Nanotechnology/Overviews

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Internet ResourcesEdit

Handbooks and EncyclopediasEdit

These are only accessible for subscribers (which is one reason this Wikibook on Nanotechnology was started):

Websites and newslettersEdit

Search enginesEdit

There are many ways to find information in scientific literature and some that even specialize in nanotechnology. Apart from the free search engines and useful tools such as Google scholar and Google Desktop, there are several more dedicated commercial services:

Peer reviewed JournalsEdit

Overview of the nanotechnology related journals and their impact factors (2007 values):

Nanotechnology Related Journals
Name Web Impact Factor ISSN Comments
ACS Nano [1] N/A 1936-0851 general nanotech journal
Advanced Functional Materials [2] 7.5 1616-301X ?
Advanced Materials [3] 8.2 0935-9648 ?
American Journal of Physics (AJP) [4] 0.9 0002-9505 ?
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing [5] 1.9 0947-8396 ?
Applied Physics Letters (APL) [6] 3.6  ? ?
AZojono - Journal of Nanotechnology Online [7] N/A  ? Free access journal
Chemical Reviews [8] 22.8 0009-2665 ?
Current Nanoscience [9] 2.8 1573-4137 Reviews and original research reports
Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Carbon Nanostructures [10] 0.5 1536-383x all areas of fullerene research
IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology [11] 2.1 1536-125X physical basis and engineering applications of nanotechnology
International Journal of Nanomedicine [12] N/A 1176-9114 ?
International Journal of Nanoscience [13] N/A 0219-581X New nanotech journal (Feb 2002)
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics [14] 1.2 1347-4065 ?
Journal of Applied Physics [15] 2.2 ? ?
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology [] N/A ? JBN is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal providing broad coverage in all research areas focused on the applications of nanotechnology in medicine, drug delivery systems, infectious disease, biomedical sciences, biotechnology, and all other related fields of life sciences.
Journal of Experimental Nanoscience [16] N/A 1745-8080 New nanotech journal(March 2006)
Journal Of Microlithography Microfabrication And Microsystems [17] N/A 1537-1646
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering [18] 1.9 0960-1317 ?
Journal of Nano Research [19] N/A 1661-9897
Journal of Nanomaterials [20] N/A ? science and applications of nanoscale and nanostructured materials
Journal of Nanoparticle Research [21] 2.3 1388-0764  ?
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology [22] 2.0 ? JNN is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal covering fundamental and applied research in all disciplines of science, engineering and medicine. JNN publishes all aspects of nanoscale science and technology dealing with materials synthesis, processing, nanofabrication, nanoprobes, spectroscopy, properties, biological systems, nanostructures, theory and computation, nanoelectronics, nano-optics, nano-mechanics, nanodevices, nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, nanotoxicology.
Journal of Physical Chemistry A [23] 2.9 ? ?
Journal of Physical Chemistry B [24] 4.1 ? ?
Journal of Physical Chemistry C [25] N/A ? Nanomaterials and Interfaces, Nanoparticles and Nanostructures, Surfaces, Interfaces, Catalysis, Electron Transport, Optical and Electronic Devices, Energy Conversion and Storage
Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS) [26] 7.9 ? Multidisciplinary chemistry journal
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A (JVSTA) [27] 1.3 ? Vacuum, Surfaces, Films
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B (JVSTB) [28] 1.4 ? Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures: Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena
Langmuir [29] 4.0 ? Research in the fields of colloids, surfaces, and interfaces
Micron [30] 1.7 ? Journal for Microscopy
Materials Chemistry and Physics [31] 1.9 0254-0584 materials science, including nanomaterials and opto electronics
Materials Science and Engineering: C [32] 1.3 0928-4931 Biomimetic and Supramolecular Systems
Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports [33] 17.7 0927-796X Invited review papers covering the full spectrum of materials science and engineering
Materials Today [34] N/A 1369-7021 materials science and technology
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics [35] 2.2 1613-4982 all aspects of microfluidics, nanofluidics, and lab-on-a-chip science and technology
Microscopy Research and Technique [36] 1.6 ? ?
Nano [37] N/A 1793-2920 New nanotech journal (July 2006)
Nano Letters [38] 9.6 ? General nanotechnology journal
Nanomedicine [39] 2.8 ?  ?
Nanopages [40] N/A 1787-4033 Since sept 2006.
Nano Research [41] N/A ? First issue july 2008
Nano Research Letters [42] wait 1931-7573 articles with open access
Nanotechnology [43] 3.3 ? Journal specializing in nanotechnology
NanoToday [44] N/A ? Is this peer reviewed or more a news/reviews journal?
Nature [45] 31.434 ? One of the major journals in science
Nature Biotechnology [46] 22.8 ? advances in life sciences
Nature Materials [47] 19.8 ? covers a range of topics within materials science
Nature Methods [48] 15.5 ? tried-and-tested techniques in the life sciences and related area of chemistry
Nature Nanotechnology [49] 14.9 ? mix of news, reviews, and research papers
Nanotoxicology [50] N/A 1743-5404 Research relating to the potential for human and environmental exposure, hazard and risk associated with the use and development of nano-structured materials
Open Nanoscience Journal [51] N/A 1874-1401 Open access journal with research articles, reviews and letters.
Physical Review Letters (PRL) [52] 6.9 ? One of the top physics journals
PLoS Biology [53] 13.5 1544-9173 Peer reviewed open access bio journal
PLoS ONE [54] N/A ? Peer reviewed open access science journal
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(PNAS) [55] 10.2 ? multidisciplinary scientific serial: biological, physical, and social sciences.
Recent Patents on Nanotechnology [56] N/A 1872-2105 ?
Science [57] 26.4 ? One of the major journals in science
Solid-State Electronics [58] 1.3 ? ?
Small Journal [59] 6.4 1613-6810 New nanotech journal
Smart Materials and Structures [60] 1.5 0964-1726 since 1992
Thin Solid Films [61] 1.7 0040-6090 Thin-film synthesis, characterization, and applications.
Ultramicroscopy [62] 2.0 ? Microscopy related research.
Virtual Journal of Nanotechnlogy [63] N/A 1553-9644 Collecting nanotech related papers from non-nano spcialized journals

ConferencesEdit

Nanotech ProductsEdit

Please add more products, comments and more info about the products if you have any!

See also the List of nanotechnology applications in wikipedia

Woodrow Wilsom Center for International Scholars is starting a Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (website should be under construction at www.nanoproject.org) that among other things will try to map the available 'nano'products and work to ensure possible risks are minimized and benefits are realized.

Emerging productsEdit

  • 2008 MultiProbe’s AFM Nanoprober is now qualified for 32nm technology nodes. [65]
  • Intel will make products with 45 nm linewidth transistors available from 2008 [66]
  • Batteries are increasingly incorporating nanostructures.
  • Flexible, cheaper, or more luminous Flat screen displays
  • Pressure-sensitive mobile devices [67]

Available in 2006Edit

Available in 2005Edit

  • Molybdenum disulfide catalytic nanoparticles in Brimm catalysts[68] made by Haldor Topsøe
  • Forbes top ten nanoproducts in 2005[69]
    • Apples IPod with sub 100nm elements in its memory chips
    • Choleterol reducing nanoencapsulated oil,Shemen Industries Canola Active.
    • Nanocrystals improve the consistency of chocolate[70]
    • Zelen Fullerene C-60 Day Cream [71]
    • Easton Stealth CNT baseball bat
    • Nanotex textiles once again
    • ArcticShield polyester socks from ARC Outdoors with 19nm silver particles that kill fungs to reduce odor.
    • NanoGuard developed by Behr Process for improved paint hardness.
    • Pilkingtons self-cleaning 'Activ Glass'.
    • NanoBreeze Air Purifier from NanoTwin Technologies, where the UV light from a fluorescent tube cleans the air by photochemical reactions in nanoparticles.

Available in 2004Edit

  • Cold cathode carbon nanotube emitters for X-ray analysis by Oxford instruments[72][]
  • Forbes has an overview in 2004 of what they consider the top ten nanotech products:
    • Footwarmers with nanporous aerogel for 3-20 times lighter than comparable insultating materials used in shoes (produced by Aspen Aerogels).
    • Matress covers with nanotex fibres that can be washed (Simmonos bedding company).
    • Better golf drivers with carbon nanotube enforced metal composites (produced by Maruman & Co) and nanocomposite containing golf balls (produced by NanoDynamics)
    • The company 'Bionova' apprently adds some nanoproducts to their 'personalized product line'.
    • EnviroSystems make a nanoemulsive disinfectant cleaner, called EcoTru, that is EPA Tox category 4 registered (meaning very safe to use)
    • EnviroSystems also make a spray-on version of this product.
    • BASF makes a nanoparticle coating for building materials called Mincor, that reduces their wettabililty.
    • A nanostructured coating produced by Valley View, called Clarity Defender, improves visibility through windscreens in rain. Another company, Nano-Film, makes a similar coating on sunglasses.
    • w:Flex-Power makes a gel containing nanoscale liposomes for soothing aching muscles
    • 3M espe Dental adhesive with silica nanoparticle filler.

Available in 2003Edit

  • NanoGuard Zink Oxide nanoparticles for sunscreens FDA approved
  • Forbes 2003 top ten nanoproduct [73] includes:
    • High performance ski wax, Cerax Nanowax [74].
    • Nanotex textiles in ski jackets from Ziener[75]
    • Nanotex textiles
    • Plenitude Revitalift antiwrinkle cream by L'Oréal contains nanocapsules with vitamin A [76]
    • organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in Sony camera flat screen display
    • Nanofilm coatings for ani-reflection and scratch resistance [77]
    • Zink oxide nanoparticles in Sunscreen by BASF [78]
    • carbon nanotube enforced tennis rackets [79] and nanopolymer enforced tennis balls [80]

Available in 2000Edit

Nanotex makes textiles where the clothing fibres have been coating in nanoscale fibres to change the textile wettability. This makes the textile much more stain resistant.

Companies making nanotech research equipmentEdit

  • MultiProbe Manufacturer of a 1-to-6 head Atomic Force nanoprobing tool used in failure analysis, that combines multi-scan fault isolation imaging with nanoprobing electrical capabilities. For process technology node measurements of 32nm, 45nm, 65nm, 90nm or larger.
  • Veeco AFM and related equipment
  • Zyvex nanomanipulation equipment
  • Nanofactory in-situ TEM manipulation equipment
  • SmarAct nanomanipulators
  • Capres micro four point conductance measurement probes
  • ImageMetrology SPIP software for SPM analysis
  • QuantumWise software for simulating nanosystems
  • [81] AFM and related equipment

Products that have been nanostructured for decadesEdit

  • Catalysts
  • Computer processesors are increasingly made of nanoscale systems

Non-nanotech products and a warningEdit

Not everything that says nano is nano - and given the hype surrounding nanotechnology you will see an increasing number of 'nano' products that have nothing to do with it. It is worrying when sometimes problems arise with non-nano products and this adds to the 'scare' that is present in the public, fuelled by the newspapers where they are just waiting for a nice scandal... an example was the product Magic Nano from a German company that made a number of users sick when inhaling the aerosol cleaning product - which in the end turned out to have nothing 'nano' in it. There is good reason to be very alert to such issues. Not all countries have legislation in place to secure the consumers against the possible dangers present in nanoparticles and some products could end being marketed before having been tested well enough. Though this example turned out to be 'non-nano', we will probably meet new cases shortly that are truly 'nano'. On this background environmental and health aspects will be an important part of this book.

SuppliersEdit

Nanomaterials

Nanolithography

  • NIL Technology sells stamps for nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and provides imprint services.

Quantum Dots

A nano-timelineEdit

Overview of some important events in nanotechnology

See also History of Nanotechnology in Wikipedia

A Nanotechnology Timeline
Year Development
Medieval Observation of metal whisker growth and nanoparticles used for staining glass
1900 Max Planck proposes energy quantization.
1905-30 Development of quantum mechanics
1927 Heisenberg formulated his uncertainty principle
1933 The first First electron microscope was built by Ernst Ruska
1952 First carbon nanotubes observation by Radushkevich and Lukyanovich
1953 DNA structure discovered by James D. Watson and Francis Crick
1959 Feynmanns talk There is plenty of room at the bottom
1965 Proposal of Moores Law
1981 Invention of STM by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer
1985 Invention of AFM by Binnig, Quate and Gerber
1985 Buckyball discovery by Harry Kroto, Robert Curl, and Richard Smalley
1986 K. Eric Drexler publishes his book Engines of Creation, in which he discusses both the potential huge benefits and the potential dangers of nanotechnology. He talks about a future of nanotechnology defined by molecular manufacturing, where self-replicating nanobots/assemblers are engineered to carry out practical applications.
1989 Don Eigler pushed around xenon atoms to spell IBM 1991 Rediscovery of carbon nanotubes by Sumio Iijima

A nano-scale overviewEdit

Just to get a sense of proportion

A Nano-scale overview
Scale typical elements
1 m 1 m is 1.000.000.000 nanometers ( 10^9 nm )
200 µm About the size of the smallest letters you can write with a very very sharp pencil and a very very steady hand.
100 µm Typical thick hair
10-1000 µm Cells in living organisms can have many sizes, and neurons can be much longer. In frog embryos (Tadpoles) the initial embryo cells can be up to 1000µm.
8 µm Red blood cell
1 µm Bacteria
100 nm Virus
5-100 nm The range for nanotechnology systems built from atomic/molecular components (quantum dots, nanoparticles, diameter of nanotubes and nanowires, lipid membranes, nanopores...).
10 nm Size of typical Antibody molecules in living organisms immune defence
6-10 nm Thickness of a cell membrane, and typical pore size in membrane.
2.5 nm The width of DNA (but it depends on the conditions)
1 nm The size of a C60 buckyball molecule or glucose molecule.
0.3 nm The size of a water molecule.
1 Å = 0.1 nm Roughly the size of hydrogen atom.
0.7 Å = 70 pm The best resolution in AFM achieved so far where they managed to image individual orbitals in an atom.
  • Distances between objects can be measured with sub Å precision with STM, laser interferometry and its even done continuously in a standard airbag acceleration sensor chip that costs a few dollars and senses the vibrations of a micro-inertial mass element with femtometer precision (10^-15 m).

BibliographyEdit

  • G. Ali Mansoori, Principles of Nanotechnology, Molecular-Based Study of Condensed Matter in Small Systems, (New Jersey: World Scientific, 2006).
  • Monthioux, Marc; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L. (2006). "Who should be given the credit for the discovery of carbon nanotubes?". Carbon 44. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2006.03.019. Retrieved on 2007-07-26.

ReferencesEdit

See also notes on editing this book Nanotechnology/About#How_to_contribute.

the nanotechnology pioneers by Steven A. Edwards
Engines of Creation 2.0: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology by K. Eric Drexler

Last modified on 22 June 2012, at 11:00