Last modified on 14 May 2014, at 03:31

Punjabi/Grammar/Verb

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ਕਿਰਿਆ VerbEdit

In this section we shall examine the verb as a part of speech, classification of verbs as Transitive and Intransitive verbs, the voice (active voice or passive voice) of the verb, the participles and the tense of the verb .

ਕਿਰਿਆ - Verb 
It is the word or a group of words in a sentence that describes an action or a state with the time of happening of the action or time of the state. Like all other languages Punjabi verbs are also formed from the root verbs called ਧਾਤੂ. Let us examine this example
  • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ - Student goes to school.
Here the group of words ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ (goes) describes the action of going. The word ਹੈ (=is) tells us that the action (go) continues in the present. ਜਾਂਦਾ thus is the base verb in this verb which is derived from the root ਜਾ.
ਸਕ੍ਰਮਕ ਕਿਰਿਆ - Transitive verb 
In the above example while ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ (student) is the subject ਸਕੂਲ (school) is the object of the verb ਜਾਂਦਾ. If we write ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ it is not a complete sentence. Such verbs (ਕਿਰਿਆਵਾਂ) which must have an object (ਕਰਮ) are called ਸਕ੍ਰਮਕ ਕਿਰਿਆਵਾਂ. A Transitive verb may take more than one object in which case one object will be a principal object
ਅਕ੍ਰਮਕ ਕਿਰਿਆ - Intransitive verb 
Let us now examine another example. ਯਾਤਰੀ ਮਰ ਗਿਆ - the traveller died. Here ਮਰ ਗਿਆ is the verb which it has no object (ਕਰਮ) but the sentence is still a complete sentence. Such a verb (ਕਿਰਿਆ) which need not have an object (ਕਰਮ) is called an ਅਕ੍ਰਮਕ ਕਿਰਿਆ (Intransitive verb). Many verbs act as Transitive verbs as well as intrastive verbs in different sentences.
ਕਰਤਰੀ ਵਾਚ - Active Voice 
The voice of the verb has something to do with the grammatical constructionof the sentence. Where the doer of the verb's action acts as subject of the sentence the verb is said to in the active voice (ਕਰਤਰੀ ਵਾਚ). In the sentence ਉਸਨੇ ਫਲ ਖਾਧਾ (he ate the fruit) ਉਹ (he) does the action of the verb (eat) and is also the subject of the sentence and thus the verb is in active voice.
ਕਰਮ ਵਾਚ - Passive Voice 
Now look at the sentence ਫਲ ਉਸਦੇ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਖਾਧਾ ਗਿਆ (fruit was eaten by him). Here ਫਲ (fruit) is the object of the verb but in the sentence it acts as the subject. Thus ਖਾਧਾ ਗਿਆ is the passive voice of the verb.

ਕਾਲ - TenseEdit

Each verb has a tense or ਕਾਲ to show the time of happening of the action of the verb. There are three broad categories of ਕਾਲ or tense viz., ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਕਾਲ - present tense signifying that the action of the verb happened or is happening in the present, ਭੂਤਕਾਲ - past tense signifying that the action of the verb happened or was happening in the past and ਭਵਿਖ ਕਾਲ - future tense signifying that the action will happen or would have happened in future. Each of these tenses are sub-divided into divisions showing the state of the action as to its continuing, having been completed etc. We discuss each of these classifications below.

ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਕਾਲ - present tenseEdit

The present tense has six categories viz.,

  1. ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਅਨਿਸਚਿਤ ਕਾਲ - present indefinite tense : In the following example ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ (student) is the subject, ਸਕੂਲ (school) is the object and ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ(goes) is the verb.
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ - Student goes to school.
      Please note that ਜਾਂਦਾ is the present participle form of the root verb ਜਾ and ਹੈ is the present tense discriminant added to the present participle. Also note that the object ਸਕੂਲ precedes the verb ਜਾਂਦਾ but follows the subject ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ. The present indefinite tense is used to describe an action undertaken by the subject repetitively.
  2. ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਚਾਲੂ ਕਾਲ - present continuous tense : Here ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ is the subject, ਸਕੂਲ the object and ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ (is going) is the verb.
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ - Student is going to school.
      Please note that ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ is equivalent to english gerund going of the verb ਜਾ and ਹੈ is the present tense discriminant. The verb ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ indicates that the action of the verb is still incomplete and is continuing.
  3. ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਪੂਰਨ ਕਾਲ - present perfect tense:
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਗਿਆ ਹੈ - Student has gone to school.
      Here ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ is the subject, ਸਕੂਲ the object and ਗਿਆ ਹੈ (has gone) is the verb. Please note that ਗਿਆ ਹੈ is composed of past participle of root verb ਜਾ and ਹੈ is the present tense discriminant. The verb ਗਿਆ ਹੈ indicates that the action of the verb has been completed presently but not in distant past.
  4. ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਪੂਰਨ ਚਾਲੂ ਕਾਲ - present perfect continuous tense:
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ - Student has been going to school.
      Here ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ (has been going) is the verb. Please note that ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ is composed of present participle of root verb ਜਾ, ਰਿਹਾ the continuous tense discriminant and ਹੈ the present tense discriminant. The verb ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ indicates that the action of the verb was started in the past but continued till the reference point being talked about.
  5. ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਸ਼ਰਤੀ ਕਾਲ - conditional present tense:
    • ਜੇ ਅਧਿਆਪਕ ਕਹੇ ਤਾਂ ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ - If teacher asks student goes to school.
      Here ਕਹੇ is the conditional present tense verb.
  6. ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਹੁਕਮੀ ਕਾਲ - present directive tense:
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀਓ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾਓ - Students! go to school.
      Here ਜਾਓ is the present directive tense verb.

ਭੂਤਕਾਲ - past tenseEdit

The past tense has the following five categories viz.,

  1. ਅਨਿਸਚਿਤ ਭੂਤਕਾਲ - past indefinite tense:
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਸੀ - Student used to go to school.
      Please note that ਜਾਂਦਾ is the present participle form of the root verb ਜਾ and ਸੀ is the past tense discriminant added to the present participle. The past indefinite tense is used to describe an action undertaken by the subject repetitively.
  2. ਚਾਲੂ ਭੂਤਕਾਲ - past continuous tense:
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਸੀ - Student was going to school. Here ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਸੀ (had been going) is the verb. Please note that ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਸੀ is composed of present participle of root verb ਜਾ, ਰਿਹਾ the continuous tense discriminant and ਸੀ the past tense discriminant. The verb ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਸੀ indicates that the action of the verb was started in the past but continued till the reference point being talked about.
  3. ਪੂਰਨ ਭੂਤਕਾਲ - past perfect tense:
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਗਿਆ ਸੀ - Student had gone to school.
      Here ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ is the subject, ਸਕੂਲ the object and ਗਿਆ ਸੀ (had gone) is the verb. Please note that ਗਿਆ ਸੀ is composed of past participle of root verb ਜਾ and ਸੀ is the past tense discriminant. The verb ਗਿਆ ਸੀ indicates that the action of the verb has been completed in the past.
  4. ਪੂਰਨ ਚਾਲੂ ਭੂਤਕਾਲ - past perfect continuous tense:
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਸੀ - Student had been going to school.
      Here ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਸੀ (had been going) is the verb. Please note that ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਸੀ is composed of present participle of root verb ਜਾ, ਰਿਹਾ the continuous tense discriminant and ਸੀ the past tense discriminant. The verb ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਸੀ indicates that the action of the verb was started in the past but continued till the reference point being talked about.
  5. ਸ਼ਰਤੀ ਭੂਤਕਾਲ - conditional past tense:
    • ਜੇ ਅਧਿਆਪਕ ਕਹਿੰਦਾ ਸੀ ਤਾਂ ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਸੀ - If teacher asked student went to school.
      Here ਕਹਿੰਦਾ is the conditional past tense verb.

ਭਵਿਖ ਕਾਲ - future tenseEdit

The future tense has the following four categories viz.,

  1. ਅਨਿਸਚਿਤ ਭਵਿਖ ਕਾਲ - future indefinite tense:
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾਵੇਗਾ - Student will go to school.
      Please note the special derivative ਜਾਵੇਗਾ of the root verb ਜਾ which acts as future tense discriminant.
  2. ਚਾਲੂ ਭਵਿਖ ਕਾਲ - future continuous tense:
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੋਵੇਗਾ - Student will be going to school.
      Please note the use of both ਰਿਹਾ indicative of coninuous tense and ਹੋਵੇਗਾ of the future tense.
  3. ਪੂਰਨ ਭਵਿਖ ਕਾਲ - future perfect tense:
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਗਿਆ ਹੋਵੇਗਾ - Student will have gone to school.
  4. ਪੂਰਨ ਚਾਲੂ ਭਵਿਖ ਕਾਲ - future perfect continuous tense:
    • ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੋਵੇਗਾ - Student will have been going to school.


Adjective · Participle