Last modified on 8 May 2011, at 03:28

Korean/Lesson I3

Learn Korean (Introduction)Reading and writing
Conversation
1급: Beginner1. Greetings2. Forming sentences3. Connective forms and negation4. Colors5. Recreation / In a taxi6. Family7. Around the house8. Using the telephone9. School10. Shopping11. Onomatopoeia
2단계: High beginner3단계: Low intermediate4단계: High intermediate5단계: Low advanced6단계: Advanced
Grammar

"And" and "And?" "Or" or "Or"?Edit

One thing that varies in korean is that there is a difference between an “and” for a verb and an “and” for a noun. In this lesson, we will learn these ands, ors, and buts. It just so happens that today 찬호 is introducing his friends to Joseph, so this is a perfect opportunity to use these forms! (Don't feel overwhelmed, there's only 3 ways to say each!)

찬호: 오늘 저는 조세프에게 친구들을 소개하겠습니다.
조세프: 오케이! 기대합니다!
찬호: 저 친구들은 "연희"와 "가영"입니다.
저세프: 만나서 반갑습니다!
연희와 가영: 반갑습니다.
연희: 조세프는 미국에서 왔고 한국말을 공부하고 있습니까?
조세프: 네, 그래요.
가영: 와우! 고생 많네요! 한식을 좋아합니까?
조세프: 양식이나 한식 둘 다 좋아합니다. 하지만, 한국에서 양식을 먹지 않습니다.
가영: 그렇군요... 학교에 걸어갑니까? 아니면 버스를 탑니까?
찬호: 집에서 버스를 타지 못합니다. 걸어가거나 뛰어갑니다. 하하하!

The above example has several new forms in it because of the differentiation between noun "and/or" & verb "and/or". We'll look at the examples and pick out new vocabulary, and then discuss new grammar separately.

찬호: 오늘 저는 조세프에게 친구들을 소개하겠습니다.
조세프: 오케이! 기대합니다!

소개하다 means "to introduce." It's used really often when talking about friends and people you know, but it can also be used to refer to something like "introducing information." Following that, 기대하다 means "to await expectedly or excitedly." This can also be said 기대되다, which sometimes sounds more natural.

찬호: 저 친구들은 "연희"와 "가영"입니다.

Here we meet the noun connective particle (“and”) and its alternative , used after consonants. More information can be learned about this in the following section, but its use is fairly straight forward.

찬호: 만나서 반갑습니다!
연희와 가영: 반갑습니다.

Nothing new here.

연희: 조세프는 미국에서 왔고 한국말을 공부하고 있습니까?
조세프: 네, 그래요.

오다 means “to come” (the form you see, "왔-" in this sentence is past tense.) but the connective verb suffix -고 (“and”) is connected to it (왔고). 에서 in this case means “from”. (So keep track! You now know it means “from” or “at”.) Finally, Joseph responds with 그래요 (“that’s right”).

가영: 와! 고생 많네요! 한식을 좋아합니까?
조세프: 양식이나 한식 둘 다 좋아합니다. 하지만, 한국에서는 양식을 먹지 않습니다.

가영 uses a phrase that is often heard in Korea: "고생 많다." This means "you have lots of struggles," but is used sort of like "must be difficult," a sort of compliment for the listener who might be going through hard times. The ending on this is "VS+군요" Which is a sort of exclamatory form. This will also be discussed in the next section. "한식" means "Korean food," a sort of contraction of "한국 음식," and "양식" is "Western food." Can you guess the contraction for this one?

Joseph links the two with "N+(이)나" which is "or" for nouns. The verb form is "VS+거나" (discussed later, of course). "둘 다" means "both" Afterwards, Joseph uses the stand alone word "하지만," meaning "however" or "but." The verb form of this is "VS+지만." It's simplicity doesn't merit any further discussion.

가영: 그렇군요... 학교에 걸어갑니까? 아니면 버스를 탑니까?
찬호: 집에서 버스를 타지 못합니다. 걸어가거나 뛰어갑니다. 하하하!

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