Rebuilding listsEdit
Exercises 

Write the following functions and test them out. Don't forget the type signatures.
take , drop , and sum . 
1.
takeInt :: Int > [a] > [a] takeInt 0 _ = [] takeInt _ [] = [] takeInt n (x:xs) = x : takeInt (n1) xs
2.
dropInt :: Int > [a] > [a] dropInt 0 list = list dropInt _ [] = [] dropInt n (x:xs) = dropInt (n1) xs
3.
sumInt :: [Int] > Int sumInt [] = 0 sumInt (x:xs) = x + sumInt xs
4.
 USING Helper function  scanSum :: [Int] > [Int] scanSum = scanSum' 0 scanSum' :: Int > [Int] > [Int] scanSum' tot [] = [] scanSum' tot (x:xs) = x + tot : scanSum' (x + tot) xs  USING takeInt, dropInt and sumInt  scanSum :: [Int] > [Int] scanSum [] = [] scanSum (x:[]) = [x] scanSum (x:xs) = x : scanSum ((x + sumInt (takeInt 1 xs)) : dropInt 1 xs)  USING (a:b:as)  scanSum :: [Int] > [Int] scanSum [] = [] scanSum (a:[]) = a:[] scanSum (a:b:as) = a : scanSum ((a+b):as)
5.
diffs :: [Int] > [Int] diffs [] = [] diffs (x:[]) = [] diffs (x:y:xs) = (yx) : diffs (y:xs)  alternative with the auxiliary function: diffsAlt :: [Int] > [Int] diffsAlt [] = [] diffsAlt (x:xs) = diffsAlt' (x:xs) xs where diffsAlt' :: [Int] > [Int] > [Int] diffsAlt' _ [] = [] diffsAlt' [] _ = [] diffsAlt' (x:xs) (y:ys) = (yx): diffsAlt' xs ys
The map
functionEdit
Exercises 


1.
In one block of code. In addition to the variations here, you can also replace Int by Integer:
negateList, negateList2 :: [Int] > [Int] negateList = map negate negateList2 list = map negate list factorList, factorList2 :: [Int] > [[Int]] factorList = map factors factorList2 list = map factors list  There are a few possible variations for this one. If yours is different, check with a Haskell interpreter to see if it's correct.  The dots are just another higherorder trick. (g . f) x = g(f(x)) negateFactorList, negateFactorList2, negateFactorList3, negateFactorList4 :: [Int] > [[Int]] negateFactorList = map (negateList . factors) negateFactorList2 = map negateList . factorList negateFactorList3 list = map (negateList . factors) list negateFactorList4 list = map (map negate) (map factors list)
2.
Here's my Run Length Encoding, although I don't see how I'm supposed to use map
. (Maybe if the text explained group
?)
encode :: Eq a => [a] > [(Int,a)] encode [] = [] encode [x] = [(1,x)] encode (x:y:xs)  x == y = succHead (encode (y:xs))  otherwise = (1,x) : encode (y:xs) succHead :: [(Int,a)] > [(Int,a)] succHead [] = []  this should never be called by encode on any input succHead ((n,x):ps) = (n+1,x):ps decode :: [(Int,a)] > [a] decode [] = [] decode ((n,x):ps) = (repetition n x) ++ decode ps repetition :: Int > a > [a] repetition 0 _ = []  this should never be called by decode on a properly formatted input repetition n x = x:(repetition (n1) x)
And here is mine using map
. To understand what the group
command did, I visited hayoo. If you aren't familiar with hayoo yet, take a couple of minutes to try it now. It's very useful.
import Data.List lenwhat :: [Char] > (Int, Char) lenwhat x = (length x, head x) encode :: [Char] > [(Int, Char)] encode "" = [] encode x = map lenwhat (group x) decode :: [(Int, Char)] > [Char] decode [] = "" decode ((l, w):xs) = (replicate l w) ++ decode xs toRleString :: [(Int, Char)] > [Char] toRleString [] = "" toRleString ((l, w):xs) = show l ++ w : rlestring xs
This is a version I made to learn to use map and group.
import Data.List count_tuple (x:xs) = (length (x:xs) , x) map count_tuple (group "aaaaaabbbbbcccccccaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa")
Here's my (Zevras) solution:
import Data.List encode :: (Eq a) => [a] > [(Int, a)] encode x = map helper $ group x where helper x = (length x, head x) decode :: [(Int, a)] > [a] decode xs = concat $ map rep xs where rep (n, x) = take n $ repeat x
N.B., the RLE example is inspired from a blog post by Don Stewart on the same subject. See Don's post for a more elegant solution (which might not be immediately understandable; see Haskell/Understanding arrows for a discussion on &&&
).
Here’s my solution to the “bonus” problem. The function is called extract
here.
 Takes a string like "2a4c11b" and turns it into its encoded  counterpart; in this case: [(2, 'a'), (4, 'c'), (11, 'b')]. extract :: String > [(Int, Char)] extract [] = [] extract (x:xs) = extract' [x] xs  helper function to keep track of the numbers.  ns : List of digits ("1234"). extract' :: String > String > [(Int, Char)] extract' _ [] = [] extract' ns [x] = [(read ns, x)]  the last element of the string  is assumed to be a nondigit. extract' ns (y:z:zs) = if y `elem` ['0','1','2','3','4','5','6','7','8','9'] then extract' (ns ++ [y]) (z:zs) else (read ns, y) : extract' [z] zs
A possible answer to the question "How would you convert the list of tuples (e.g. [(4,'a'), (6,'b')]) into a string (e.g. "4a6b")?"
 Convert a list of tuples into a string.  For example, [(4, 'a'), (6, 'b')] becomes "4a6b".  I begin with a function that converts a single tuple into a string two characters long.  The intToDigit function converts a interger into a character. For example: intToDigit 1 = '1'.  If intToDigit isn't used, GHCi will throw a type error. import Data.Char tupleToString :: (Int, Char) > [Char] tupleToString x = (intToDigit.fst) x:(snd x):[]  Now we'll map this function to a list of tuples. We get back a list of strings.  For example: tuplesToStrings [(1, 'a'), (2, 'b')] = ["1a", "2b"]. tuplesToStrings [] = [] tuplesToStrings (x:xs) = tupleToString x : tuplesToStrings xs  A little concat and we're done. tuplesToString xs = (concat . tuplesToStrings) xs Test with the function call tuplesToString [(4,'a'), (6,'b')] ==> "4a6b"
Tips and tricksEdit
Exercises 


1. Both scanSum (takeInt 10 [1..])
and takeInt 10 (scanSum [1..])
have the same value. This is possible because Haskell is a lazy language, thus in both cases the result is only evaluated as needed.
2.
getElemAt :: Int > [a] > a getElemAt _ [] = error "Index too large"  a custom error message, just for extra "sugar" getElemAt 0 ls = head ls getElemAt n ls = getElemAt (n1) (tail ls)
3.
 this is just like the Prelude function last lastOf :: [a] > a lastOf [] = error "Empty list" lastOf (x:[]) = x lastOf (_:xs) = lastOf (xs)  somewhat more complicated alternative with no pattern matching lastOf :: [a] > a lastOf [] = error "Empty list" lastOf ls = if (null (tail ls)) then head ls else lastOf (tail ls)  this is just like the Prelude init dropLast :: [a] > [a] dropLast [] = error "Empty list" dropLast (x:[]) = [] dropLast (x:xs) = x : (dropLast xs)  again, the head/tail alternative dropLast :: [a] > [a] dropLast [] = error "Empty list" dropLast ls = if (null (tail ls)) then [] else ((head ls) : dropLast (tail ls))