Neo-Quenya/Locative

UsageEdit

The locative corresponds to the prepositions "in", "on" and "upon".

It is always used for places:

ëan coassë "I am in a house"
i ciryamo ëa i ciryassë "the sailor is on the ship"
i aiwi háma olwassë "the bird sits upon a branch"

or for a moment or period in time when something happens:

utúlien i lómissë "I have come in the night"


There are two situations in which we don't use the locative:

  • The preposition "into" is translated by mir followed by a nominative:
nér vantanë mir i mallë "a man walked into the street"
  • The preposition "in" can also be used to denote a condition or feeling someone has, in that case we use the preposition mi (or , this is short for mi + i):
nér vantanë mi mornië "a man walked in darkness"
nér vantanë mí ringa "a man walked in the cold"



FormationEdit

We discuss each of the numbers separately:


SingularEdit

The basic ending is -ssë after vowels and -essë after consonants.

Most words simply add this ending:

aran "king" → aranessë
tári "queen" → tárissë
vendë "girl" → vendessë


Words that have a stem-form use this stem-form:

sar "pebble" → sardessë (stem-form sard-)
curo "device" → curussë (stem-form curu-)
lómë "night" → lómissë (stem-form lómi-)


Exceptions:

  • words ending in -s contract with the ending:
arquilis "desert" → arquilissë
  • words ending in -t only get - as ending:
ecet "short sword" → ecetsë
  • words ending in -l change l + ssë into ldë:
menel "heaven" → meneldë
  • words ending in -n change n + ssë into ndë:
cemen "earth, soil" → cemendë


Words that in the nominative end on -ssë don't have a locative case, when a locative would be needed they use the preposition mi:

Víressë "April" → mi Víressë


Stem-forms show quite a lot of exceptions in this case (see Stem-forms):

  • The locative of contracted stems doesn't use the stem-form but the nominative singular:
toron "brother" → torondë (stem-form torn-)
  • Doubled S-stems simply add -ë to the stem-form:
falas "beach" → falassë (stem-form falas-)
  • T-stems that add -s also follow this rule:
henet "window" → henetsë (stem-form henets-)
  • C-stems are changed as follows:
quesset "pillow" → quessexë (stem-form quessec-)
but nelet uses the rule of the T-stems in this case:
nelet "tooth" → neletsë (stem-form nelc-)
  • M-stems use the nominative instead of the stem-form:
talan "floor" → talandë (stem-form talam-)

PluralEdit

The ending is -ssen after vowels and -issen after consonants.

macil "sword" → macilissen
elda "elf" → eldassen


Exceptions: In the plural the different exceptions generally aren't used, only when a word would end on -sissen (or cissen) is the ending shortened:

  • words ending in -s:
arquilis "desert" → arquilissen
  • Doubled S-stems:
falas "beach" → falassen (stem-form falas-)
  • T-stems that add -s:
henet "window" → henetsen (stem-form henets-)
  • C-stems:
quesset "pillow" → quessexen (stem-form quessec-)
nelet "tooth" → neletsen (stem-form nelc-)


DualEdit

  • u-duals get -ssë:
aldu "a pair of trees" → aldussë (nom.sing.: alda)
  • t-duals get -:
ciryat "a pair of ships" → ciryatsë (nom.sing.: cirya)
aranet "a pair of kings" → aranetsë (nom.sing.: aran)


Partitive PluralEdit

We add -ssen or -ssë to the nominative partitive plural:

ciryali "some ships" → ciryalissen/ciryalissë (nom.sing.: cirya)

(but the ending -ssen is preferred)



>> Neo-Quenya >> Nouns >> Locative

Last modified on 10 January 2012, at 23:57