Since Charged Particles are the smallest particles of a matter therefore a model of matter from charged particles can be developed . There are two model developed by Rutherford and Borh that can be used as a model of matter
- All matter is made up of chemical elements; atom is the smallest element of matter that cannot be divided by chemical reaction and still has the properties of matter.
- All atoms have a nucleus made of Protons and Neutrons locate in the center and Electrons' orbits circulates around the Nucleus of the Atom
- The number of Electrons on all orbits must be equal to the number of Protons in the Nucleus. The Atomic Number indicates the number of Electrons in orbits or the number of Protons in Nucleus.
- Only Electron in the outer most orbit can participate in any action .
- Each orbit of electrons has a quantum energy level correspond to its radius. There are four quantum energy level namely 1,2,3,4 where 1 is the smallest energy level
- The outermost electron orbit has the lowest Quantum Potential Energy E = h f and the greatest Kinetic Energy
- As electron moves from a low potential energy level to a high potential energy level the difference in energy is used to emit Light of Quantum Energy or Photon Light