Last modified on 8 October 2012, at 11:44

Human Sexuality and Gender/Sexually Related Diseases

Previous Chapter Overview Next Chapter

Breast CancerEdit

Breast cancer treatment and prevention has experienced several changes these last few decades; due to technological advances in the medical field, along with improved imaging methods and enhanced screening programs. Randomized screening trials have shown that mammography reduces the relative risk of breast cancer deaths by 15-20% (Harris R 1997). One life is extended every 5000 mammograms, there is a clear positive benefit from having them done (Harris R 1997). The advancements of blood-based-gene-expression have helped the ability to improve clinical predictions for early breast cancer. However, approximately 25% of all women diagnosed with breast cancer die from their disease despite having been treated according to state of the art clinical guidelines. All women should be told the real percentage chance that a false positive could be found. While screening for breast cancer is a great way to find and hopefully cure the cancer, it is not always 100% correct, nor does it guarantee a recovery. Women in their 40s have an increased risk of getting a false positive as a result from screening, and should compare the psychological harms to the benefits of screening so that they may choose the best decision for them.[1]

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is and has always been a major issue in developing countries for several reasons ranging from inadequate infrastructures to insufficient human resources. The study conducted by Arrossi, Paolino, and Sankaranarayanan (2010) evaluates some of the challenges faced in Argentina in prevention of cervical cancer by analyzing four important components of the program. The components are: (a) facilitation of cervical cancer prevention activities, (b) Pap smear coverage, (c) the organization of the laboratory, and (d) patients’ treatment after diagnosis. In order to reduce the cervical cancer mortality rate in Argentina and other developing countries, cervical cancer prevention activities has to be improved and women need to be more aware of this threatening condition. Pap smear coverage has to increase for the target age group for early detection. Laboratory organization has to improve by making quality controls compulsory, ensuring performance indicators are available, and training people to promote good standards. Last but not least, there should be treatment and follow-up of individuals with abnormal results.[2]

Prostate CancerEdit

The highest prostate cancer rates worldwide are seen in African-American men. This is thought to be attributed to several factors such as mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. In a study conducted by Blocker et al. in 2006, four gender-specific focus groups at two African-American churches in central North Carolina were set up to determine the knowledge that both men and women had about prostate cancer. The groups focused on eight general topics such as African-American risk for developing prostate cancer, general healthcare, and the barriers associated with prostate cancer screening. The findings of this study showed that African-American men and women that participated had a good level of knowledge and awareness about prostate cancer, which differed from previous reports. One focus group finding was consistent with other studies in that one reason men avoid screening is because of the embarrassment and shame associated with DRE testing. The study also emphasizes the importance of women and church as social support for African-American men in the early detection of prostate cancer. [3]

Testicular CancerEdit

One of the most common cancers in America for males ages 20-40 years is testicular cancer. Studies have shown that workers in electrical jobs have higher risks. A theory as to why, is that electromagnetic radiation may interrupt hormonal transmit. This may increase the risk of testicular cancer by disrupting the hormonal pass. This does not involve all workers that work with electricity, though: in a German case study people that work close to power lines did not have any increased risk of testicular cancer.[4]

The most common cancer in America for men is Testicular Cancer that’s between the ages of 20-40 years of age. The people at the biggest risk are men that work at electrical jobs. Even though that there was only one study that has been done on this and also the that it just based on job title only doesn’t give you enough information to base this as a true finding. Even though not all men that have electrical jobs are at risk for testicular cancer.

In Conclusion, the evidence isn’t there to say that this wall cause cancer and also only going by job title is another thing that makes it not true maybe in future studies there will be possibly more evidence to prove that this statement is true and I am going to say that it’s not a true statement.

  1. Harris,R. (1997). Variation of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening with age. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1997, (22):139-143.PubMed.
  2. Arrossi S, Paolino M, Sankaranarayanan R. Challenges faced by cervical cancer prevention programs in developing countries: a situational analysis of program organization in Argentina. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2010;28(4):249–57.
  3. Blocker, Deborah, LaHoma Romocki, Kamilah Thomas, Belinda Jones, and Ethel Jackson. "Knowledge, beliefs and barriers associated with prostate cancer prevention and screening behaviors among African-American men..."Journal of The National Medical Association. 98.8 (2006): 1286-1295. Print.
  4. Mester, B. B., Behrens, T. T., Dreger, S. S., Hense, S. S., & Fritschi, L. L. (2010). Occupational Causes of Testicular Cancer in Adults. International Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 1(4), 160-170. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.