Last modified on 13 July 2009, at 14:31

Lojban/Pro-bridi

A word that functions as a pro-bridi is any word that temporarily has the same meaning as another bridi (such as a pro-sumti, or in English, a hypothetical "pro-verb").

VocabularyEdit

cei             assigns a a pro-bridi from the broda series to a bridi (equivalent to [goi])
broda           assigned pro-bridi (set meaning) #1
brode           assigned pro-bridi (set meaning) #2
brodi           assigned pro-bridi (set meaning) #3
brodo           assigned pro-bridi (set meaning) #4
brodu           assigned pro-bridi (set meaning) #5
da'o            cancels pro-assigns
go'a            repeats a recent bridi (usually not the last 2 but may be the antepenultimate)
go'e            repeats the next to last (penultimate) bridi
go'i            preceding bridi; in answer to a yes/no question, repeats the claim, meaning "yes"
go'ira'o        pro-bridi: preceding bridi; repeats claim as true, updates speaker/listener change
                           true for me too
go'o            repeats a future bridi, normally the next one
go'u            repeats a remote past bridi
mo              bridi/selbri/brivla question
nei             repeats the current bridi
no'a            repeats the bridi in which this one is embedded

Additional Notes and/or ExamplesEdit

  • [cu] is not required when preceding a pro-selbri in the broda series.
  • Like [goi], [cei] does not always need to assign a pro-selbri of the broda series.
    • [lo tricu cu pu melbi cei mua mi .i lo nanmu mua mi] = The/a tree was beautiful/good-looking <assign: mua ( = current bridi meaning = pu melbi = English: was good-looking)> to me. The man was <reference assign: mua = pu melbi = English: was beautiful> to me.
      • In the immediately previous example, any occurrence of [mua] thereafter would mean [pu melbi], or "was good-looking". The pro-bridi keeps the same tense as the original selbri.
  • Pro-bridi not only reference the relation (selbri), and therefore the Lojbanic tense of the selbri, of a bridi; but all of the sumti as well. They do not, however, reference other participles (such as "xu", question/true-or-false...?). They also reference the meaning of the bridi, not the precise words.
    • xu do prami mi
.i go'i (= .i mi prami do)
      • Do you love me?
repeat: last bridi meaning = (that-you = I) love (that-me = you) = Yes, I love you.
  • Iff not edited, a pro-bridi repeats the exact same sumti, tense, etc. as the bridi being referenced (though not other participles, as per immediately preceding and above). However, if sumti, tenses, etc. are specifically stated, then they replace the respective sumti, tenses, etc. of the referenced bridi.
    • [mi prami la dulsinei,as. --> .i la don kixoteis. (cu) pu go'i] = I love Dulcinea. --> Immediately previous bridi; with rewrite (edit) of first sumti (I --> Don Quixote), and of tense (unspecified --> past): Don Quixote loved Dulcinea. = I love Dulcinea. Don Quixote loved Dulcinea.

go'i Within and/or Near QuotationsEdit

  • These anaphoric words (basyvla) can be used in quotations, but never refer to any of the supporting text outside the quotation, since speakers presumably do not know that they may be quoted by someone else.

However, a "ri"-series or "go'a"-series reference within a quotation can refer to something mentioned in an earlier quotation if the two quotations are closely related in time and context. This allows a quotation to be broken up by narrative material without interfering with the pro-sumti within it (see example below). Of course, there is no problem with narrative material referring to something within a quotation: people who quote, unlike people who are quoted, are aware of what they are doing.

    • [la mark. cusku lu mi cliva le zdani li'u .i la .alksyndr. cusku lu mi go'i li'u] = Mark says, "I am leaving the house." Alexander (Alxinder) says, "Me too."