Last modified on 19 November 2014, at 19:34

Lentis/Portrayal of Women in Video Games

While the portrayal of women in popular media (TV, movies, magazines) is often a source of concern for the psychological health of women, the video game industry is a media outlet which is often overlooked in the pop-culture regard. Since some of the first pixilated human representation in games, such as Rogue in 1980, gender stereotypes have played a major role in character development. Whether female characters take on the role of the "damsel in distress", the sexualized female hero, or a subsidiary background role, gender stereotypes are always present.

Stereotype DevelopmentEdit

According to the National Association for the Education of Young Children, children between the ages of 2 and 5 years old can begin to become aware of race, ethnicity, gender and disabilities through their surroundings [1]. In this light, we can see the negative affects that children's media as seemingly innocent as Aladdin, the Disney movie, might have on a child-- the protagonist is portrayed speaking nearly perfect English, while the "bad guys" have thick Arab accents. Similarly, the Barbie doll franchise is criticized for their portrayal of a (scaled down) 5 foot 9 inch women, weighing 110 lbs-- a qualifying anorexic, with a highly disproportionate waist to bust size. Children at this age can easily develop a skewed view of the world based on their surroundings.

Raffaello Sanzio's "The Three Graces" depicts the ideal body of the early 15th century

Up until the late 1800s, the Rubenesque women painted by today's icons such as Rafael and Renoir were the female ideal-- extra weight on robust women was seen as a sign of wealth, happiness, and health (especially as an indication of fecundity). [2]. The "ideal" woman strongly depends on societal push. In the early 1920's, corsets gained popularity and thin statures became the new norm. Again in the 1950s, the female image regained the hour-glass like ideal-- the female icon was Marilyn Monroe, a curvy size 14. In the 1960's, with the gaining popularity of fashion model Twiggy, the thin and pre-pubescent androgyny became popularized. Since that turn of culture, fashion magazines such as Glamour, Cosmopolitan, and Elle, aimed at older audiences, and Seventeen, aimed a teenage audiences, thin-ideal images have been the norm in both advertisements and articles. The Media Awareness Network, a Canadian research and advocacy organization, found that women’s magazines are ten times more likely to contain articles and advertisements related to dieting than are men’s magazines, and that three-fourths of women’s magazine covers feature articles about overhauling one’s physical appearance [3].

Psychological EffectsEdit

Results suggest that exposure to thin-ideal images has lasting negative effects for vulnerable youth [4]. Based on the nature of the formation of stereotypes, human tend to classify people into groups based on similar traits-- and in this case, popular culture has hammered the idea that in order to be an attractive woman, one must attain a certain body. This leads to an extremely critical self image, as a woman not fitting that "ideal" will stereotype herself into the "not attractive" category. Poor body image can lead to depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. A Canadian study found 5 and 6 year olds who reported having dieted for the purpose of achieving an ideal body. Between 5-10 million Americans have eating disorders, nearly all girls and women. Another 7 million have plastic or cosmetic surgery every year. [5]

The objectification of women in these video games doesn't only affect women. After men see women in video games wearing highly provocative clothing, their image of women can start to change. According to a study performed by Fiske, a psychology professor at Princeton, men tend to view women as objects after seeing them wearing bikinis. [6]. In this study, while men were shown pictures of women in bikinis, researchers viewed images of their brain scans. The results showed that the areas of the brain which usually activate with the expectation of using tools were activated when viewing these images. This study also found that in some of the men's areas of the brain associated with empathizing with others' feelings and desires were inactive. [7] This suggests that some men start to lose the ability to understand that these women wearing bikinis have feelings and desires as well as having beautiful bodies, and these men might start to view women as prizes instead of people with emotions.

The self esteem of men can also be affected by the objectification of women in the media. Three studies were conducted by Jennifer Aubrey, an assistant professor at the University of Missouri. The first study measured the body self consciousness of men after reading male magazines (usually having images of objectified women throughout the magazine) for a year. The second study measured the self consciousness of three different groups of men after each group viewed either magazine articles about objectified females, men in fitting suits, or gender neutral topics such as technology or trivia. The third study measured the body self consciousness of two different groups of men after each group viewed either articles of objectified women alone, or articles of objectified women with average looking boyfriends explaining why they liked their boyfriend so much. The results of these studies found that men become very self conscious about their body after viewing articles with images objectifying women unless these articles include average looking guys with these objectified women. These men didn't seem to be affected negatively by articles with attractive men in fitting suits. [8] It appears that men become worried about their appearance not because they aren't as attractive looking as the male models in these magazines, but because they feel they have to be very attractive in order to attract one of the women in these magazines.

Evolution of Video Game GraphicsEdit

Pong, one of the early playable home video games

The graphics of the video games that we enjoy today have come a long way from their humble beginnings. The first electronic game was invented by a man named William Higinbotham in 1958. [9] This game, called Tennis for Two, was played on an oscilloscope and was a predecessor to the popular Pong game that most people recognize to be one of the first video games. A few years later in 1961, students at MIT created a game called Spacewar! which centered around two players trying to destroy the other player. These two games jump started the video game industry with many companies starting to form such as Atari creating many games using similar concepts as the original two games. The video games of this era all had very rudimentary graphics. Most featured a white game on top of a black background. It wasn't until 1979 that the first video game with color graphics, the Galaxian, was designed by Namco. [10].

With the introduction of newer technology the graphics of the video games continued to improve. This improvement in graphics allows the early block-like characters gamers used to use to become much more realistic looking. In the past when the graphics weren't advanced enough to allow much more than hair and a dress to distinguish a female character from a male character, the objectification of women in these games was not as much of an issue. However, as the graphics became more realistic, the image of females portrayed in these video games became much more unrealistic and sexual in nature.

The Female Archetype in Video GamesEdit

While gender roles have become increasingly nondescript in modern society, there will always be stereotypical portrayals of both men and women in the media.

The Damsel in DistressEdit

A "Damsel in Distress" is a female character that portrays characteristics of dependence, weakness,and foolishness. Usually, this is a a young woman who is captured or placed in a predicament where someone else needs to rescue her. Even in classical art and mythology, women were captured by dragons or other evil forces, and required a knight to rescue them. Examples in modern video games are countless and include include Ashley in Resident Evil 4, Princess Peach in the Mario Bros. games, and Elaine Marley in certain Monkey Island games.

Princess Peach: The Mario Bros. SeriesEdit

Princess Peach, the main female character in Nintendo's Mario Bros. Series, is a very popular video game character that embodies the helpless and demure behavior of a woman who needs a man to rescue her. She appears in almost all Super Mario games, and has been a playable character in some. In most games, the plot is developed around the single goal of rescuing her. She is the stereotypical damsel in distress in that she shows little evidence of resisting her captors, and waits patiently for her man, Mario, to overcome all obstacles and save her. However, she is not perceived as a risqué character because her pink dressy outfit covers most of her body, and her personality is well mannered, noble, and generous.[11] She demurely rewards Mario with a kiss on the cheek after her rescue in early games. GameDaily describes her as an "ideal woman that is sweet as can be."[12] With her continual growth in the gaming industry she is slowly incorporating other more independent roles, such as a fighter in Super Smash Brothers Melee and an athletic player in Mario Strikers. Although her role as a dependent woman is decreasing, her sexual image has increased in these games.

The Sex IconEdit

Many female characters in video games are noted for their sex appeal. They might have many different roles in the plots, from protagonist to background, but they all share a physically attractive body and/or seductive personality. Examples include Lara Croft, the Mortal Kombat girls, the Dead or Alive players, the Final Fantasy girls, the Tekken girls, Ada Wong from the Resident Evil games, and the prostitutes depicted in Grand Theft Auto.

Lara Croft: Tomb RaiderEdit

The female iconic character of Lara Croft is the star of Square Enix's Tomb Raider series of video games created for Sega Gensis, Playstation, and PC consoles. The Tomb Raider series is one of the best selling video game franchises of all time [13] In the original 1996 game, Lara was portrayed as strong, intelligent, resourceful character. The game was praised for its innovation and introduction of a leading female character-- however, the character has since become much more of a sexual icon, and IGN game reviewers described Lara Croft as devolving into a "virtual blow up doll." [14] While she holds the Guinness World Record for the "Most Recognized Female Video Game Character," [15], Lara Croft is thought to have become, rather than the first respected female protagonist, the first female video game sex symbol. [16] Lara croft was also one of the first video game characters to be portrayed live by multiple models-- including gymnast Alison Carrol. [17] She has been portrayed in a Playboy shoot, although the magazine was legally obligated to omit the Lara Croft copyrighted name. [18]

Nameless: Grand Theft AutoEdit

Grand Theft Auto is a video game series first released in October of 1997. It has continued to evolve with modern gaming systems, with its last release in 2009. It has over 10 stand alone games and expansion packs, and is reported to have sold over 124 million units as of September 2011 [19]. The game has been widely criticized for its portrayal of multiple illegal acts, including drug trafficking, murder, and prostitution. One of the most notable elements of the Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas game that was criticized was the normally inaccessible, but encoded sexual fantasy game, known as the "Hot Coffee" mod in which you could control the character as he has intercourse with his in-game girlfriend. [20] Regardless of the deletion of user friendly access to the minigame, a patch can be downloaded to give the user access. In addition to the flagrant sexual minigame, there are multiple opportunities to hire a prostitute, who enters the player's car, engages in intercourse with the player, and takes money in return. In modern games, the graphics and detail have allowed players to zoom in and observe the prostitute climbing onto the players lap in the drivers seat, and engage in clear sexual motions. Following the act, the player's health increases. Commonly, the player will then kill the prostitute in order to reclaim the payment previously given. [21]. Numerous Youtube video's are available depicting various players finding different ways of killing the prostitutes, as well as the actions preceding the kill. [22]

Counter ExamplesEdit

Not all female characters fit into a certain stereotype and a few have made their mark in the video game industry. Certain characters have, since the reception of the games, taken more of a heroic role in their stories-- Princess Zelda is an example of this rise in independence. Other characters have held androgynous roles since the founding of the game. Samus Aran is an example of this portrayal.

Samus Aran: MetroidEdit

A strong and resilient character who is the main protagonist in the popular Metroid video game series, Samus Aran portrays little signs of stereotypical female behavior and image. No features of her body can be seen because she wears a suit of armor that covers everything. She does not reveal weak emotions through her lonely adventures and her actions in the game do not strongly portray feminine behavior. Even though Samus counters many stereotypes, there are certain times when she does not, such as, in Metroid Prime II, when she strips down to only a tank top and underwear, and takes her hair down. This was considered one of the raciest depiction of Samus.[23]

The Moral of the StoryEdit

Depiction of humans in art, television, music, and toys have always been subjected to stereotyping. Video games have been added into this category because of modern day technology that has significantly improved visual graphics. The video game industry is still a rapidly developing sector and it may experience criticism in many categories such as racial, sexual, emotional, cultural, and many other controversial issues.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Brunette, L. Mallory, C. Wood, S. Stereotypes & Racism in Children’s Movies. Retrieved from http://www.nhaeyc.org/newsletters/articles/Racism_in_Childrens_Movies.pdf
  2. Kendall, P. The Female "Image Ideal:" Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Retrieved from http://www.feministezine.com/feminist/anorexia/Anorexic004-ImageIdeal.html
  3. Portrayal of Women in the Popular Media. Retrieved from http://worldsavvy.org/monitor/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=602&Itemid=1049
  4. Stice, E. Spangler, D. Argas, W. EXPOSURE TO MEDIA-PORTRAYED THIN-IDEAL IMAGES ADVERSELY AFFECTS VULNERABLE GIRLS: A LONGITUDINAL EXPERIMENT. Retrieved from http://socialclinical.org/resources/Stice%2Bet%2Bal.%2B$282001$29%2Bmodified%2BOctober%2B22.pdf
  5. Effects of Gender Stereotyping in the Media. Retrieved from http://worldsavvy.org/monitor/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=603&Itemid=1050
  6. Sample, Ian. Sex objects: Pictures shift men's view of women. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/feb/16/sex-object-photograph
  7. Landau, Elizabeth. Men see bikini-clad women as objects, psychologists say. Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2009-02-19/health/women.bikinis.objects_1_bikini-strip-clubs-sexism?_s=PM:HEALTH
  8. Media images of female models have negative effect on men. Retrieved from http://www.news-medical.net/news/2008/11/07/42582.aspx?page=2
  9. Hunter, William. From 'Pong' to 'Pac-man'. Retrieved from http://www.designboom.com/eng/education/pong.html
  10. cfxweb. The Evolution of 2D Video Games. Retrieved from http://www.cfxweb.net/videogames
  11. "Princess Peach biography" Retrieved from http://www.mariomayhem.com/reference/character_bios/princess_peach_biography.php
  12. "Ten Babes Who Should and Ten Babes Who Shouldn’t Meet Your Mom". GameDaily. 2008-06-25.Retrieved 20011-011-28
  13. "Japan dominates best-selling games franchise list". gamesindustry.biz. Eurogamer. 2007-01-11. Retrieved 11/29/11.
  14. Moriarty, Colin (2009-02-18). "Wednesday 10: Video Game Characters That Should Die". IGN. Retrieved 11/29/11.
  15. Glenday, Craig, ed (2008-03-11). "Record Breaking Games: Tomb Raider". Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008. Guinness World Records. Guinness. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-1-904994-21-3.
  16. Dell, Kristina (2005-05-15). "From Geek to Chic in 33 Years". Time (Time Inc.) 165 (19). Retrieved 11/29/11
  17. McLaughlin, Rus (2008-02-29). "IGN Presents: The History of Tomb Raider". IGN. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
  18. Schedeen, Jesse (2008-08-28). "The Many Looks of Lara Croft – Live Action". IGN. Retrieved 11/29/11
  19. Orland, Kyle (September 14, 2011). "Grand Theft Auto IV Passes 22M Shipped, Franchise Above 114M". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  20. "Hot Coffee mod developer's mod listing". PatrickW's modding website. Retrieved 2011-11-29
  21. Sam Gibson (29 October 2004), The history of Grand Theft Auto, Play.tm
  22. LimmyDotComBlog. GTA Prostitutes: How do you kill yours? Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7b9SbFzIp0
  23. Metroid-Database by infinitys end Retrieved from http://www.metroid-database.com/features/behind5.php