and plural) as well as of personal pronouns. Read your first text in Silesian, please.
Note: Read the text and then the vocabulary. There's also the translation, which is available when you click the title of the dialogue, but try not to use it.
|Word or phrase||IPA pronunciation||Meaning||Notes|
|to||[tɔ]||This||unidentyfied, used as a subject or as adjective befor the neutral noun|
|je||[jɛ]||is||3rd sg.; means also (it) "eats"|
|důma||['doma]||in the house, at home||functions as an adverb|
|sům||[som]||(they) are||3rd pl.|
|synek||['sɨnɛk]||a boy||m; means also "son"; the diminutive form|
|a||[a]||and||can be used also at the beginnig of a question, not changing the sense|
|dźouška||['ʥɔwʂka]||a girl||f, diminutive|
|mo na mjano||['mɔ na 'mʲanɔ]||his/her name is||lit. has as a name, has on name|
|uůńi||['woɲi]||they||used for a group of men or for a mixed-sex group|
|tyn||[tɨn]||this||used as an adjective befor the masculine nouns|
|co to je?||['ʦɔtɔ je]||what's this?|
|ta||[ta]||this||used as and adjective befor the feminine nouns|
|ješče||['jɛʂtʂ͡ɛ]||more, (what) else|
|za winklym||[za'viŋklɨm]||at the corner||lit. behind the corner|
A typical sentence structure is SVO, but any modifications are also possible and do not change the meaning, eg.
Adam je důma.
Adam is at home.
Adam důma je.
Adam at home is.
Důma je Adam.
At home is Adam.
Důma Adam je.
At home Adam is.
Je Adam důma.
Is Adam at home.
Je důma Adam.
Is at home Adam.
At this level learn to construct only SVO sentences. Unlike Polish (which is by the way very similar to Silesian) questions are formed only by adding the question mark at the end (and no invertion!), eg. Adam je důma? (Is Adam at home?). When we ask with an interrogative pronoun (we already know 3 of them - co, jak and kaj) it stands at the beginning, eg. Co to je? (What's that?).
Gender of nounsEdit
Nouns in Silesian are divided into three groups: masculine, feminine and neuter. The generalized rule is that:
- Masculine nouns are ended with a consonant, eg. dům (a house).
- Feminine nouns are ended with -a, eg. dźouška ( a girl).
- Neuter nouns are ended with -o or -e, eg. mjasto (a city).
Unlike in English, speaking eg. about a school (šula) we use a pronoun uůna (she).
Pay attention that in Silesian there are no articles like a, an, the. So "the school" and "a school" is just šula.
The third person - personal pronouns and conjugation of verb "to be"Edit
Let's sum up the information from the text in this small chart.
|He is||Uůn je||He isn't||Uůn ńy je|
|She is||Uůna je||She isn't||Uůna ńy je|
|It is||Uůno je||It isn't||Uůno ńy je|
|They (m) are||Uůńi sům||They (m) aren't||Uůńi ńy sům|
|They (f) are||Uůne sům||They (f) aren't||Uůne ńy sům|
The pronoun uůńi is used also for mixed-sex group.
Tyn, ta, toEdit
In this lesson you have learned three demonstrative pronouns: tyn, ta and to. The first one is used only befor the masculine nouns and precise the subject. The same thing is with ta, but this pronouns works befor the feminine noun. To can function similarly before the neuter noun or... be a subject. Saying To je sam (This is here) we may speak about something masculine, feminine, neutral or even about a group of things.
1. Which of these nouns is macsculine, which is feminine and which is neuter?
2. Complete with the demonstrative pronouns.
a) ... synek
b) ... šula
c) ... půńi
d) ... Ślůnsk
e) ... mjasto
f) ... je daleko.
g) ... godka
h) ... państwo
3. Translate into Silesian.