Last modified on 12 May 2013, at 19:38

Polish/Locative case

Locative case are used in the following contexts:

  1. When describing the location of something or someone
  2. When thinking or talking about something or someone
  3. When writing about something or someone

The locative case answers the questions where? (gdzie?) as well as the questions about what? (o kim?) and about whom? (o czym?).

The locative case appears when the noun is controlled by one of the following prepositions:

Preposition English Example
W[e] in I'm in the shop
Na on The cafe is on the square (object is not moving)
Po on The girl is walking on the square (object is moving)
Przy Next to The car is parked next to the tree
Po After Shall we dance after the dinner
O About I'm thinking about you

SingularEdit

NounsEdit

The apostrophe indicates historical softening. It is helpful to review the hard and soft consonants table before continuing.

Gender Rule Ending Examples
Masculine
Neuter
After stems ending in p, b, f, w, t, d, s, z, m, n, r, ł -'e teatr > w teatrze, zeszyt > w zeszycie, okno > przy oknie
After all other stems -u w kiosku, na kocu, w biurku, na łóżku
Feminine After stems ending in p, b, f, w, t, d, s, z, m, n, r, ł, k, g, h, ch -'e szkoła > w szkole, poczta > na poczcie
After stems ending in ci, dzi, l, ni, si, wi, zi -i w sali
After all other stems -y w pracy

AdjectivesEdit

Gender Rule Ending Examples
Masculine
Neuter
After stems ending in g, k or i -im drogim, wszystkim, tanim
After all other stems -ym dobrym, zielonym
Feminine After stems ending in g, k or i -iej drogiej, wszystkiej, taniej
After all other stems -ej dobrej, zielonej

PluralEdit

NounsEdit

Gender Ending Examples
Masculine -ach w teatrach, w zeszytach, w koskach, na kocach
Neuter w biurkach, na łóżkach, przy oknach
Feminine w szkołach, na pocztach, w pracach, w salach

AdjectivesEdit

Gender Rule Ending Examples
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine
After stems ending in g, k or i -ich drogich, tanich, wszystkich
After all other stems -ych dobrych, ciepłych, małych

PronounsEdit

Personal pronounsEdit

English Nominative Locative
nothing nic niczym
no one nikt nikim
I ja mnie
you (informal singular) ty tobie
he on nim
she ona niej
it ono nim
you (formal masculine) pan panu
you (formal feminine) pani pani
we my nas
you (informal plural) wy was
you (formal masculine plural) panowie panach
you (formal feminine plural) panie paniach
you (formal mixed gender plural) państwo państwu
they (masculine or mixed gender) oni nich
they (feminine) one nich
reflexive sobie

Possessive pronounsEdit

type my, mine your, yours (singular) your, yours (plural) our, ours
masculine mój moim twój twoim wasz waszym nasz naszym
neuter moje moim twoje twoim wasze waszym nasze naszym
feminine moja mojej twoja twojej wasza waszej nasza naszej
masc. pers. pl moi moich twoi twoich wasi waszy nasi naszy
other pl. moje moich twoje twoich wasze waszych nasze naszych

Interrogative pronounsEdit

English Nominative Locative
what? co? czym?
who? kto? kim?

Relative, demonstrative and intensive pronounsEdit

type which / who what / what kind this / that self / same
masculine który którym jaki jakim ten tym sam samym
neuter które którym jakie jakim to tym samo samym
feminine która której jaka jakiej ta tej sama samej
masc. pers. pl którzy których jacy jakich ci tych sami samych
other pl. które których jakie jakich te tych same samych