Persian/Lesson 12

Iran

Afghanistan

Tajikistan

فارسی (‹fârsi›, “Persian”)
Learn the Persian language
ContentsIntroduction
Persian Alphabet lessons: 1 ( ۱ )2 ( ۲ )3 ( ۳ )4 ( ۴ )
Elementary grammar: 5 ( ۵ )6 ( ۶ )7 ( ۷ )8 ( ۸ )9 ( ۹ )
10 ( ۱۰ )11 ( ۱۱ )12 ( ۱۲ )13 ( ۱۳ )14 ( ۱۴ )15 ( ۱۵ )
Intermediate: 16 ( ۱۶ )17 ( ۱۷ )18 ( ۱۸ )19 ( ۱۹ )20 ( ۲۰ )
21 ( ۲۱ )22 ( ۲۲ )23 ( ۲۳ )24 ( ۲۴ )25 ( ۲۵ )26 ( ۲۶ )
Advanced:
Appendix: AlphabetGlossaryHandwriting

Farsi

To continue, your computer must display Persian. The box below should show these Persian letters on the far right: Paa-individua.svgBaa-individua.svgAlif-individua.svg
ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن و ه ی

If they are different or in the wrong order, see Persian Computing.


خ

ميخspijker
تختهhout
ميزtafel
كمدkast
خانهhuis
خريدhij koopt
خريدنkopen,(werkwoord voor kopen)
فروختنverkopen, (werkwoord voor verkopen)
ساختنmaken, (werkwoord voor maken)
ساختhij maakt
كمكhelp
كمك كردن - helpen, (werkwoord voor helpen)
بازارmarkt
فعل) تخته خريدن) – hout kopen
من تخته خريدم - ik koop hout
تو تخته خريديjij koopt hout
اوتخته خريدhij koopt hout
ما تخته خريديمwij kopen hout
شما تخته خريديدjullie kopen hout
ايشان تخته خريدندzij kopen hout
امين با پدرش از بازارآمدAmin komt van de markt met zijn vader
انها تخته و ميخ خريدندZij kopen hout en spijkers
پدرش با تخته وميخ ميزساختZijn vader maakt van hout en spijkers een tafel
امين با پدرش در ساختن ميز كمك كردAmin helpt zijn vader met het maken van een tafel
تكليف شب – jullie huiswerk
فعل بسازيد – werkwoord vervoegen
خريدن – kopen
فروختن – verkopen
ساختن – maken
كمك كردن – helpen
جمله بسازيد – zin maken
پدر . تخته. ميز . بازار. ميخ
جمله هاي زير را كامل كنيد- invullen
خورشيد – zon
خود – zelf
نوك – bek
آسمان – lucht, hemel. firmament
خوردن – eten
نوشتن – schrijven
رفتن gaan
. خروس......... دارد
خروس به زمين نوك مي زند ودانه ..........
............. را در آسمان مي بينيم
امين به دوست ........... نامه مي نويسد.
سارا.......... روز بيمار بود .

Simple present tenseEdit

  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “I work everyday.” 
  هر روز کر می‌کنو.  
  هر روز کار می‌کنو  
 ←  ‹har› ‹ruz› ‹kar› ‹mikonam›  
 ←  “every” “day” “work” “I do”  

The simple present tense is used to describe an event or to comment about the state of something without regard to a particular time, as shown in the example on the right.


گرفتن ‹gereftan› (“to get”)

Simple present tense
Present stem: گیر ‹gir›

Number
Singular Plural
First person (من) می‌گیرم (ما) می‌گیریم
(‹man›) ‹migiram› (‹mâ›) ‹migirim›
“(I) get” “(we) get”
Second person (تو) می‌گیری (شما) می‌گیرید
(‹to›) ‹migiri› (‹šomâ›) ‹migirin›[1]
“(you) get” “(you) get”
Third person (او) می‌گیرد (آنها) می‌گیرند
(‹u›) ‹migirad› (‹ânhâ›) ‹migiran›[1]
“(he/she/it) gets” “(they) get”

The table on the right shows the simple present tense forms of گرفتن Look up گرفتن in Wiktionary ‹gereftan› (“to get”), consisting of the present/imperfect[2] prefix می ‹mi› , the present stem گیر ‹gir› and suffixes to indicate the person and number.

To make a simple present tense form of a Persian verb, begin with the prefix می ‹mi› . Then add the present tense stem (which can be looked up in most dictionaries), e.g. گیر ‹gir› . Finally, add the appropriate present tense personal suffix from the table below to make the simple present tense verb form:

Simple present tense

Present stem +
personal suffix

Number
Singular Plural
First person ... + م ... + یم
present stem + ‹am› present stem + ‹im›
“I [do...]” “we [do...]”
Second person ... + ی ... + ید
present stem + ‹i› present stem + ‹in›[1]
“you [do...]” “you [do...]”
Third person ... + د ... + ند
present stem + ‹ad› present stem + ‹an›[1]
“he/she/it [does...]” “they [do...]”

As you can see, the present tense personal suffixes are the same as the past tense ones, except for the third person singular, which is د ‹ad› in the present tense and nothing in the past.

Every Persian verb has two stems: the imperative/present stem and the past stem. In general, both stems of each verb must be learned because neither is not completely predictable from the other. There are some common patterns, though. For example, verbs whose infinitives end with تن ‹tan› , دن ‹dan› , or یدن ‹idan› often form the present stem by dropping those endings:

Verb   Present stem
کشتن Look up کشتن in Wiktionary ‹koštan› (“to kill”) کش ‹koš›
آوردن Look up آوردن in Wiktionary ‹âvardan› (“to bring”) آور ‹âvar›
رسیدن Look up رسیدن in Wiktionary ‹residan› (“to arrive”) رس ‹res›


  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “I work tomorrow.” 
  فردا کر می‌کنم.  
  فردا کار می‌کنم  
 ←  ‹fardâ› ‹kar› ‹mikonam›  
 ←  “tomorrow” “work” “I do”  

The simple present tense is also used to talk about a future event, as shown on the right.

The simple present tense can also be used to express that an event is occurring at the very moment that the speaker is speaking, but the present continuous tense is used more often for that purpose in both English and Persian. The present continuous tense will be discussed in a later chapter.

ReviewEdit

ContentsIntroduction

Persian Alphabet lessons: 1 ( ۱ )2 ( ۲ )3 ( ۳ )4 ( ۴ )
Elementary grammar: 5 ( ۵ )6 ( ۶ )7 ( ۷ )8 ( ۸ )9 ( ۹ )
10 ( ۱۰ )11 ( ۱۱ )12 ( ۱۲ )13 ( ۱۳ )14 ( ۱۴ )15 ( ۱۵ )
Intermediate: 16 ( ۱۶ )17 ( ۱۷ )18 ( ۱۸ )19 ( ۱۹ )20 ( ۲۰ )
21 ( ۲۱ )22 ( ۲۲ )23 ( ۲۳ )24 ( ۲۴ )25 ( ۲۵ )26 ( ۲۶ )
Advanced:
Appendix: AlphabetGlossaryHandwriting

ReferencesEdit

  1. a b c d Note: The Persian script here uses formal spelling, but the transcriptions in angle brackets shows typical colloquial pronunciation. In colloquial speech, for example, the ending ‍ید ‹-id› is often pronounced as ‹-in›. Other differences between spoken and written Persian will be given in the lessons that follow.
  2. Persian used to have a truly simple present tense with no prefix, distinct from the present imperfect tense with the prefix می ‹mi› . In modern Persian, though, the present imperfect tense has replaced the simple present tense for all verbs but داشتن Look up داشتن in Wiktionary ‹dâštan› (“to have”) and بودن Look up بودن in Wiktionary ‹budan› (“to be”).
Last modified on 4 April 2013, at 20:16