Last modified on 28 April 2013, at 17:41

Meteorology

About the BookEdit

Meteorology embraces the study of the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere of the earth, including the related effects at the air–earth boundary over both land and the oceans. Fundamental topics include the composition, structure, and motion of the atmosphere. Meteorologists aim to understand completely and predict accurately atmospheric phenomena. Weather describes the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place with respect to such variables as temperature, moisture, wind velocity, and barometric pressure. Determining future weather involves more than simply looking at some pictures.

Understanding meteorology requires understanding the atmosphere, some physics, and a lot of charts. Although this book may attempt to explain some mathematical concepts, many chapters simply require a preexisting considerable understanding of differential and integral calculus. Linear algebra, differential equations, and vector calculus also will aid the student greatly. Students also should possess some familiarity with physics, chemistry, computer information science (programming), statistics, and communication.

ContentsEdit

  1. Introduction to Meteorology and the Atmosphere 25% developed  as of 06 Oct 2006
    1. Introduction to the Definitions
    2. Makeup of the Atmosphere
    3. Layers of the Atmosphere
      1. Troposphere
      2. Stratosphere
      3. Mesosphere
      4. Thermosphere
      5. Ionsphere
      6. Variations
    4. Ozone
  2. Dynamic Meteorology
    1. Pressure Measurement
    2. Kinematic Structures
    3. Dynamics and Forces
      1. Coriolis Force
      2. Ground Friction
      3. Pressure-Gradients
    4. Wind Energy
    5. Boundary Layers
    6. Turbulence
    7. Planetary Boundary Layer
  3. Heating and Temperature
    1. Seasons
    2. Heat and Temperature Defined
    3. Incoming Solar Energy
    4. Heat Transfer
      1. Radiation
      2. Conduction
      3. Convection
    5. Heat Balance
    6. Earth Radiation
    7. Temperature Controls
      1. Oceans and their Currents
      2. Seasons
      3. Altitude
      4. Albedo
      5. Clouds
    8. Scales
    9. Measurement
    10. Agriculture and Architecture
      1. Growing Degree Days
      2. Heating and Cooling Degree Days
  4. Moisture
    1. States of Matter
    2. Water Vapor and Pressure
    3. Humidity and Dew-Point\
  5. Atmospheric Stability
    1. Lapse Rates
    2. Vertical Air Movement
      1. Convergence and Frontal Wedging
      2. Orographic Lifting and Deserts
      3. Localized Convective Lifting
    3. Stability
      1. Types of Stability
      2. Changes in Weather
  6. Clouds and Precipitation
    1. Formation of Clouds
      1. Lifting Condensation Level
      2. Cloud Droplets
    2. Classification
      1. Vertical Development Clouds
      2. Low Level
      3. Middle Level
      4. High Level
      5. Sub-classifications
      6. Fog
        1. Formation of Fog
    3. Dew
    4. Frost
    5. Precipation Formation
      1. The Bergeron Process (Cold Clouds)
      2. The Coalescence Process (Warm Clouds)
    6. Types of Precipitation
      1. Rain
      2. Snow
      3. Rime
      4. Sleet and Glaze
      5. Hail
    7. Measurement
    8. Global Averages and Distributions
  7. Air Pressure
    1. Pressure Measurement
    2. Layers of Atmosphere
    3. Water Vapor and Pressure
    4. Temperature Differences
    5. Wind
      1. Coriolis Force
      2. Ground Friction
      3. Pressure-Gradients
    6. Jetstreams
    7. Vertical Air Movement
    8. Wind Speed and Measurement
  8. Air Mass
    1. Definition
    2. Calssifications
    3. Common Air Masses
      1. Maritime Tropical
      2. Maritime Polar
      3. Continental Polar and Artic
      4. Continental Tropical
  9. Circulation
    1. Global Air Circulation (3 Cell Model)
    2. Westerlies
      1. Get back into Jet Streams
      2. El Niño and La Niña
  10. Patterns
    1. Fronts
      1. Warm
      2. Cold
      3. Stationary
      4. Occluded
      5. Drylines
    2. Cyclone Formation
    3. Mid-Latitude Cyclones
      1. Violent Spring Weather
  11. Thunderstorms
    1. Stages of Development
    2. Severe Thunderstorms
    3. Supercells
    4. Lightning and Thunder
  12. Tornadoes
    1. Development
      1. Profile
    2. Occurrence
      1. Tornado Alley
    3. Forecasting
      1. The Role of Doppler Radar
    4. Destruction
      1. F-Scale
  13. Hurricanes
    1. Formation and Dissipation
    2. Destruction
      1. Wind
      2. Surges and Waves
      3. Flooding
    3. Tracking
      1. Intensity
        1. Measure
      2. Airplanes
      3. Buoys
      4. Satellites
  14. Pollution
    1. Greenhouse Effect
    2. Trends
    3. Sources
    4. Factors Affecting Pollution
      1. Wind
      2. Stability
    5. Acid Precipitation
      1. Not Just Rain
  15. Optics
    1. Physics of Light
      1. Refraction
      2. Reflection
    2. Rainbows
    3. Halos, Solar Pillars, and Sun Dogs
    4. Mirages
    5. Auroras


Further ReadingEdit