Last modified on 12 December 2013, at 15:58

Lower Sorbian/Grammar/Pronouns

Personal pronounsEdit

1. pers.

2. pers.

reflexive

NOM. sg.

ja

ty

-

GEN. sg.

mnjo; mě (mje)

tebje (tebjo); śi

sebje; se

DAT. sg.

mnjo (mnje); mě

tebje; śi

sebje; se

ACC. sg.

mnjo; mě

tebje (tebjo); śi

sebje; se

INS. sg.

mnu

tobu

sobu

LOC. sg.

mnjo (mnje)

tebje; śi

sebje; se

NOM. du.

mej

wej

cf. sg.

GEN. ACC. du.

naju

waju

cf. sg.

DAT. INS. LOC. du.

nama

wama

cf. sg.

NOM. pl.

my

wy

cf. sg.

GEN. pl.

nas

was

cf. sg.

DAT. pl.

nam

wam

cf. sg.

ACC. pl.

nas

was

cf. sg.

INS. pl.

nami

wami

cf. sg.

LOC. pl.

nas

was

cf. sg.

m

f

n

NOM. sg.

wón

wóna

wóno

GEN. sg.

njogo; jogo

njeje; jeje

njogo; jogo

DAT. sg.

njomu; jomu

njej; jej

njomu; jomu

ACC. sg.

animate: njogo; jogo inanimate: njen; jen

nju; ju

njo; jo

INS. sg.

nim

njeju

nim

LOC. sg.

njom

njej

njom

NOM. du.

wónej

GEN. du.

njeju; jeju

ACC. du.

animate: njeju; jeju inanimate: njej; jej

DAT. INS. LOC. du.

nima; jima

NOM. pl.

wóni

GEN. pl.

nich; jich

DAT. pl.

nim; jim

ACC. pl.

animate: nje; je inanimate: nich; jich

INS. pl.

nimi

LOC. pl.

nich

(a) longer form of personal pronouns are used after prepositions and to emphasise the focus on the denotate of the pronoun

(b) improper prepositions can also be followed by short forms of the pronouns, e.g. mimo mje

(c) the form wy is also a polite singular form

Interrogatory pronounsEdit

Subjective interrogatory pronounsEdit

personal

impersonal

NOM.

chto? `who?`

co? `what?` [1]

GEN.

kogo?

cogo?

DAT.

komu?

comu?

ACC.

kogo?

co? [1]

INS.

kim?

cym?

LOC.

kim?

com?

INS. du.

kima?

INS. pl.

kimi?

DAT. pl.

kim?

[1] after the prepositions na, wo, za, pśez the final –o can be omitted (a pśez > pśe, np. pśeco? `why?`)

Attributive interrogatory pronounsEdit

They are inflected as adjectives.

i) attributive interrogative referential pronoun: kótary? (kotry) `which?`

ii) attributive interrogative predicative pronoun: kaki? `what like?`


iii) attributive interrogative possesive pronoun: ceji? `whose?` - only in an agreement binding with a noun

iv) attributive interrogative manifold pronoun: wjeleseraki? `how manifold?`

Interrogatory adverbsEdit

ga? gdy? `when?`

źo? `where? where to?`

wotkul? `where from?`

cogodla? `why?`

kak? `how?`

wjele? kak wjele? `how much?`

Relative pronounsEdit

(a) derived from subjective interrogatory pronouns and the attributive referential pronouns by adding a suffix –ž, np. chtož, comuž; [the suffix –ž can be also attached to nouns or adverbs in the subordinate phrase (instead)]

(b) an alternative relative attributive referential pronoun – only in NOM. of all numbers and genders: kenž

(c) there exists also an uninflected indefinite relative pronoun ako, the content of which is complemented by an adequate personal pronoun in the subordinate phrase, e.g. ta wjaža, ako wy sćo we njej bydlili `the house, you used to live in`

Indefinite pronounsEdit

a) existential (detailed) indefinite pronouns – generally formed by adding a prefix ně- to the personal pronoun, e.g. něcobut: něcht ''(něchten) `somebody`

b) alternative indefinite attributive qualitative pronouns: młogi and wótery `one, some`

c) general indefinite pronoun wšen (m), wša (f), wšo (n) `every, everybody`

d) generalised indefinite pronouns – formed by adding a –kuli suffix to a personal or a relative pronoun (if in the relative function), np. chtokuli `whoever`

Indefinite negative pronounsEdit

Generally fomed by adding a prefix ni- to a personal pronoun, e.g. niceji `no one's`, but: nicht (nichten) `no one`, nic `nothing`

Adjectival pronounsEdit

wšyken, wšykna, wšykno `every, everybody`

žeden, žedna, žedno `none`

wobej `both`

taki `such`

kaki `what like`

wšaki `of every sort, manifold`

kuždy `every`

kuždycki `every with no exception`

hynakšy `other`

wjelesery `manifold`

teliki `that big, that many`

někaki `somehow`

nikaki `of no qualities`

młogoraki `manifold`

wšakoraki `manifold`

wjeleseraki `manifold`

telikeraki `that manifold`