Novial/Hound Lesson 3

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Prefixes - Suffixes

Li LegendeEdit

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”Ma me did kreda ke vu volid konsulta me pri kelkum moderni e praktikal.”

Tre moderni. Tre praktikal, importanti kose kel on mus solu in duanti-quar hores. Ma li manuskrite es kurti e relate proximim al probleme. Dunke me sal lekte lu a vus.“

Holmes apoyad retro in sen stule e klosad sen okules. Doktoro Mortimer turnad li manuskrite vers li lume e lekted disi stranji, oldi naratione:


”On ha dikte multi diferanti rakontes pri li origine del Hunde del Baskervilles. Ankore pro ke Hugo Baskerville es men ansestre e pro ke me lernad li rakonte fro men patro e lo fro sen patro, me nun skripte te kel me kreda verim ha eventa. Lerna dunke fro ti rakonte e sorga non liberisa tal mali pasiones, kel porta sufro a nusen familie.


”Ye li tempe del sivili milite li proprietere de dis estate esed Hugo Baskerville, kel esed verim sovaji, sindeal viro. Hugo did ama li filia de farmere, kel proprietad lande proxim li estate de Baskerville. Ma li bon yuna evitad lo, pro ke la timad lon mal nome.”

VocabularyEdit

  • ama - (to) love
  • ankore - yet, still
  • ansestre - ancestor
  • apoya - (to) lean
  • diferant(i) - different
  • dunke - therefore, so, consequently
  • estate - estate
  • eventa - to happen
  • evita - (to) avoid
  • farmere - farmer
  • filia - daughter
  • fro - from
  • hore - hour
  • important(i) - important
  • kel - which, who, that, what (see)
  • kelkum - something
  • klosa - (to) close
  • komensa - (to) begin
  • konsulta - (to) consult
  • kreda - (to) believe
  • kurti - short
  • lande - land, country
  • lekte - (to) read
  • lerna - (to) learn
  • liberisa - (to) free, liberate
  • lume - light
  • milite - war
  • moderni - modern, new
  • multi - many, much
  • mus - must, have to (auxiliary verb)
  • naratione - narration, story
  • nome - name
  • nun - now
  • okule - eye
  • on - one, people, we, you, they
  • origine - origin
  • pasione - passion
  • patro - father
  • porta - (to) carry
  • pri - about, concerning
  • pro ke - because
  • proprieta - (to) own
  • proprietere - owner, proprieter
  • proxim - close to
  • proximim - closely
  • rakonte - story
  • relate - (to) relate to
  • retro - back, backwards
  • sal - will, shall (future auxiliary verb)
  • sindeal(i) - godless
  • sivil(i) - civil
  • skripte - (to) write
  • solu - (to) solve
  • sorga - (to) take care of, look after, take pains with
  • sovaji - savage, wild
  • stranji - strange
  • stule - chair
  • sufro - suffering
  • tal(i) - such a, of that kind
  • te kel - that which, what
  • tempe - time
  • ti (-e, -o, -a, -u) - that (see Grammar Notes)
  • tima - (to) fear
  • tre - very (much)
  • turna - (to) turn
  • verim - truly
  • vers - towards
  • viro - man
  • voli - (to) want
  • yun(i) - young
  • yuna - young woman, girl

Grammar NotesEdit

Relative PronounsEdit

The relative pronoun in English takes several forms (who, whom, which, that). In Novial one word, kel, can serve for all of these:

  • evita pasiones, kel porta sufroavoid passions which (that) bring suffering
  • li yuna, kel me ama, es belthe young woman, whom (that) I love, is beautiful
  • me donad lu al proprietere, kel es oldi viroI gave it to the owner who is an old man
  • li stule, sur kel me sida, es grandithe chair, on which I sit, is big

The English possessive (whose) is translated as kelen or de kel:

  • li farmere, kelen filia me ama, es oldi virothe farmer, whose daughter I love, is an old man
  • li farmere, li filia de kel me ama, es oldi virothe farmer, the daughter of whom I love, is an old man

If necessary in order to avoid ambiguity the endings -o, -a, -u may be used to indicate sex or lack of sex and -s may be used to indicate a plural:

  • li filia del doktoro, kela me ha renkontra, es inteligentithe daughter of the doctor, whom I have met, is intelligent (I met the daughter not the doctor)
  • tima li ansestres e li pasiones, kelus pove ankore veni a vufear the ancestors and the passions, which can yet come to you (the passions can come not the ancestors)


EXERCISE • Hound Lesson 3 • Relative Pronouns

In the following sentences translate the English in brackets into Novial.

  1. Lo parlad a Holmes (who) sidad in (his own) stule..
  2. La lekte li manuskrite (which) es sur li table.
  3. Lo have pasiones fro (which) lo sufra.
  4. Me sal renkontra li proprietere (whose) filia es yuni.
  5. Li farmere (who) proprieta li lande es oldi.
  6. Me have (this) importanti probleme.
  7. (That) naratione es stranji.
  8. Me sal dikte (what) me lernad fro (that) manuskrite.
  9. Dis yuno ama li (young woman).
  10. Li (young people) ama (their own) amikes.
SOLUTION • Novial/Hound Lesson 3 • Relative Pronouns
  1. Lo parlad a Holmes kel sidad in sen stule..
  2. La lekte li manuskrite kel es sur li table.
  3. Lo have pasiones fro kel lo sufra.
  4. Me sal renkontra li proprietere kelen filia es yuni.
  5. Li farmere kel proprieta li lande es oldi.
  6. Me have disi importanti probleme.
  7. Ti naratione es stranji.
  8. Me sal dikte tu kel me lernad fro ti manuskrite.
  9. Dis yuno ama li yuna.
  10. Li yunes ama sen amikes.

Verbs – Future TenseEdit

The future tense is formed by placing the auxiliary verb sal in front of the present tense of the verb:

  • me sal evita tal stranji virosI shall avoid such strange men

Adverbs from AdjectivesEdit

An adjective may be converted to a corresponding adverb by adding -m after the final -i:

  • diferantidifferent
  • diferantimdifferently
  • proximiclose
  • proximimclosely

(Note that proxim without the -i is a preposition meaning close to (something).)

This and That – Pronouns from AdjectivesEdit

As we have already seen with personal pronouns and nouns with natural sex differences, Novial has convenient endings to distinguish sexless things, male, female and male or female. The demonstrative adjectives ti (that) and disi (this) use the same endings to provide the corresponding pronouns with such distinctions. Remember that adjectives themselves (here ti and disi) do not change form or agree with their noun. However, the derived pronouns have alternative endings to indicate sex and number:

  • ti kosethat thing
  • tuthat (one) (sexless thing)
  • tethat one (male or female)
  • tathat one (female)
  • tothat one (male)
  • tusthose (ones) (sexless things)
  • testhose (male or female or a mixture of both)
  • tasthose (female)
  • tosthose (male)


  • disi kosethis thing
  • disu - this (one) (sexless thing)
  • disethis one (male or female)
  • disathis one (female)
  • disothis one (male)
  • disusthese (sexless things)
  • disesthese (male or female or a mixture of both)
  • disasthese (female)
  • disosthese (male)

As with the third person pronouns, le and les, it is convenient to use te, tes and dise, dises to indicate either sexless things or persons or a mixture of both without being specific.

Pronouns may be formed from other adjectives in the same way:

  • yuni filiayoung daughter
  • yunayoung woman (also young female of animals)
  • yuni filioyoung son
  • yunoyoung man (also young male of animals)
  • yuni homeyoung person
  • yunea youth
  • yunesyouths, young ones
  • yunuyoung thing

Verbal Suffixes -ISA and -IFIKAEdit

The suffixes –isa and –ifika are used to make verbs meaning to make, make into or render. For example:

  • liberi – liberisa (free – liberate, make free, free)
  • real – realisa (real – make real, realize)
  • kurti – kurtifika (short – shorten, make short)
  • veri – verifika (true – verify)

Verbs meaning to provide with , cover with are made with –isa (but not with –ifika):

  • alkohole – alkoholisa (alcohol – alcoholize)
  • lume – lumisa (light – light (up))

Verbal Suffix -EREEdit

The person who performs an action is formed from a verb with the suffix –ere.

  • proprieta – proprietere (to own – owner, proprietor)
  • fuma – fumere (to smoke – smoker)
  • visita – visitere (to visit – visitor)


EXERCISE • Hound Lesson 3 • Word Derivation

Use endings and affixes to convert the following Novial root words to the English words indicated.

  1. amalover (male or female)
  2. importantiimportantly
  3. lektereader
  4. nometo name, give a name
  5. papereto paper, cover with paper
  6. lernalearner
  7. yunito make young, rejuvinate
  8. stranjistrangely
  9. sufrasufferer
  10. importantimake important
  11. jorneby day
  12. lumeto light, shine light on
SOLUTION • Novial/Hound Lesson 3 • Word Derivation
  1. amere
  2. importantim
  3. lektere
  4. nomisa
  5. paperisa
  6. lernere
  7. yunifika
  8. stranjim
  9. sufrere
  10. importantifika
  11. jornim
  12. lumisa

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Contents - Lesson 1 - Lesson 2 - Lesson 3 - Lesson 4 - Lesson 5 - Lesson 6 - Lesson 7

Prefixes - Suffixes

Last modified on 1 August 2013, at 06:17