Last modified on 8 May 2013, at 18:42

School Science/Creating chemical solutions


This module describes how to create various chemical solutions

Diluting Concentrated AcidsEdit

CAUTIONSEdit

  • Only pour Acid Into Water, not the other way around, especially with concentrated acids.
Acids may quickly absorb water, which is exothermic, and can create significant heat. When acid is poured slowly into water, any heat generated should be safely and evenly dissipated in the water. However, if water is poured into acid, the water may quickly reach boiling temperature, with exploding bubbles spraying acid everywhere.
  • Dilution of concentrated acids should always be done in a fume cupboard.
  • Consider the additional Safety Notes included below for specific acids.


Hydrochloric acidEdit

Hydrochloric acid can be supplied as either a 36% or 32% concentrate solution, so carefully check the bottle first.

To make a 1 molar solution (1M):

36%Edit

Add 83.5mL of 36% hydrochloric acid to about 600mL of distilled water in a 1 litre measuring cylinder in a fume cupboard. Make up to 1L, mix well, and pour into a labelled bottle.

32%Edit

As above, except use 96mL of hydrochloric acid.

Safety NotesEdit

  • Concentrated hydrochloric acid is highly corrosive; and
  • very irritating to the lungs, wear a face shield and use a fume cupboard.
1M (mole/litre) solutions and above should be labelled IRRITANT.
5M solutions and above should also be labelled CORROSIVE.


Nitric AcidEdit

Assuming the concentrated nitric acid is 70%w/v, then to make a 1M solution:

Add 62mL of concentrated nitric acid to about 700mL of water, then dilute to 1L.

Safety NotesEdit

Add the acid slowly, stirring constantly with a polypropylene or glass stirring rod. If the solution gets too hot (by touch, or noticeable agitation / fuming), stop and let it cool down.

0.1M (mole/litre) solutions and above should be labelled IRRITANT.
1M solutions and above should also be labelled CORROSIVE.


Sulfuric acidEdit

Safety NotesEdit

  • Concentrated sulfuric acid is highly CORROSIVE, and
  • a dehydrating (drying) agent.
  • Causes severe burns. It should only be handled under close supervision by an experienced person.
  • Wear appropriate gloves.
  • Protect the eyes with safety goggles or, even better, a face shield.
  • Carcinogenic.

Slowly add 54mL of concentrated sulfuric acid to about 700mL of iced water, and dilute to 1 litre. This is a 1M solution.

1M (mole/litre) solutions and above should be labelled IRRITANT.
4M solutions and above should also be labelled CORROSIVE.


Ethanoic acid, also known as Acetic acidEdit

The concentrated acid is called Glacial acetic acid as it freezes at 17°C.

Safety NotesEdit

  • Glacial acetic acid is CORROSIVE, and
  • the vapour is an extreme IRRITANT.
  • Wear appropriate gloves.
  • Protect the eyes with safety goggles or, even better, a face shield.
  • Work in a fume cupboard.

To make a 1M (mole/litre) solution, add 57mL of the concentrate to about 600mL of distilled water, and dilute to 1 litre.

1M (mole/litre) solutions and above should be labelled IRRITANT.
4M solutions and above should also be labelled CORROSIVE.

Help! It won't dissolveEdit

Some substances do not dissolve very readily in water and require special methods.

  • Sodium alginate

This dissolves very slowly in water. The best thing to do is to start making it up the day before you need it. Mix the powder into agitated water, then put into the fridge overnight. When you come back in the morning it will have dissolved.

  • Starch

In general, starch is insoluble in water, but some types of starch, for example, corn starch will dissolve in water provided they are made into a paste first with cold water then dissolved in boiling water.

  • Iron (III) salts

Most iron (III) salts do not form stable aqueous solutions. In order to get them to dissolve you need to add a small amount of acid. Add hydrochloric acid to the chloride, etc.

Reagents used for testing foodstuffsEdit

Biuret reagentEdit

This is used to test for the presence of protein. There are two recipes the first consists of two reagents Biuret A and Biuret B.

  • A is 0.1M sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide the bottle should be labelled CORROSIVE.
  • B is 0.01M copper (II) sulfate solution

For the second (Quantitative) recipe, in about 600mL of distilled water, dissolve in order 3g of copper (II) sulfate · 5H2O, 5g of potassium iodide, 9g of potassium sodium tartrate. 4H2O, and 8g of sodium hydroxide. Make the dissolved solids to 1 litre. Label the solution IRRITANT

Benedict's reagentEdit

This is used to test for reducing sugars. It has two recipes. Benedict's qualitative and Benedict's quantitative.

Benedict's Qualitative ReagentEdit

The reagent is made up by first dissolving 173g of sodium citrate and 100g of anhydrous sodium carbonate in about 600ml of distilled water. Then 17.3g copper (II) sulfate · 5H2O is dissolved in about 100ml of distilled water. The two solutions are then mixed together and when cool are made up to 1L with distilled water.

Benedict's Quantitative ReagentEdit

In about 600ml of hot water dissolve

  • 200g of sodium citrate
  • 75g sodium carbonate
  • 125g potassium thiocyanate

In about 100ml of water dissolve

  • 18g of copper (II) sulfate · 5H2O

When the solutions have cooled, mix them together stirring constantly. Add

  • 5ml of 5% potassium ferrocyanide then make up to 1L.

Iodine SolutionEdit

Iodine solution is used to test for starch. Recipes vary but 1g of iodine plus 1g of potassium iodide in 100mL water is suitable. Dissolve the iodide then the iodine.

Buffer SolutionsEdit

Buffer solutions help to keep the pH of a sample constant. Make up 0.1M citric Acid and 0.2M phosphate solutions then mix as follows,

Citric Acid-Phosphate buffers
pH 0.2M Na2HPO4 /ml 0.1M Citric Acid /ml
3.0 20.55 79.45
4.0 38.55 61.45
5.0 51.50 48.50
6.0 63.15 36.85
7.0 82.35 17.65
8.0 97.25 2.75