The car has been an important part of American culture for the past 100 years, causing significant infrastructure changes. However, a small but significant percentage of Americans do not own a car for financial, environmental and lifestyle reasons.
In the US, Charles and Frank Duryea brothers founded the first automobile manufacturing company in 1893, called Duryea Motor Wagon Company.  Mass production of cars began in the US and in France in the early 1900s. Ford Motor Company was founded in 1903 and the assembly line for Ford’s Model T began operating on December 1, 1913. This innovation reduced the time to build a car from 12 hours to ninety-three minutes.   It was the first car marketed to the middle class. As Henry Ford wrote, “[The Model T] will be so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one – and enjoy with his family the blessing of hours of pleasure in God's great open spaces."  After mass production of cars began the number of vehicles owned per 1000 people in the US went from 0.11 to 217.34 between 1900 and 1930. 
The first public transportation system was founded in Paris by Blaise Pascal, in 1662. It was an omnibus, a large horse carriage that could carry up to 16 people. However, the system failed when its founder died a few months later. 
There are 10 million carless households in America; of these, 62 percent live in cities and 13 percent in the surrounding suburbs.  This discrepancy in location is partly due to mass transit availability in cities. According to the Brookings Institute, 99 percent of the cities are covered by mass transit services, whereas only 58 percent of suburbs are mass transit accessible.  The lack of public transport in suburbs leaves 700,000 zero-vehicle households without bus or metro options.  Another reason for more carlessness in cities is shortened commuting distances; the average urbanite commutes 43.5 minutes daily, whereas the suburbanite commutes 52 minutes.  This makes biking and walking more attractive options for commuting. Thirdly, higher traffic densities in cities can cause congestion, longer driving commuting times and frustration with cars.
Of 7.5 million carless households, 60% are classified as low income.  This trend has several explanations. First, the payment on a car can amount to a few hundred dollars, which is a substantial portion of a low income budget.  Second, when mass transit is available, it is often more cost effective than owning a car. Bus fares in Hampton Roads cost 50 dollars per month, which is less expensive than the costs of owning a car.  However, while the majority of carless Americas are low income, there are over 2 million middle and upper class zero vehicle households. 
Many people do not own a car because they prefer more cost-effective forms of transportation. For example, one carless urbanite said “Most people don’t realize it, but their car is what is sucking most of their cash away”.  Other carless individuals are too poor to afford a car payment and must live without a car.
Environmental concerns are another motivation for going carless. Cars emit carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and these individuals use mass transit, biking, or walking to reduce their carbon footprint. According to one individual, “And the Jetta didn’t make me any happier. … it still weighs 2,000 pounds and is full of metal and toxic things, plastic and gas. Do I need this monstrous thing to live?” 
Exercise is another motivator for carless individuals. Americans take the fewest steps daily of any developed country, due to a car-dependent culture.  These individuals aim to increase their daily exercise by biking or walking to work. In the words of one health-conscious commuter, “I’ve been without a car for two months now… Lots of walking and listening to the ipod”. 
Some individuals go carless to improve their productivity. They can either get to work more quickly by means other than a car or put that commuting time to better use. For example, many individuals read the paper or complete work during a commute on public transit. In the words of one mass transit user, “I’ve made a habit of using that commute time for self-study, reading, working on side projects, and writing” 
Social Group AnalysisEdit
Environmentalists are one proponent for a carless America. Fewer cars will reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. Each year the amount of carbon dioxide emitted in the atmosphere increases in the US and globally. The United States has the highest per capita carbon dioxide emissions in the world with almost 20 metric tons per year per person .
Car Manufacturers oppose a carless America for economic reasons; without a market these companies will go bankrupt. In 2012 the US market sold 8 million cars and 7 million light trucks . These markets will cease to exist in a car free America. On the other hand, the price of unleaded gasoline will drop significantly. Lower demand will result in lower prices; today the price of unleaded gasoline is averaging $3.50 per gallon . Lower prices for gasoline will further benefit the public transportation industry by making it less expensive for pedestrians, thus improving ridership.
Effect on Transportation LandscapeEdit
In an effort to make the streets safer and more accessible for non-vehicular users, there have been many changes to the infrastructure of cities and towns.
Bike Lane AdvocacyEdit
Bike lanes first became prevalent in major cities in the 1970s . Today they still serve as a safe median where cyclists can share the road with motorized vehicles and are becoming more common in major cities such as Chicago, Houston, and Philadelphia . The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Roadside Design Guide provides specifications for the design of bike lanes, such as minimum width of the lines and the lane itself.
Public transportation was begun to provide pedestrians with a safe and convenient mode of travel. A bus stop design guideline submitted by Darnell and Associates provided information to “encourage the members of the community to use public transit through the provision of safe, comfortable, and convenient transit facilities”. Public transportation will reduce car use and lead to the environmental benefits previously discussed.
Recently, a movement has arisen calling for pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods. Governor of Massachusetts Deval Patrick issued a statement highlighting the needs of more multifamily homes and affordable housing; he also emphasized how these homes had to be “near jobs, near transit, and near city and town centers”. This proximity will deter the use of motorized vehicles and encourage people to walk to their destinations.
Examples in Other CountriesEdit
Venice is the perfect example of a carless city; it has been carless for the past 1500 years.  It was built on 118 small islands, connected with 400 bridges. The narrow streets of Venice weren’t built for cars, instead Venitians use canals to transport freight and passengers.  Many small shops have doors facing the canal, so freight can be loaded or unloaded quickly and easily. Even though tourists prefer to use the gondolas, Venetians prefer to use the traghetto (ferries) to get across the Grand Canal.
Houten's infrastructure prioritizes cyclists and pedestrians. Railway stations are easily accessible and child-friendly bicycle paths weave through the city. Cars are discouraged because of the city’s urban planning. Bicycle paths are connected to each other all around the city, whereas cars have to travel to the city center first to get to another part of the city. The city council approved this innovative traffic layout in 1968. 
Fes-al-Bali is the oldest part of Fes, Moracco. With a total population of 156,000 people, Fes-al-Bali is considered to be the largest contingent of carless urban dwellers in the world.  It’s surrounded by large city walls, so the space within the walls is very valuable. In the medina, the streets are very narrow, only 2 feet wide in some places, preventing car and bicycle use. Merchants use mules to transport freight in and out of the medina. 
The groups surrounding the car culture controversy go beyond just the critics and defenders. The interactions between proponents of car use, advocates of car removal, drivers, carless individuals, Departments of Transportation, and urban planners all have real effects on the transportation infrastructure of America. In addition, solutions to issues posed by car and carless individuals are not necessarily found in America; alternate social and technical solutions can also be found outside the country.
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- Davis et al. (2011). op. cit. pp. 3-5 and 3-9. See Tables 3.3 and 3.5
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- US Census Bureau. Commuting in the United States:2009 Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/acs-15.pdf
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