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Alphabetical Vocabulary ListEdit
Adjectives which often drop the final -i have it in brackets.
a – to
amike – friend
bon(i) – good
bonvoli – (to) be willing, please
de – of
del – of the
disdi – today
doktoro – doctor
duesmi – second
dunke – therefore
e – and
es – am, are, is, (to) be
espera – (to) hope
Europa – Europe
exterordinari – extraordinary
familie – family
fingre – finger
fro – from
fuma – (to) smoke
have – (to) have, possess
home – person
hunde – dog
in – in
interesa – (to) interest
jorne – day
ke – that (conjunction)
konsulta – (to) consult
kose – thing, matter
laboro – work
li – the
lo – he, him
lu – it
ma – but
me – I, me
men – my, mine
nature – nature
no – no
nome – name
non – not
nur – only
nus – we, us
ob – is it that?
observa – (to) observe
ofense – (to) offend
plesure – pleasure
pokim – a little (adverb)
praktikal(i) – practical
prefera – (to) prefer
pro quu? – why?
probleme – problem
que? – who?
rakonta – (to) tell, recount
realisa – (to) realize
renkontra – (to) meet
sava – (to) know
sembla – (to) seem
seriosi – serious
sida – (to) sit
siential(i) – scientific
sinioro – Mr, sir
- tre – very
tre multim – very much
unesmi – first
visita – (to) visit
vu – you (one person)
vun – your, yours (one person)
ya – indeed
Grammar Notes and ExercisesEdit
Personal Pronouns – Subject, Object and PossessionEdit
The subject and object forms (e.g English I and me) of Novial pronouns are the same:
- me – I, me
- nus – we, us
- vu – you (one person)
- vus – you (more than one person)
- lo – he, him
- los – they, them (all male)
- la – she, her
- las – they, them (all female)
- le – he or she, him or her
- les – they, them
- lu – it
- lus – they, them (all sexless objects)
Notice that in the third person, male and female have the endings -o and -a respectively. The ending -e indicates either male or female without specifying. The ending -u indicates a sexless thing. Plurals all end in -s. Les is conveniently used to mean they, them as in English, i.e. it is not specified whether they are sexless or not, and they may be any mixture of male, female and sexless things. This system is flexible and allows more speakers to follow their natural language habits. So the French may often choose to use las and los, while most English speakers would choose to use les, ignoring the sex distinction which is here absent in English. A Finnish speaker may prefer to use le (he or she), since the he/she distinction is absent in Finnish. The pronoun le is also very convenient to say he or she using a single word and avoiding sex bias.
The standard word order is, as in English, subject-verb-object, so the object need not be marked to distinguish it from the subject:
- me observa vu – I observe you
- vu observa me – you observe me
The personal possessive adjectives are formed from the pronouns by adding -n or after a consonant -en. This is in fact the genitive (possessive) of the pronoun so men means both my and mine (of me):
- lu es men hunde – it is my dog
- lu es men – it is mine
- men – my, mine
- nusen – our, ours
- vun – your, yours
- vusen – your, yours (more than one person)
- lon – his
- losen – their, theirs (all male)
- lan – her, hers
- lasen – their, theirs (all female)
- len – his or her, his or hers
- lesen – their, theirs
- lun – its
- lusen – their, theirs (all sexless objects)
Complete the following sentences by translating the English word in brackets.
- (You) interesa me multim, sinioro Watson.
- E (you), doktoro Watson e siniore Holmes, interesa me.
- ( I ) sava vusen seriosi e exterordinari probleme.
- (We) non fuma ma bonvoli sida e fuma.
- (She) observa (my) bon amike.
- Ob (he) renkontra les disdi?
- Yes, (they) visita (his) bon amike, doktoro Mortimer.
- Vu interesa me multim, sinioro Watson.
- E vus, doktoro Watson e siniore Holmes, interesa me.
- Me sava vusen seriosi e exterordinari probleme.
- Nus non fuma ma bonvoli sida e fuma.
- La observa men bon amike.
- Ob lo renkontra les disdi?
- Yes, les visita lon bon amike, doktoro Mortimer.
Complete the following sentences by translating the English word in brackets.
- Li hunde interesa nus: (it) nur sida e observa.
- Li familie have problemes: (they, the problems) interesa sinioro Holmes.
- (Their, male only) laboro sembla bon a me.
- (They, female only) have autoritate in Europa.
- (Her) familie prefera non fuma.
- Holmes e Watson, pro quu (your) problemes interesa me?
- Ob vus sava ke lus es (my) problemes?
- Li hunde interesa nus: le nur sida e observa.
- Li familie have problemes: lus interesa sinioro Holmes.
- Losen laboro sembla bon a me.
- Las have autoritate in Europa.
- Lan familie prefera non fuma.
- Holmes e Watson, pro quu vusen problemes interesa me?
- Ob vus sava ke lus es men problemes?
Verb – Present Tense, Imperative, Infinitive and NegativeEdit
As in English the present tense of the verb and the imperative are identical:
- me dikte – I say or I am saying
- dikte! – say!
Note that the English present continuous, such as you are saying, is translated by the simple present:
- vu dikte
The infinitive is also the same as the present:
- me prefera dikte – I prefer to say
The negative is formed with non (not), which usually precedes the word which it negates. The negative answer to a question is no (no), while the positive answer is yes (yes).
- nus non sava lu – we don’t know it
The verb never varies with the person:
- me sembla – I seem
- nus sembla – we seem
- vu sembla – you seem
- vus sembla – you seem
- le sembla - he or she seems
- les sembla – they seem
Articles, Plural Nouns and Nouns with Natural SexEdit
The plural of a noun is formed by adding the ending -s (-es after a consonant) and the definite article li (the) is invariant as in English:
- li probleme – the problem
- li problemes – the problems
For convenience de li (of the) is usually shortened to del and likewise a li (to the) to al and da li (by the) to dal. There is no indefinite article (a, an) in Novial. This causes no ambiguity as seen in English when the plural indefinite article (some) is dropped:
- hunde – dog, a dog
- hundes – dogs, some dogs
The indication of sex in the third person pronouns with the endings -e, -o and -a is also used with nouns that have natural gender:
- doktore – doctor (male or female)
- doktora – female doctor
- doktoro – male doctor
- hunde – dog
- hunda – bitch, female dog
- hundo – male dog
- siniore – sir or madam
- siniora – madam, Mrs
- sinioro – sir, Mr
- siniores – ladies and gentlemen
- home – person
- homa – female person (adult or child)
- homo – male person (adult or child)
- homes – people
Many sexless nouns also end in -e and these of course cannot change the ending to indicate sex differences.
All adjectives end in an -i, which may be dropped if easy to pronounce. Adjectives usually precede the noun that they qualify. As in English, adjectives do not agree with their noun in number or gender:
- boni puera or bon puera – a good girl
- boni pueras or bon pueras – good girls
- boni puero or bon puero – a good boy
- boni pueros or bon pueros – good boys
- boni pueres or bon pueres – good children (boys and/or girls)
Question words such as que (who?) or pro quu (why? ) directly indicate a question and the subject-verb-object order need not be changed:
- pro quu vus visita nus? – why are you visiting us? (Literally: why you visit us? )
- que visita nus? – who is visiting us? (Literally: who visits us? )
Otherwise a question is indicated with the general question word ob (is it that?), again with no change in the standard word order of the remainder of the sentence:
- ob vu es lan amike? – are you her friend? (Literally: is it that you are her friend? )
- ob vu sava li familie? – do you know the family? (Literally: is it that you know the family? )
Use endings and affixes to convert the following Novial root words to the English words indicated.
- dona - donation
- liberisa - liberating
- dikte - diction, delivery
- observa - observation
- sorga - careful
- lumosi - to turn bright
- viro - to become a man
- du - twice
- konsulta - consultation
- disi - this time, on this occasion
- irati - to get angry
- voli - willful
- relate - relation, relevance
- prenda - grasping, tending to take
- morda - mordacious
- ti - that time, on that occasion
- prega - prayerful
- solu - solutione
- omni - every time, on every occasion
- konklusa - conclusive
- otiosi - to fall idle
- kontinua - continuation
- suporta - suportive
- irgi - any time, on any occasion
- atesta - attestation
- deslumosi - to turn dark
- proba - to start trying
- konkluse - conclusion
- apari - apparition
- savat - to become known
- audi - audition
- blanki - to blanch, turn white
- examina - examination
- vibra - vibration