Neo-Quenya/Imperative

The Imperative is used to issue commands.


Ancient ImperativeEdit

The ancient form of the imperative is only used with primitive verbs.

It is formed by adding -a to the stem without lengthening the stem-vowel (so it is like the present tense but with a short central vowel):

tira! "watch!"


This imperative is very direct, so you shouldn't use it when you want to be polite.


Standard ImperativeEdit

This is formed by placing the particle á before the infinitive:

á tirë! "watch!"
á vala! "rule!"


When the central vowel of the infinitive is long, a diphtong or followed by more than one consonant we use the particle a instead of á (but this is not obligatory, so using á is never wrong):

a caima! "lie down!"
a móta! "work!"
a linda! "sing!"


The combinations ry, ly, ny, ty do not count as a double consonant, so when the central vowel is immediately followed by any one of these we use á:

á lelya! "go!"

but

a mintya! "remember!"


The particle is pronounced as a unit with these infinitives, so the stress is normally on the particle á and not on a (the exceptions are verbs with an infinitive of more than two syllables).


negative imperativeEdit

A prohibition or negative imperative is formed by the particle áva. It is the same for all verbs:

áva lelya! "don't go!"
áva tirë! "don't look!"


It can also be used on its own, but then the long vowel is shifted:

avá! "don't!"

(note: this is the only two-syllable word that is stressed on the final syllable; see Phonology)


Personal pronouns with the imperativeEdit

When a verb is in the imperative it can have personal pronouns that refer to the subject, the direct object or the indirect object.


subject pronounsEdit

A reference to the subject is not very frequent, only when it is absolutely necessary to specify to whom the command is directed: "Listen you!"


The Quenya endings are -t in the singular and -l in the plural:

a lindat! "sing you!" (singular)
a lindal! "sing you!" (plural)

With a primitive verb the connecting vowel is -i- as usual:

á tirë! "watch!"
á tirit!/á tiril! "watch you!"


These endings can also be used in the negative imperative:

áva tulë! "don't come!"
áva tulit!/áva tulil! "don't come you!"


direct object pronounsEdit

To indicate the direct object we can use the nominative of the independant personal pronouns:

a laita te! "bless them!"
á tirë nye! "watch me!"


It is however preferred to add this nominative as ending to the particle á (in this situation we always use á never a):

átë laita! "bless them!"
ányë tirë! "watch me!"


Also with the negative imperative both forms are possible:

ávamë tirë! "don't watch us!"
áva tirë me! "don't watch us!"

But again the form where the ending -me is applied to áva is preferred.


indirect object pronounsEdit

With an indirect object we obviously use the dative forms of the pronouns:

ámen linda! "sing for us!"


When a verb has both a direct and an indirect object, you have the choice which is applied to the particle á or áva and which is used a separate word:

ánin carë ta! "do it for me!"
áta carë nin! "do it for me!"



>> Neo-Quenya >> Verbs >> Imperative

Last modified on 3 February 2011, at 21:07