ICT for Disaster Management/Notes
1 Complete definition of disaster by UN/ISDR: A social crisis situation occurring when a physical phenomenon of natural, socionatural or anthropogenic origin negatively impacts vulnerable populations and their livelihoods, production systems infrastructure and historical heritage, causing intense, serious and widespread disruption of the normal functioning of the affected social unit.The impacts and effects cannot be overcome with the resources autonomously available to the affected society. Impacts are expressed in different forms such as the loss of life, health problems, the destruction, loss or rendering useless of the totality or part of private or collective goods and severe impacts on the environment.These negative impacts require an immediate response from the authorities and from the population in order to attend the affected and to re-establish acceptable thresholds of wellbeing and life opportunities. (Source: Living with Risk: A global review of disaster reduction initiatives, UN/ISDR).
2 A hazard may not necessarily result in a disaster. For example, an undersea earthquake might not result in the loss of any lives or damage to property, and a typhoon is not a disaster until heavy rain and wind cause damage or disruption to inhabited areas (to human life, infrastructure, production, etc.).
3 ICT4D is an initiative aimed at bridging the digital divide (the disparity between technological ‘have’ and ‘have not’, geographic locations or demographic groups) and aiding economic development by ensuring equitable access to up-to-date communication technologies. ICT includes any communications device – encompassing radio, television, mobile phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning.
4 CDMA, D-AMPS, GSM and UMTS are popular mobile phone system standards used around the world. CDMA, D-AMPS and GSM are considered second-generation technologies, while UMTS is a newer third-generation system designed to replace GSM.
5 Information on GIS taken from: Jayaraman,V. 2006.‘Framework for Regional Cooperation on Space Technology Supported Disaster Reduction Strategies in Asia and the Pacific’. Presentation at the ESCAP Meeting of Eminent Experts, 3-4 August 2006, Bangkok, Thailand; Johnson, Russ. 2000.‘GIS Technology for Disasters and Emergency Management’, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. white paper. http://www.esri.com/library/whitepapers/pdfs/disastermgmt.pdf; Northwest GIS Services, Inc. http://www.nwgis.com; Raheja,Naresh, Ruby Ojha and Sunil R Mallik.Role of internet-based GIS in effective natural disaster management. http://www.gisdevelopment.net/technology/gis/techgi0030.htm; and Space Technology, GIS and Disaster Management in Afghanistan, Afghanistan Information Management Service Project. http://www.aims.org.af/services/sectoral/d_m/space_tech_and_d_m/space_tech_and_d_m.html
7 First target under MDG 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability.