# Past LSAT Explained/PrepTest 07

LSAT Form 3LSS18

## Section I Logical ReasoningEdit

There are 25 questions in this section.

1. Question 1: Note the argument is that the increase in demand for printed books showed there was also a corresponding increase in literacy.
• A is incorrect because it refers only to writing and not to reading.
• B is incorrect because, if true, does nothing to explain the difference in those who could read before the use of the printing press versus after. This answer merely states that those who can read can also write.
• C is correct because connects the behavior of a group of people from before the use of the printed press to after. It explains that the decreased cost allowed the same number of people to purchase more books. If true, this casts doubt on the original argument that the increased demand demonstrated an increase in the number of purchasers.
• D is incorrect because, if true, it would not indicate a increased demand in printed books. By sharing/reusing the same book multiple times the demand would actually decrease. Also, it does not mention whether this sharing behavior was equally common before the use of the printing press. This answer focuses strictly on the usage of books after the creation of the printing press.
• E is incorrect because it does not indicate whether or not the manuscripts were typically heavily illustrated in a way that would be useful to illiterate people. This answer also focuses strictly on the usage of books after the creation of the printing press.
2. Question 2: This question explains how an artificial sweetener was determined to be safe for people by showing that only a vary large quantity would be dangerous.
• A is incorrect because how quickly the cancer develops does not answer the question.
• B is incorrect because how dangerous other additives also does not relate to the artificial sweetener being discussed.
• C is correct because if people consume far less than the dangerous amount of the sweetener, then the sweetener can be determined safe for common use. Once people begin consuming close to the dangerous amount of the sweetener, then the argument that it is safe is no longer valid.
• D is incorrect because, even if true, does not answer the question.
• E is incorrect because it directly refers to studies not relevant the question.
3. Question 3: The question asks about Judith's response to Harry's assertion.
• A is incorrect because if the majority of the people are rich, then most would be able to afford air travel. This would contradict Judith's response indicating that she believes the opposite to be true.
• B is incorrect because it discusses whether or not people have the right to air travel, while Judith's response is focused on their financial ability.
• C is incorrect because it focuses on what areas of the world are accessible by airplane, while Judith's response is focused on on people's financial ability to fly.
• D is incorrect because extends the scope to other forms of travel and is no longer exclusive to airplanes.
• E is correct. When Harry says (in summary) "Anyone can fly", Judith responds with (again in summary) "Flights are too expensive". This shows that she interpreted Harry's statement to mean that anyone is financially capable of flight, which is addressed in this answer choice.
4. Question 4: The question asks how an ad is misleading by stating that a pill contains "44% fiber".
• A is incorrect because it refers to other products on the market, not the pill in the question.
• B is incorrect because it focuses on the uses of fiber, rather than whether or not the ad is misleading.
• C is incorrect because it also refers to other products on the market and not the pill in the question. Also, whether or not the product is addictive would not have any bearing about how the ad was misleading about the product's fiber content.
• D is incorrect because it shifts the focus to the label on the product, rather than the product's advertisement.
• E is correct. This answer states that the recommended daily fiber intake is 20 - 30 grams, so about half of that would be 10-15 grams of fiber. This is much greater than one-third gram, which indicates that although it is possible that 44% of the pill itself is fiber it does not contain 44% of the recommended daily intake of fiber.
5. Question 5: Environmentalists urge consumers to choose products that are not directly nor indirectly harmful to the environment, but the question indicates that it is usually impossible for consumers to determine how harmful each product is. The question asks why there can be no moral duty for consumers to choose products the way that the environmentalists advocate.
• A is incorrect because it does not address the impossibility of the action in the question.
• B is correct because in the second sentence of the question's setup the author indicates that a person cannot be held morally accountable for taking an action they do not know how to avoid.
• C is incorrect because it focuses on how the products should be produced, not how they should be consumed.
• D is incorrect because it does not address the impossibility that the setup addresses in the second sentence.
• E is incorrect because it addresses other types of duties besides the moral duty described in the setup, which is beyond the scope of the question.
6. Question 6: An advertisement establishes that physical exercise improves the condition of a body's lungs, heart, and muscles. It then makes the link that since physical exercise is good for the body, that mental exercise must be good for the brain.
• A is incorrect because the ad does not cite experimental evidence, rather it cites anecdotal/personal evidence.
• B is incorrect because the ad does not ridicule anyone.
• C is incorrect because although the ad makes an analogy between physical and mental exercise, it does not explain why (or if) this analogy is accurate.
• D is incorrect because the ad does not analyze the concept of exercise.
• E is correct because it expounds on the analogy that if physical exercise is good for other organs, then mental exercise is good for the brain.
7. Question 7: First of two questions with this setup. The setup discusses "the problem of reducing health-care costs". This question asks how the argument proceeds.
• A is incorrect because although shifting costs is mentioned in the second sentence, the paragraph does not mention what the "premise" of health-care reimbursement would be.
• B is incorrect because the setup never mentions any fraudulent behavior.
• C is correct because after spending the first few sentences explaining how shifting costs prevents the government from truly reducing health-care costs, the example shows an instance where this is true. The analogy is where the author states that "...push in on one part of this ... balloon and an ... bulge pops up elsewhere."
• D is incorrect because no alternatives are mentioned. Although the last sentence does provide an example, this example is not an alternative system but rather clarifies the central point of the paragraph.
• E is incorrect because the example given does not demonstrate cooperation.
8. Question 8: Second of two questions with this setup. Question asks which of the answer choices is supported by the argument made in the setup.
• A is correct because it addresses the issue of shifting costs. By mentioning a comprehensive approach, this answer choice directly addresses the problem of the "piecemeal" system described in the original argument.
• B is incorrect because the setup does not discuss either the resources available for funding nor the cost of health-care professionals.
• C is incorrect because the funding for the health-care system is not addressed, so there is no way to determine if the costs are expanding to match this change. This answer also contradicts the argument's assertion that shifting costs is the crux of the problem (as opposed to additional funds).
• D is incorrect because the argument does not mention medical technology nor its associated costs.
• E is incorrect because the cost of unused hospital beds is not discussed in the original argument.
9. Question 9: The question discusses how the public interprets an event based on its exposure in the commercial news and asks which answer choice is supported by the argument.
• A is incorrect because it states an alternative form of the media as it is "better" and does not address how the public interprets the commercial news.
• B is incorrect because it implies that the consumer's desires drive what the media chooses to cover, rather than addressing the question about how what the media chooses to cover affects the consumer.
• C is incorrect because it is a statement about how people feel about events they cannot control, in general, rather than how people feel about events in the news. The original argument does not address this issue.
• D is correct because is addresses the statement made in the last sentence of the argument. Regardless of the actual risk, consumers will typically infer that more extensively covered event is the most risky - regardless of whether or not this is true.
• E is incorrect because, rather than answering the question, it offers an inference based on the information in the argument. Even if true this statement does mention how consumers would respond to extensive coverage of cholera instead of another rarer and less serious illness.
10. Question 10:
• A is incorrect because even though it is true that the paragraph does not show that the decrease is proportionate, it also does not claim this to be the case.
• B is correct. The paragraph studies a group of children, with and without behavioral problems, and then changes the diet of all the children. Without a control group to see if there were any other potential causes for the decrease in behavior problems, the conclusion cannot be drawn that the change in diet is the cause.
• C is incorrect because, even if true or partially true, the paragraph is discussing the percentage of the children rather than the exact number of children.
• D is incorrect because the paragraph is discussing children who were affected by the dietary change, not children who weren't.
• E is incorrect because it mentions the frequency of behavioral problems, but the paragraph only has two groups: children with or without behavioral problems. The paragraph never discusses the frequency of behavioral problems in the children of the latter group.
11. Question 11: The paragraph describes that 10% of vehicles from the 1970s and 5% of vehicles from the 1960s received engine repairs in 1990, and asks which of the answer choices explains the discrepancy.
• A is incorrect because it states that all cars must be inspected before prior to registration. In older, and thus more heavily used cars, there would most likely be more problems found. Since the cars from the 1960s are older than the cars from the 1970s, this does not address why fewer cars from the 1960s received repairs.
• B is incorrect because it states that newer cars are driven more carefully than older cars. This implies that the newer cars would be in better condition and would thus need fewer repairs than older cars. This cannot explain why the newer, 1970s, cars received more repairs than the older, 1960s, cars.
• C is correct because it addresses the discrepancy and offers a solution why the older cars, rather than the newer cars, received fewer repairs.
• D is incorrect because the design of the engine is not discussed in the paragraph. Further, if it is assumed that a simpler engine lead to fewer repairs, it would further obscure why the 1970s cars received more repairs.
• E is incorrect because it tries to explain how repairs on the 1960s cars could have been avoided, but does not address the discrepancy.
12. Question 12: Shows how the perception of complex computer proofs/computations changed between 1976 and "today". The question asks which of the answer choices must be true, assuming all the statements in the paragraph are true.
• A is correct based on the first sentence of the paragraph: "No mathematician today would flatly refuse to accept the results of an enormous computation...". This implies that even if they believe that a simple theorem should have a simple proof, that they would also accept the result of an enormous computation as proof.
• B is incorrect because, although it may or may not be true, goes beyond the scope of the paragraph and question. The paragraph does not discuss non-mathematicians.
• C is incorrect because it includes the term "individuals" rather than "mathematicians" specifically. Although there are individual mathematicians, there are also individuals who are not mathematicians so this choice exceeds the scope of this question.
• D is incorrect because it also uses the group "individuals" and thus, like (C), also exceeds the scope of this question.
• E is incorrect because it also goes out of the scope of the paragraph and question for the same reason as (B).
13. Question 13: Can be best simplified using variables to represent different statements in the question. This reduces the question to: If X, then ~Y. Z unless X. Thus if Y, then Z.
• A is incorrect because, following the same X, Y, Z pattern, the statement starts with "If ~X, then ~Y" as opposed to "If X, then ~Y".
• B is incorrect for the same reason as (A).
• C is correct because it follows the same pattern as the original: "If X, then ~Y. Z unless X. Thus if Y, then Z."
• D is incorrect for the same reason as (A).
• E is incorrect because it is of the form: "If X, then ~Y. Z unless X. If Y, then ~Z." This is very close to the original pattern, but the last sentence falls short as it should be "If Y, then Z" as opposed to ~Z.
14. Question 14: This paragraph is about lobsters eating one another if caught in a trap.
• A is incorrect because lobsters not caught in traps are not in the scope of the paragraph/question.
• B is incorrect because the duration of time not affect the counterclaim.
• C is incorrect because, even if true, it does not affect the assertion in the paragraph. Whether or not it is unusual to have eight lobsters in a trap does not help or hinder the counterclaim to the biologist's argument.
• D is incorrect because members of other species, i.e. not lobsters, are not in the scope of the paragraph/question.
• E is correct because if the lobsters are not hungry lobsters, then they will not eat each other. Thus, in order for the objection to be valid the lobsters that were in a trap for two months needed to be hungry. If they were not hungry, either because they eat less frequently than every couple months or because there was an alternate food source available, this would not be a valid objection.
15. Question 15:
• A is correct because it directly addresses the hunting ban. This answer shows that in similar areas with no hunting ban the deer population has not increased so drastically.
• B is incorrect because, although it does strengthen the argument in the paragraph, it does not address how the ban affected motor vehicle accidents.
• C is incorrect because the paragraph does not focus on how overpopulation damages the deer population, but rather on how overpopulation risks the safety of the human population.
• D is incorrect because whether or not the humans give salt and etc. to the deer does not relate to how deer overpopulation is dangerous to humans. This answer also does not address whether this behavior started before, or after, the hunting ban.
• E is incorrect because even if the deer do cause cosmetic damage to ornamental plants, there is no link established between how this is related to the hunting ban or human safety.
16. Question 16: This paragraph is about how Halley's comet reflects less light than was initially assumed.
• A is incorrect because the paragraph does not directly address the measured brightness of other comets.
• B is correct because the paragraph directly states that the material "reflects 60 times less light per unit of mass". If the material is less reflective, then that means previous estimates were too low.
• C is incorrect because the amount of light reflected is known. How much light per unit mass was unknown. (You could also say that the "how much light was reflected as a function of mass was unknown.)
• D is incorrect because only Halley's comet is mentioned. Halley's comet could be an anomaly, or the statement could be true, or all comets could reflect less light per unit mass than was thought. The paragraph does not address this.
• E is incorrect because how much additional information is needed is not addressed in the paragraph.
17. Question 17: This is a statement by Office Manager about how he sees recycled paper as inferior, and a response by Stationary Supplier.
• A is incorrect because the response DOES argue that the office manager's prejudice against recycled paper stems from ignorance.
• B is correct because the claim that "from the beginning, the finest paper has been made of recycled material," is justified by the next sentence, which is irrelevant because it mentions two materials without making a claim about the quality of either one.
• C is incorrect because the supplier response addresses quality, not environmental issues.
• D is incorrect because, although it is true that the response deals with paper manufacturing, the response is not invalid because it presupposes understanding of technology. It's invalid because paper manufacturing technology is irrelevant to the concern that the Office Manager brought up about quality.
• E is incorrect because the response does not ignore the concern about quality, it addresses it improperly.
18. Question 18:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is correct because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
19. Question 19:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is correct because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
20. Question 20:
• A is incorrect because
• B is correct because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
21. Question 21:
• A is incorrect because
• B is correct because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
22. Question 22:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is correct because
23. Question 23:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is correct because
• E is incorrect because
24. Question 24:
• A is correct because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
25. Question 25: This passage is about a paradox between police data (anti theft devices reduce the risk of car theft) and insurance company data (cars with anti theft devices are more likely to be stolen), and asks for an appropriate resolution.
• A is incorrect because doesn't address anti theft devices, the subject of the paradox.
• B is incorrect because this statement supports one side of the paradox, but is contrary to the other side, and doesn't resolve anything.
• C is incorrect because it is irrelevant; we have no data to suggest that either set of data is counting false alarms from audible alarm systems.
• D is correct because it resolves the paradox - while anti theft devices reduce the risk of car theft, the people who buy them and put them in their cars are disproportionately more likely to be at high risk of car theft, so the cars themselves are less safe as a group.
• E is incorrect because it would imply that anti theft devices are a non-issue, which both sides of the paradox seem to contradict.

## Section II Analytical ReasoningEdit

### Game 3Edit

• Type: Grouping
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#### Question 13Edit

• Type: Local

If the two moderates didn't vote the same way, then they have spread their votes between for and against. Since the setup tells us that "At least one conservative coted against Datalog", we have this:

```
```

C and L cannot be against because that will force both moderates to vote in the same way.

(A) Incorrect. (B) Correct. (C) Incorrect. (D) Incorrect. (E) Incorrect.

#### Question 14Edit

• Type:Global

You can solve this question by referring to the setup diagram we made in the beginning.

(A) Incorrect. (B) Incorrect. (C) Correct. (D) Incorrect. (E) Incorrect.

#### Question 15Edit

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```

(A) Incorrect. (B) Incorrect. (C) Incorrect. (D) Incorrect. (E) Correct.

#### Question 16Edit

• Type: Local
```
```

(A) Correct. (B) Incorrect. (C) Incorrect. (D) Incorrect. (E) Incorrect.

#### Question 17Edit

(A) Incorrect. (B) Incorrect. (C) Incorrect. (D) Incorrect. (E) Correct.

#### Question 18Edit

```
```

(A) Incorrect. (B) Correct. (C) Incorrect. (D) Incorrect. (E) Incorrect.

## Section IV Logical ReasoningEdit

There are 25 questions in this section.

1. Question 1:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is correct because
• E is incorrect because
2. Question 2:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is correct because
3. Question 3:
• A is incorrect because
• B is correct because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
4. Question 4:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is correct because
5. Question 5:
• A is correct because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
6. Question 6:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is correct because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
7. Question 7:
• A is correct because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
8. Question 8:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is correct because
9. Question 9:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is correct because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
10. Question 10:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is correct because
• E is incorrect because
11. Question 11:
• A is correct because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
12. Question 12:
• A is correct because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
13. Question 13:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is correct because
• E is incorrect because
14. Question 14:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is correct because
• E is incorrect because
15. Question 15:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is correct because
16. Question 16:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is correct because
17. Question 17:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is correct because
• E is incorrect because
18. Question 18:
• A is correct because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
19. Question 19:
• A is incorrect because
• B is correct because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
20. Question 20:
• A is correct because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
21. Question 21:
• A is correct because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
22. Question 22:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is correct because
• E is incorrect because
23. Question 23:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is correct because
• D is incorrect because
• E is incorrect because
24. Question 24:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is correct because
• E is incorrect because
25. Question 25:
• A is incorrect because
• B is incorrect because
• C is incorrect because
• D is incorrect because
• E is correct because