Introduction: Introduction - Grammar - Orthography - I-mutation
Grammar: Nouns - Pronouns - Articles - Adjectives - Numbers - Verbs - Participles - Adverbs - Conjunctions - Prepositions - Interjections - Appositives - Word Formation -
Pronouns are used to substitute for nouns. They are words like "I", "you", "he", "they", "anybody", "who", and many more. They are not a requirement of a sentence, and it is possible for them to never to be used in sentences. However, they are useful because they help avoid repeating the same noun over and over again; and they make it easer for a sentence to understand. For an example without using any pronouns, see this sentence:
- Alistair is doing what Alistair thinks is best for Alistair's rights as a human being.
Because it repeats "Alistair" so much it seems strange and tedious. A more usual way to say the above, using pronouns, would be:
- Alistair is doing what he thinks is best for his rights as a human being.
There are different types of pronouns:
- Personal pronouns - usually refer to specific persons or objects
- Interrogative pronouns - used to ask questions of identity like Modern English "who", "what", and "which one"
- Relative pronouns - used after another substansive to add additional information, like Modern English "who" in "John is the person who I like"
- Demonstrative pronouns - words used often when pointing to something, with with a sense of location, as in Modern English "this" or "that"
- Indefinite pronouns - used to talk about nobody in particular, or about everyone in general, like Modern English "anybody" and "everybody". Also includes negative pronouns - pronouns used to talk about "nobody" or "nothing".
Like nouns and adjectives, pronouns are declined according to case, gender (only sometimes), and number.
The simple personal pronouns are declined like this:
First person pronouns are pronouns that refer to the speaker (in singular), or the speaker and other people (in dual and plural), like Modern English "I" and "we".
|Accusative||meċ, mē (in later OE)||uncit, unc||ūsiċ, ūs|
Notice that there is a dual number; it means "both" or "two" as in "we both" or "we two". The separate dual number is exceptional and rare. If used with an adjective or a verb, it should take the same declensions and conjugations as plural. Since there is a dual number for each set of pronouns, the plural form should only be used for three or more.
Second person pronouns are for the person who is being spoken to, like Modern English "you".
|Accusative||þeċ, þē (in later OE)||inċit, inċ||ēowiċ, ēow|
Third person pronouns refer to another person not involved in a conversation, like Modern English "he", "she", "it", and "they".
|Case||Masc. sg.||Neut. sg. sg.||Fem. sg.||Pl. all genders|
Interrogative pronouns are pronouns used to ask questions of identity, such as Modern English "who" and "what" as in "Who are you?" and "What is that animal?" The following are Old English interrogative pronouns:
|"Hwā" - "who"|
|Case||Sg. and pl.|
|"Hwæt" - "what"|
|Case||Sg. and pl.|
The instrumental form of "hwæt" (hwȳ) is used to mean "why". Also used for "why" is for hwȳ.
In Old English, they had a word meaning "which of two" as might be used in "Which of the two children went with you?", declined the same as the strong adjective declension.
|"Hwæðer" - "which of two"|
Like hwæðer is āhwæðer "some one, something; any one; anything", ǣġhwæðer "of two" "either, both, each"; "of many" "every one, each", nāhwæðer "neither", swæðer "whichever of two, whosoever of two".
The following word is also used as an interrogative adjective, like Modern English "which" as in "Which fruit did you eat?" Used standalone as a pronoun, though, it means "which one". Because it is an adjective, it also simply takes the strong adjectival declension.
|"Hwilċ" - "which one"|
Like hwilc is swilċ "such", ġehwilc "each/every one", ǣġhwilċ "each one, every one", nāthwilċ "someone I know not", samhwilċ "some".
Relative pronouns are pronouns that are used to refer to an earlier substansive, called an antecedant, and give additional information, as the "who" in the following examples:
- "It was John who did that" - Hit wæs Iohannes se þe dyde þæt
- "I like men who know what they're doing" - Mē līciaþ menn þā þe witon þæt hīe dōþ
And the "that" in the following examples:
- "The thing that I hate most about it, is the stupidity of it all" - Þæt þing þæt iċ þæs mǣst hatġe, is his dwola
- "All the trees that I cut down had green leaves" - Eall þā trēow þā iċ fylede hæfdon grēnu lēaf
And the "which" in the following examples:
- "The squirrel, which was red, ran away" - Þæt ācwern þæt þe rēad wæs, earn aweġ
- "The house which I live in is old" - Þæt hūs in þǣm þe iċ wunie is eald
In Old English, the relative pronoun was the same as the definitive article, but it could be followed in addition by þe. You could also use just þe by itself.
|"Se (þe)" - "who, which, that"|
|Case||Masculine||Neuter||Feminine||Plural all genders|
|Nominative||se (þe)||þæt (þe)||sēo (þe)||þā (þe)|
|Accusative||þone (þe)||þæt (þe)||þā (þe)||þā (þe)|
|Genitive||þæs (þe)||þǣre (þe)||þāra (þe)|
|Dative||þǣm (þe), þām (þe)||þǣre (þe)||þǣm (þe), þām (þe)|
Note that because se by itself could also mean "that (one", alongside this relative pronoun meaning; and þe alone could be a relative pronoun, se þe could actually be just a relative pronoun, or a relative pronoun and an indicative pronoun combined, e.g. "that which" or "he who".
A kind of word which in Modern English could be confused with a relative pronoun, is an indirect interrogative. The bold words in the following examples are indirect interrogatives:
- "I asked him what he was doing"
- "Do you know who they are?"
As in Modern English, the indirect interrogative pronouns in Old English were the same as the normal interrogative pronouns, for which see the "Interrogative pronouns" section of this page.
Demonstrative pronouns are the kind of pronoun you might use while pointing at something, often having also a sense of location, as in Modern English "this" and "that", where "this" has a meaning like "the one here" and that has a meaning like "the one there".
|"Þes" - "this"|
|Genitive||þisses||þisse, þisre||þissa, þisra|
The plural of þes (þās) has the meaning of "these".
|"Se" - "that"|
It is obvious to see that the Modern English word "that" came from the neuter form of this word - þæt. This word was also the definitive article (like Modern English "the") in Old English, so if it was used to modify a noun, it might either mean "the" or "that", depending on context.
Indefinite pronouns are pronouns which don't refer to anything specific. They can have the sense of "any" or "every". They also include negative pronouns - pronouns that mean "nothing" or "nobody".
- Ġehwā - "anybody" or "everybody"; declined just like the interrogative pronoun hwā.
- Ġehwilċ - "anything/anyone" or "everything/everyone"; declined just like the interrogative pronoun hwilċ.
- Ġehwæt - "anything" or "everything"; declined just the the interrogate pronoun hwæt.
Negative indefinite pronouns, or simply negative pronouns, are pronouns which refer to a lack of someone or something, like "nothing" in Modern English.
|Nā(wi)ht - "nothing"|
|Case||'Sg. (no need for plural)|
Note that nā(wi)ht is actually a compound of nā - "not" and wiht - "something". The declension is simply the strong singular neuter noun declension.
A part of the text in this article, was taken from the public domain English grammar "The Grammar of English Grammars" by Goold Brown, 1851.